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ancient_literature [2018/04/21 03:26] (current)
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 +====== Ancient Literature ======
 +
 +===== The Epic of Gilgamesh c.2100–1200 BC by Anonymous via Babylon =====
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 +The ùĝ saĝ gíg-ga literally meaning "the black-headed people"​ are credited with the first significant intellectual civilisation of among their many achievements the invention of abstract writing (that is a symbol need not resemble its meaning if one denotes the symbol as it meaning) being the most significant and as profound as the milestone of language. From this point on the recording of data and building/​developing on past ideas becomes much much more intuitive. The ùĝ saĝ gíg-ga people built a civilisation and inhabited it permanently. Thus are not nomadic do not operate by following seasonal wealth instead terra-forming and fashioning the environment with buildings and other facilities. They are also not restricted to existing within the framework of a deity, that is they can form functional reasoning based on abstract concepts and or truth.
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 +The Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem from Mesopotamia,​ is amongst the earliest surviving works of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five independent Sumerian poems about Gilgamesh, king of Uruk. It seems that four of these were used as source material for a combined epic in Akkadian. This first, "Old Babylonian"​ version of the epic dates to the 18th century BC and is titled Shūtur eli sharrī ("​Surpassing All Other Kings"​). Only a few fragments of it survive. The later, Standard Babylonian version dates from the 13th to the tenth centuries and bears the title Sha naqba īmuru ("He who Saw the Deep"​). Fragments of approximately two thirds of this longer, 12 tablet version have been recovered. Some of the best copies were discovered in the library ruins of the 7th-century BC Assyrian king Ashurbanipal.
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 +The story centers on a friendship between Gilgamesh and Enkidu. Enkidu is a wild man created by the gods as Gilgamesh'​s equal to distract him from oppressing the people of Uruk. Together, they journey to the Cedar Mountain to defeat Humbaba, its monstrous guardian. Later they kill the Bull of Heaven, which the goddess Ishtar sends to punish Gilgamesh for spurning her advances. As a punishment for these actions, the gods sentence Enkidu to death.
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 +The later half of the epic focuses on Gilgamesh'​s distress at Enkidu'​s death, and his quest for immortality. In order to learn the secret of eternal life, Gilgamesh undertakes a long and perilous journey to find the immortal flood hero, Utnapishtim. He learns that "The life that you are seeking you will never find. When the gods created man they allotted to him death, but life they retained in their own keeping."​ His fame however lived on after his death, because of his great building projects, and his account of what Utnapishtim told him happened during the flood. His story has been translated into many different languages, and he has become an icon of popular culture.
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 +===== Beowulf c.700 AD by Anonymous via England =====
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 +Old English heroic epic poem consisting of 3182 alliterative long lines, set in Scandinavia,​ commonly cited as one of the most important works of Anglo-Saxon literature. It survives in a single manuscript known as the Nowell Codex. In the poem, Beowulf, a hero of the Geats in Scandinavia,​ comes to the help of Hroðgar, the king of the Danes, whose mead hall (Heorot) has been under attack by a being known as Grendel. After Beowulf slays him, Grendel'​s mother attacks the hall and is then also defeated. Victorious, Beowulf goes home to Geatland in Sweden and later becomes king of the Geats. After a period of fifty years has passed, Beowulf defeats a dragon, but is fatally wounded in the battle. After his death, his attendants bury him in a tumulus in Geatland.
  
ancient_literature.txt · Last modified: 2018/04/21 03:26 (external edit)