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 +====== 198 Methods of Nonviolent Action ======
  
 +These methods were compiled by Dr. Gene Sharp and first published in his 1973 book, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Vol. 2: The Methods of Nonviolent Action. (Boston: Porter Sargent Publishers, 1973). The book outlines each method and gives information about its historical use.
 +
 +In PDF format [[http://​www.ganino.com/​files/​198_methods.pdf|198 Methods of Nonviolent Action PDF]]
 +
 +<​html>​
 +<font size="​3"><​i><​b>​THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT PROTEST AND PERSUASION</​b></​i></​font>​
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Formal Statements</​b>​
 +<br>
 +1. Public Speeches
 +<br>
 +2. Letters of opposition or support
 +<br>
 +3. Declarations by organizations and institutions
 +<br>
 +4. Signed public statements
 +<br>
 +5. Declarations of indictment and intention
 +<br>
 +6. Group or mass petitions
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Communications with a Wider Audience</​b>​
 +<br>
 +7. Slogans, caricatures,​ and symbols
 +<br>
 +8. Banners, posters, and displayed communications
 +<br>
 +9. Leaflets, pamphlets, and books
 +<br>
 +10. Newspapers and journals
 +<br>
 +11. Records, radio, and television
 +<br>
 +12. Skywriting and earthwriting
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Group Representations</​b>​
 +<br>
 +13. Deputations
 +<br>
 +14. Mock awards
 +<br>
 +15. Group lobbying
 +<br>
 +16. Picketing
 +<br>
 +17. Mock elections
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Symbolic Public Acts</​b>​
 +<br>
 +18. Displays of flags and symbolic colors
 +<br>
 +19. Wearing of symbols
 +<br>
 +20. Prayer and worship
 +<br>
 +21. Delivering symbolic objects
 +<br>
 +22. Protest disrobings
 +<br>
 +23. Destruction of own property
 +<br>
 +24. Symbolic lights
 +<br>
 +25. Displays of portraits
 +<br>
 +26. Paint as protest
 +<br>
 +27. New signs and names
 +<br>
 +28. Symbolic sounds
 +<br>
 +29. Symbolic reclamations
 +<br>
 +30. Rude gestures
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Pressures on Individuals</​b>​
 +<br>
 +31. "​Haunting"​ officials
 +<br>
 +32. Taunting officials
 +<br>
 +33. Fraternization
 +<br>
 +34. Vigils
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Drama and Music</​b>​
 +<br>
 +35. Humorous skits and pranks
 +<br>
 +36. Performances of plays and music
 +<br>
 +37. Singing
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Processions</​b>​
 +<br>
 +38. Marches
 +<br>
 +39. Parades
 +<br>
 +40. Religious processions
 +<br>
 +41. Pilgrimages
 +<br>
 +42. Motorcades
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Honoring the Dead</​b>​
 +<br>
 +43. Political mourning
 +<br>
 +44. Mock funerals
 +<br>
 +45. Demonstrative funerals
 +<br>
 +46. Homage at burial places
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Public Assemblies</​b>​
 +<br>
 +47. Assemblies of protest or support
 +<br>
 +48. Protest meetings
 +<br>
 +49. Camouflaged meetings of protest
 +<br>
 +50. Teach-ins
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Withdrawal and Renunciation</​b>​
 +<br>
 +51. Walk-outs
 +<br>
 +52. Silence
 +<br>
 +53. Renouncing honors
 +<br>
 +54. Turning one's back
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<font size="​3"><​i><​b>​THE METHODS OF SOCIAL NONCOOPERATION</​b></​i></​font>​
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Ostracism of Persons</​b>​
 +<br>
 +55. Social boycott
 +<br>
 +56. Selective social boycott
 +<br>
 +57. Lysistratic nonaction
 +<br>
 +58. Excommunication
 +<br>
 +59. Interdict
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Noncooperation with Social Events, Customs, and Institutions</​b>​
 +<br>
 +60. Suspension of social and sports activities
 +<br>
 +61. Boycott of social affairs
 +<br>
 +62. Student strike
 +<br>
 +63. Social disobedience
 +<br>
 +64. Withdrawal from social institutions
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Withdrawal from the Social System</​b>​
 +<br>
 +65. Stay-at-home
 +<br>
 +66. Total personal noncooperation
 +<br>
 +67. "​Flight"​ of workers
 +<br>
 +68. Sanctuary
 +<br>
 +69. Collective disappearance
 +<br>
 +70. Protest emigration (<​i>​hijrat</​i>​)
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<font size="​3"><​i><​b>​THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC NONCOOPERATION:​ (1) ECONOMIC BOYCOTTS</​b></​i></​font>​
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Actions by Consumers</​b>​
 +<br>
 +71. Consumers'​ boycott
 +<br>
 +72. Nonconsumption of boycotted goods
 +<br>
 +73. Policy of austerity
 +<br>
 +74. Rent withholding
 +<br>
 +75. Refusal to rent
 +<br>
 +76. National consumers'​ boycott
 +<br>
 +77. International consumers'​ boycott
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Action by Workers and Producers</​b>​
 +<br>
 +78. Workmen'​s boycott
 +<br>
 +79. Producers'​ boycott
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Action by Middlemen</​b>​
 +<br>
 +80. Suppliers'​ and handlers'​ boycott
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Action by Owners and Management</​b>​
 +<br>
 +81. Traders'​ boycott
 +<br>
 +82. Refusal to let or sell property
 +<br>
 +83. Lockout
 +<br>
 +84. Refusal of industrial assistance
 +<br>
 +85. Merchants'​ "​general strike"​
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Action by Holders of Financial Resources</​b>​
 +<br>
 +86. Withdrawal of bank deposits
 +<br>
 +87. Refusal to pay fees, dues, and assessments
 +<br>
 +88. Refusal to pay debts or interest
 +<br>
 +89. Severance of funds and credit
 +<br>
 +90. Revenue refusal
 +<br>
 +91. Refusal of a government'​s money
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Action by Governments</​b>​
 +<br>
 +92. Domestic embargo
 +<br>
 +93. Blacklisting of traders
 +<br>
 +94. International sellers'​ embargo
 +<br>
 +95. International buyers'​ embargo
 +<br>
 +96. International trade embargo
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<font size="​3"><​i><​b>​THE METHODS OF ECONOMIC NONCOOPERATION:​ (2)THE STRIKE</​b></​i></​font>​
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Symbolic Strikes</​b>​
 +<br>
 +97. Protest strike
 +<br>
 +98. Quickie walkout (lightning strike)
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Agricultural Strikes</​b>​
 +<br>
 +99. Peasant strike
 +<br>
 +100. Farm Workers'​ strike
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Strikes by Special Groups</​b>​
 +<br>
 +101. Refusal of impressed labor
 +<br>
 +102. Prisoners'​ strike
 +<br>
 +103. Craft strike
 +<br>
 +104. Professional strike
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Ordinary Industrial Strikes</​b>​
 +<br>
 +105. Establishment strike
 +<br>
 +106. Industry strike
 +<br>
 +107. Sympathetic strike
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Restricted Strikes</​b>​
 +<br>
 +108. Detailed strike
 +<br>
 +109. Bumper strike
 +<br>
 +110. Slowdown strike
 +<br>
 +111. Working-to-rule strike
 +<br>
 +112. Reporting "​sick"​ (sick-in)
 +<br>
 +113. Strike by resignation
 +<br>
 +114. Limited strike
 +<br>
 +115. Selective strike
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Multi-Industry Strikes</​b>​
 +<br>
 +116. Generalized strike
 +<br>
 +117. General strike
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Combination of Strikes and Economic Closures</​b>​
 +<br>
 +118. Hartal
 +<br>
 +119. Economic shutdown
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<font size="​3"><​i><​b>​THE METHODS OF POLITICAL NONCOOPERATION</​b></​i></​font>​
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Rejection of Authority</​b>​
 +<br>
 +120. Withholding or withdrawal of allegiance
 +<br>
 +121. Refusal of public support
 +<br>
 +122. Literature and speeches advocating resistance
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Citizens'​ Noncooperation with Government</​b>​
 +<br>
 +123. Boycott of legislative bodies
 +<br>
 +124. Boycott of elections
 +<br>
 +125. Boycott of government employment and positions
 +<br>
 +126. Boycott of government depts., agencies, and other bodies
 +<br>
 +127. Withdrawal from government educational institutions
 +<br>
 +128. Boycott of government-supported organizations
 +<br>
 +129. Refusal of assistance to enforcement agents
 +<br>
 +130. Removal of own signs and placemarks
 +<br>
 +131. Refusal to accept appointed officials
 +<br>
 +132. Refusal to dissolve existing institutions
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Citizens'​ Alternatives to Obedience</​b>​
 +<br>
 +133. Reluctant and slow compliance
 +<br>
 +134. Nonobedience in absence of direct supervision
 +<br>
 +135. Popular nonobedience
 +<br>
 +136. Disguised disobedience
 +<br>
 +137. Refusal of an assemblage or meeting to disperse
 +<br>
 +138. Sitdown
 +<br>
 +139. Noncooperation with conscription and deportation
 +<br>
 +140. Hiding, escape, and false identities
 +<br>
 +141. Civil disobedience of "​illegitimate"​ laws
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Action by Government Personnel</​b>​
 +<br>
 +142. Selective refusal of assistance by government aides
 +<br>
 +143. Blocking of lines of command and information
 +<br>
 +144. Stalling and obstruction
 +<br>
 +145. General administrative noncooperation
 +<br>
 +146. Judicial noncooperation
 +<br>
 +147. Deliberate inefficiency and selective noncooperation by enforcement agents
 +<br>
 +148. Mutiny
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Domestic Governmental Action</​b>​
 +<br>
 +149. Quasi-legal evasions and delays
 +<br>
 +150. Noncooperation by constituent governmental units
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​International Governmental Action</​b>​
 +<br>
 +151. Changes in diplomatic and other representations
 +<br>
 +152. Delay and cancellation of diplomatic events
 +<br>
 +153. Withholding of diplomatic recognition
 +<br>
 +154. Severance of diplomatic relations
 +<br>
 +155. Withdrawal from international organizations
 +<br>
 +156. Refusal of membership in international bodies
 +<br>
 +157. Expulsion from international organizations
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<font size="​3"><​i><​b>​THE METHODS OF NONVIOLENT INTERVENTION</​b></​i></​font>​
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Psychological Intervention</​b>​
 +<br>
 +158. Self-exposure to the elements
 +<br>
 +159. The fast
 +<br>
 +<span style="​mso-tab-count:​1">​ </​span><​span style="​mso-spacerun:​yes"></​span>​a) Fast of moral pressure
 +<br>
 +<span style="​mso-tab-count:​1">​ </​span>​b) Hunger strike<​br>​
 +<span style="​mso-tab-count:​1">​ </​span>​c) Satyagrahic fast
 +<br>
 +160. Reverse trial
 +<br>
 +161. Nonviolent harassment
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Physical Intervention</​b>​
 +<br>
 +162. Sit-in
 +<br>
 +163. Stand-in
 +<br>
 +164. Ride-in
 +<br>
 +165. Wade-in
 +<br>
 +166. Mill-in
 +<br>
 +167. Pray-in
 +<br>
 +168. Nonviolent raids
 +<br>
 +169. Nonviolent air raids
 +<br>
 +170. Nonviolent invasion
 +<br>
 +171. Nonviolent interjection
 +<br>
 +172. Nonviolent obstruction
 +<br>
 +173. Nonviolent occupation
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Social Intervention</​b>​
 +<br>
 +174. Establishing new social patterns
 +<br>
 +175. Overloading of facilities
 +<br>
 +176. Stall-in
 +<br>
 +177. Speak-in
 +<br>
 +178. Guerrilla theater
 +<br>
 +179. Alternative social institutions
 +<br>
 +180. Alternative communication system
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Economic Intervention</​b>​
 +<br>
 +181. Reverse strike
 +<br>
 +182. Stay-in strike
 +<br>
 +183. Nonviolent land seizure
 +<br>
 +184. Defiance of blockades
 +<br>
 +185. Politically motivated counterfeiting
 +<br>
 +186. Preclusive purchasing
 +<br>
 +187. Seizure of assets
 +<br>
 +188. Dumping
 +<br>
 +189. Selective patronage
 +<br>
 +190. Alternative markets
 +<br>
 +191. Alternative transportation systems
 +<br>
 +192. Alternative economic institutions
 +<br>
 +<br>
 +<​b>​Political Intervention</​b>​
 +<br>
 +193. Overloading of administrative systems
 +<br>
 +194. Disclosing identities of secret agents
 +<br>
 +195. Seeking imprisonment
 +<br>
 +196. Civil disobedience of "​neutral"​ laws
 +<br>
 +197. Work-on without collaboration
 +<br>
 +198. Dual sovereignty and parallel government
 +<​br><​br>​
 +Source: Gene Sharp, The Politics of Nonviolent Action, Vol. 2: The Methods of Nonviolent Action</​i>​ (Boston: Porter Sargent Publishers, 1973).
 +</p>
 +</​html>​
198_methods_of_nonviolent_action.txt ยท Last modified: 2019/03/24 11:02 (external edit)