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 +====== Animal Farm ======
  
 +Author: ​    ​George Orwell (pseudonym of Eric Blair) (1903-1950)
 +
 +Project Gutenberg of Australia eBook
 +Date first posted: ​         August 2001
 +Date most recently updated: March 2008
 +
 +====== Chapter I ======
 +
 +Mr. Jones, of the Manor Farm, had locked the hen-houses for the night, but
 +was too drunk to remember to shut the pop-holes. With the ring of light
 +from his lantern dancing from side to side, he lurched across the yard,
 +kicked off his boots at the back door, drew himself a last glass of beer
 +from the barrel in the scullery, and made his way up to bed, where
 +Mrs. Jones was already snoring.
 +
 +As soon as the light in the bedroom went out there was a stirring and a
 +fluttering all through the farm buildings. Word had gone round during the
 +day that old Major, the prize Middle White boar, had had a strange dream
 +on the previous night and wished to communicate it to the other animals.
 +It had been agreed that they should all meet in the big barn as soon as
 +Mr. Jones was safely out of the way. Old Major (so he was always called,
 +though the name under which he had been exhibited was Willingdon Beauty)
 +was so highly regarded on the farm that everyone was quite ready to lose
 +an hour's sleep in order to hear what he had to say.
 +
 +At one end of the big barn, on a sort of raised platform, Major was
 +already ensconced on his bed of straw, under a lantern which hung from a
 +beam. He was twelve years old and had lately grown rather stout, but he
 +was still a majestic-looking pig, with a wise and benevolent appearance in
 +spite of the fact that his tushes had never been cut. Before long the
 +other animals began to arrive and make themselves comfortable after their
 +different fashions. First came the three dogs, Bluebell, Jessie, and
 +Pincher, and then the pigs, who settled down in the straw immediately in
 +front of the platform. The hens perched themselves on the window-sills,​
 +the pigeons fluttered up to the rafters, the sheep and cows lay down
 +behind the pigs and began to chew the cud. The two cart-horses,​ Boxer and
 +Clover, came in together, walking very slowly and setting down their vast
 +hairy hoofs with great care lest there should be some small animal
 +concealed in the straw. Clover was a stout motherly mare approaching
 +middle life, who had never quite got her figure back after her fourth foal.
 +Boxer was an enormous beast, nearly eighteen hands high, and as strong as
 +any two ordinary horses put together. A white stripe down his nose gave
 +him a somewhat stupid appearance, and in fact he was not of first-rate
 +intelligence,​ but he was universally respected for his steadiness of
 +character and tremendous powers of work. After the horses came Muriel,
 +the white goat, and Benjamin, the donkey. Benjamin was the oldest animal
 +on the farm, and the worst tempered. He seldom talked, and when he did, it
 +was usually to make some cynical remark--for instance, he would say that
 +God had given him a tail to keep the flies off, but that he would sooner
 +have had no tail and no flies. Alone among the animals on the farm he
 +never laughed. If asked why, he would say that he saw nothing to laugh at.
 +Nevertheless,​ without openly admitting it, he was devoted to Boxer; the
 +two of them usually spent their Sundays together in the small paddock
 +beyond the orchard, grazing side by side and never speaking.
 +
 +The two horses had just lain down when a brood of ducklings, which had
 +lost their mother, filed into the barn, cheeping feebly and wandering from
 +side to side to find some place where they would not be trodden on. Clover
 +made a sort of wall round them with her great foreleg, and the ducklings
 +nestled down inside it and promptly fell asleep. At the last moment
 +Mollie, the foolish, pretty white mare who drew Mr. Jones'​s trap, came
 +mincing daintily in, chewing at a lump of sugar. She took a place near the
 +front and began flirting her white mane, hoping to draw attention to the
 +red ribbons it was plaited with. Last of all came the cat, who looked
 +round, as usual, for the warmest place, and finally squeezed herself in
 +between Boxer and Clover; there she purred contentedly throughout Major'​s
 +speech without listening to a word of what he was saying.
 +
 +All the animals were now present except Moses, the tame raven, who slept
 +on a perch behind the back door. When Major saw that they had all made
 +themselves comfortable and were waiting attentively,​ he cleared his throat
 +and began:
 +
 +"​Comrades,​ you have heard already about the strange dream that I had last
 +night. But I will come to the dream later. I have something else to say
 +first. I do not think, comrades, that I shall be with you for many months
 +longer, and before I die, I feel it my duty to pass on to you such wisdom
 +as I have acquired. I have had a long life, I have had much time for
 +thought as I lay alone in my stall, and I think I may say that I
 +understand the nature of life on this earth as well as any animal now
 +living. It is about this that I wish to speak to you.
 +
 +"Now, comrades, what is the nature of this life of ours? Let us face it:
 +our lives are miserable, laborious, and short. We are born, we are given
 +just so much food as will keep the breath in our bodies, and those of us
 +who are capable of it are forced to work to the last atom of our strength;
 +and the very instant that our usefulness has come to an end we are
 +slaughtered with hideous cruelty. No animal in England knows the meaning
 +of happiness or leisure after he is a year old. No animal in England is
 +free. The life of an animal is misery and slavery: that is the plain truth.
 +
 +"But is this simply part of the order of nature? Is it because this land
 +of ours is so poor that it cannot afford a decent life to those who dwell
 +upon it? No, comrades, a thousand times no! The soil of England is
 +fertile, its climate is good, it is capable of affording food in abundance
 +to an enormously greater number of animals than now inhabit it. This
 +single farm of ours would support a dozen horses, twenty cows, hundreds of
 +sheep--and all of them living in a comfort and a dignity that are now
 +almost beyond our imagining. Why then do we continue in this miserable
 +condition? Because nearly the whole of the produce of our labour is stolen
 +from us by human beings. There, comrades, is the answer to all our
 +problems. It is summed up in a single word--Man. Man is the only real
 +enemy we have. Remove Man from the scene, and the root cause of hunger and
 +overwork is abolished for ever.
 +
 +"Man is the only creature that consumes without producing. He does not
 +give milk, he does not lay eggs, he is too weak to pull the plough, he
 +cannot run fast enough to catch rabbits. Yet he is lord of all the
 +animals. He sets them to work, he gives back to them the bare minimum that
 +will prevent them from starving, and the rest he keeps for himself. Our
 +labour tills the soil, our dung fertilises it, and yet there is not one of
 +us that owns more than his bare skin. You cows that I see before me, how
 +many thousands of gallons of milk have you given during this last year?
 +And what has happened to that milk which should have been breeding up
 +sturdy calves? Every drop of it has gone down the throats of our enemies.
 +And you hens, how many eggs have you laid in this last year, and how many
 +of those eggs ever hatched into chickens? The rest have all gone to market
 +to bring in money for Jones and his men. And you, Clover, where are those
 +four foals you bore, who should have been the support and pleasure of your
 +old age? Each was sold at a year old--you will never see one of them
 +again. In return for your four confinements and all your labour in the
 +fields, what have you ever had except your bare rations and a stall?
 +
 +"And even the miserable lives we lead are not allowed to reach their
 +natural span. For myself I do not grumble, for I am one of the lucky ones.
 +I am twelve years old and have had over four hundred children. Such is the
 +natural life of a pig. But no animal escapes the cruel knife in the end.
 +You young porkers who are sitting in front of me, every one of you will
 +scream your lives out at the block within a year. To that horror we all
 +must come--cows, pigs, hens, sheep, everyone. Even the horses and the dogs
 +have no better fate. You, Boxer, the very day that those great muscles of
 +yours lose their power, Jones will sell you to the knacker, who will cut
 +your throat and boil you down for the foxhounds. As for the dogs, when
 +they grow old and toothless, Jones ties a brick round their necks and
 +drowns them in the nearest pond.
 +
 +"Is it not crystal clear, then, comrades, that all the evils of this life
 +of ours spring from the tyranny of human beings? Only get rid of Man, and
 +the produce of our labour would be our own. Almost overnight we could
 +become rich and free. What then must we do? Why, work night and day, body
 +and soul, for the overthrow of the human race! That is my message to you,
 +comrades: Rebellion! I do not know when that Rebellion will come, it might
 +be in a week or in a hundred years, but I know, as surely as I see this
 +straw beneath my feet, that sooner or later justice will be done. Fix your
 +eyes on that, comrades, throughout the short remainder of your lives! And
 +above all, pass on this message of mine to those who come after you, so
 +that future generations shall carry on the struggle until it is victorious.
 +
 +"And remember, comrades, your resolution must never falter. No argument
 +must lead you astray. Never listen when they tell you that Man and the
 +animals have a common interest, that the prosperity of the one is the
 +prosperity of the others. It is all lies. Man serves the interests of no
 +creature except himself. And among us animals let there be perfect unity,
 +perfect comradeship in the struggle. All men are enemies. All animals are
 +comrades."​
 +
 +At this moment there was a tremendous uproar. While Major was speaking
 +four large rats had crept out of their holes and were sitting on their
 +hindquarters,​ listening to him. The dogs had suddenly caught sight of
 +them, and it was only by a swift dash for their holes that the rats saved
 +their lives. Major raised his trotter for silence.
 +
 +"​Comrades,"​ he said, "here is a point that must be settled. The wild
 +creatures, such as rats and rabbits--are they our friends or our enemies?
 +Let us put it to the vote. I propose this question to the meeting: Are
 +rats comrades?"​
 +
 +The vote was taken at once, and it was agreed by an overwhelming majority
 +that rats were comrades. There were only four dissentients,​ the three dogs
 +and the cat, who was afterwards discovered to have voted on both sides.
 +Major continued:
 +
 +"I have little more to say. I merely repeat, remember always your duty of
 +enmity towards Man and all his ways. Whatever goes upon two legs is an
 +enemy. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend. And
 +remember also that in fighting against Man, we must not come to resemble
 +him. Even when you have conquered him, do not adopt his vices. No animal
 +must ever live in a house, or sleep in a bed, or wear clothes, or drink
 +alcohol, or smoke tobacco, or touch money, or engage in trade. All the
 +habits of Man are evil. And, above all, no animal must ever tyrannise over
 +his own kind. Weak or strong, clever or simple, we are all brothers. No
 +animal must ever kill any other animal. All animals are equal.
 +
 +"And now, comrades, I will tell you about my dream of last night. I cannot
 +describe that dream to you. It was a dream of the earth as it will be when
 +Man has vanished. But it reminded me of something that I had long
 +forgotten. Many years ago, when I was a little pig, my mother and the
 +other sows used to sing an old song of which they knew only the tune and
 +the first three words. I had known that tune in my infancy, but it had
 +long since passed out of my mind. Last night, however, it came back to me
 +in my dream. And what is more, the words of the song also came back-words,
 +I am certain, which were sung by the animals of long ago and have been
 +lost to memory for generations. I will sing you that song now, comrades.
 +I am old and my voice is hoarse, but when I have taught you the tune, you
 +can sing it better for yourselves. It is called '​Beasts of England'​."​
 +
 +Old Major cleared his throat and began to sing. As he had said, his voice
 +was hoarse, but he sang well enough, and it was a stirring tune, something
 +between '​Clementine'​ and 'La Cucaracha'​. The words ran:
 +
 +Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland,
 +Beasts of every land and clime,
 +Hearken to my joyful tidings
 +Of the golden future time.
 +
 +Soon or late the day is coming,
 +Tyrant Man shall be o'​erthrown,​
 +And the fruitful fields of England
 +Shall be trod by beasts alone.
 +
 +Rings shall vanish from our noses,
 +And the harness from our back,
 +Bit and spur shall rust forever,
 +Cruel whips no more shall crack.
 +
 +Riches more than mind can picture,
 +Wheat and barley, oats and hay,
 +Clover, beans, and mangel-wurzels
 +Shall be ours upon that day.
 +
 +Bright will shine the fields of England,
 +Purer shall its waters be,
 +Sweeter yet shall blow its breezes
 +On the day that sets us free.
 +
 +For that day we all must labour,
 +Though we die before it break;
 +Cows and horses, geese and turkeys,
 +All must toil for freedom'​s sake.
 +
 +Beasts of England, beasts of Ireland,
 +Beasts of every land and clime,
 +Hearken well and spread my tidings
 +Of the golden future time.
 +
 +
 +The singing of this song threw the animals into the wildest excitement.
 +Almost before Major had reached the end, they had begun singing it for
 +themselves. Even the stupidest of them had already picked up the tune and
 +a few of the words, and as for the clever ones, such as the pigs and dogs,
 +they had the entire song by heart within a few minutes. And then, after a
 +few preliminary tries, the whole farm burst out into '​Beasts of England'​ in
 +tremendous unison. The cows lowed it, the dogs whined it, the sheep
 +bleated it, the horses whinnied it, the ducks quacked it. They were so
 +delighted with the song that they sang it right through five times in
 +succession, and might have continued singing it all night if they had not
 +been interrupted.
 +
 +Unfortunately,​ the uproar awoke Mr. Jones, who sprang out of bed, making
 +sure that there was a fox in the yard. He seized the gun which always
 +stood in a corner of his bedroom, and let fly a charge of number 6 shot
 +into the darkness. The pellets buried themselves in the wall of the barn
 +and the meeting broke up hurriedly. Everyone fled to his own
 +sleeping-place. The birds jumped on to their perches, the animals settled
 +down in the straw, and the whole farm was asleep in a moment.
 +
 +====== Chapter II ======
 +
 +Three nights later old Major died peacefully in his sleep. His body was
 +buried at the foot of the orchard.
 +
 +This was early in March. During the next three months there was much
 +secret activity. Major'​s speech had given to the more intelligent animals
 +on the farm a completely new outlook on life. They did not know when the
 +Rebellion predicted by Major would take place, they had no reason for
 +thinking that it would be within their own lifetime, but they saw clearly
 +that it was their duty to prepare for it. The work of teaching and
 +organising the others fell naturally upon the pigs, who were generally
 +recognised as being the cleverest of the animals. Pre-eminent among the
 +pigs were two young boars named Snowball and Napoleon, whom Mr. Jones was
 +breeding up for sale. Napoleon was a large, rather fierce-looking
 +Berkshire boar, the only Berkshire on the farm, not much of a talker, but
 +with a reputation for getting his own way. Snowball was a more vivacious
 +pig than Napoleon, quicker in speech and more inventive, but was not
 +considered to have the same depth of character. All the other male pigs on
 +the farm were porkers. The best known among them was a small fat pig named
 +Squealer, with very round cheeks, twinkling eyes, nimble movements, and a
 +shrill voice. He was a brilliant talker, and when he was arguing some
 +difficult point he had a way of skipping from side to side and whisking
 +his tail which was somehow very persuasive. The others said of Squealer
 +that he could turn black into white.
 +
 +These three had elaborated old Major'​s teachings into a complete system of
 +thought, to which they gave the name of Animalism. Several nights a week,
 +after Mr. Jones was asleep, they held secret meetings in the barn and
 +expounded the principles of Animalism to the others. At the beginning they
 +met with much stupidity and apathy. Some of the animals talked of the duty
 +of loyalty to Mr. Jones, whom they referred to as "​Master,"​ or made
 +elementary remarks such as "Mr. Jones feeds us. If he were gone, we should
 +starve to death."​ Others asked such questions as "Why should we care what
 +happens after we are dead?" or "If this Rebellion is to happen anyway,
 +what difference does it make whether we work for it or not?", and the pigs
 +had great difficulty in making them see that this was contrary to the
 +spirit of Animalism. The stupidest questions of all were asked by Mollie,
 +the white mare. The very first question she asked Snowball was: "Will
 +there still be sugar after the Rebellion?"​
 +
 +"​No,"​ said Snowball firmly. "We have no means of making sugar on this
 +farm. Besides, you do not need sugar. You will have all the oats and hay
 +you want."
 +
 +"And shall I still be allowed to wear ribbons in my mane?" asked Mollie.
 +
 +"​Comrade,"​ said Snowball, "those ribbons that you are so devoted to are
 +the badge of slavery. Can you not understand that liberty is worth more
 +than ribbons?"​
 +
 +Mollie agreed, but she did not sound very convinced.
 +
 +The pigs had an even harder struggle to counteract the lies put about by
 +Moses, the tame raven. Moses, who was Mr. Jones'​s especial pet, was a spy
 +and a tale-bearer,​ but he was also a clever talker. He claimed to know of
 +the existence of a mysterious country called Sugarcandy Mountain, to which
 +all animals went when they died. It was situated somewhere up in the sky,
 +a little distance beyond the clouds, Moses said. In Sugarcandy Mountain it
 +was Sunday seven days a week, clover was in season all the year round, and
 +lump sugar and linseed cake grew on the hedges. The animals hated Moses
 +because he told tales and did no work, but some of them believed in
 +Sugarcandy Mountain, and the pigs had to argue very hard to persuade them
 +that there was no such place.
 +
 +Their most faithful disciples were the two cart-horses,​ Boxer and Clover.
 +These two had great difficulty in thinking anything out for themselves,
 +but having once accepted the pigs as their teachers, they absorbed
 +everything that they were told, and passed it on to the other animals by
 +simple arguments. They were unfailing in their attendance at the secret
 +meetings in the barn, and led the singing of '​Beasts of England',​ with
 +which the meetings always ended.
 +
 +Now, as it turned out, the Rebellion was achieved much earlier and more
 +easily than anyone had expected. In past years Mr. Jones, although a hard
 +master, had been a capable farmer, but of late he had fallen on evil days.
 +He had become much disheartened after losing money in a lawsuit, and had
 +taken to drinking more than was good for him. For whole days at a time he
 +would lounge in his Windsor chair in the kitchen, reading the newspapers,
 +drinking, and occasionally feeding Moses on crusts of bread soaked in
 +beer. His men were idle and dishonest, the fields were full of weeds, the
 +buildings wanted roofing, the hedges were neglected, and the animals were
 +underfed.
 +
 +June came and the hay was almost ready for cutting. On Midsummer'​s Eve,
 +which was a Saturday, Mr. Jones went into Willingdon and got so drunk at
 +the Red Lion that he did not come back till midday on Sunday. The men had
 +milked the cows in the early morning and then had gone out rabbiting,
 +without bothering to feed the animals. When Mr. Jones got back he
 +immediately went to sleep on the drawing-room sofa with the News of the
 +World over his face, so that when evening came, the animals were still
 +unfed. At last they could stand it no longer. One of the cows broke in the
 +door of the store-shed with her horn and all the animals began to help
 +themselves from the bins. It was just then that Mr. Jones woke up. The
 +next moment he and his four men were in the store-shed with whips in their
 +hands, lashing out in all directions. This was more than the hungry
 +animals could bear. With one accord, though nothing of the kind had been
 +planned beforehand, they flung themselves upon their tormentors. Jones and
 +his men suddenly found themselves being butted and kicked from all sides.
 +The situation was quite out of their control. They had never seen animals
 +behave like this before, and this sudden uprising of creatures whom they
 +were used to thrashing and maltreating just as they chose, frightened them
 +almost out of their wits. After only a moment or two they gave up trying
 +to defend themselves and took to their heels. A minute later all five of
 +them were in full flight down the cart-track that led to the main road,
 +with the animals pursuing them in triumph.
 +
 +Mrs. Jones looked out of the bedroom window, saw what was happening,
 +hurriedly flung a few possessions into a carpet bag, and slipped out of
 +the farm by another way. Moses sprang off his perch and flapped after her,
 +croaking loudly. Meanwhile the animals had chased Jones and his men out on
 +to the road and slammed the five-barred gate behind them. And so, almost
 +before they knew what was happening, the Rebellion had been successfully
 +carried through: Jones was expelled, and the Manor Farm was theirs.
 +
 +For the first few minutes the animals could hardly believe in their good
 +fortune. Their first act was to gallop in a body right round the
 +boundaries of the farm, as though to make quite sure that no human being
 +was hiding anywhere upon it; then they raced back to the farm buildings to
 +wipe out the last traces of Jones'​s hated reign. The harness-room at the
 +end of the stables was broken open; the bits, the nose-rings, the
 +dog-chains, the cruel knives with which Mr. Jones had been used to
 +castrate the pigs and lambs, were all flung down the well. The reins, the
 +halters, the blinkers, the degrading nosebags, were thrown on to the
 +rubbish fire which was burning in the yard. So were the whips. All the
 +animals capered with joy when they saw the whips going up in flames.
 +Snowball also threw on to the fire the ribbons with which the horses'​
 +manes and tails had usually been decorated on market days.
 +
 +"​Ribbons,"​ he said, "​should be considered as clothes, which are the mark
 +of a human being. All animals should go naked."​
 +
 +When Boxer heard this he fetched the small straw hat which he wore in
 +summer to keep the flies out of his ears, and flung it on to the fire with
 +the rest.
 +
 +In a very little while the animals had destroyed everything that reminded
 +them of Mr. Jones. Napoleon then led them back to the store-shed and
 +served out a double ration of corn to everybody, with two biscuits for
 +each dog. Then they sang '​Beasts of England'​ from end to end seven times
 +running, and after that they settled down for the night and slept as they
 +had never slept before.
 +
 +But they woke at dawn as usual, and suddenly remembering the glorious
 +thing that had happened, they all raced out into the pasture together. A
 +little way down the pasture there was a knoll that commanded a view of
 +most of the farm. The animals rushed to the top of it and gazed round them
 +in the clear morning light. Yes, it was theirs--everything that they could
 +see was theirs! In the ecstasy of that thought they gambolled round and
 +round, they hurled themselves into the air in great leaps of excitement.
 +They rolled in the dew, they cropped mouthfuls of the sweet summer grass,
 +they kicked up clods of the black earth and snuffed its rich scent. Then
 +they made a tour of inspection of the whole farm and surveyed with
 +speechless admiration the ploughland, the hayfield, the orchard, the pool,
 +the spinney. It was as though they had never seen these things before, and
 +even now they could hardly believe that it was all their own.
 +
 +Then they filed back to the farm buildings and halted in silence outside
 +the door of the farmhouse. That was theirs too, but they were frightened
 +to go inside. After a moment, however, Snowball and Napoleon butted the
 +door open with their shoulders and the animals entered in single file,
 +walking with the utmost care for fear of disturbing anything. They tiptoed
 +from room to room, afraid to speak above a whisper and gazing with a kind
 +of awe at the unbelievable luxury, at the beds with their feather
 +mattresses, the looking-glasses,​ the horsehair sofa, the Brussels carpet,
 +the lithograph of Queen Victoria over the drawing-room mantelpiece. They
 +were just coming down the stairs when Mollie was discovered to be missing.
 +Going back, the others found that she had remained behind in the best
 +bedroom. She had taken a piece of blue ribbon from Mrs. Jones'​s
 +dressing-table,​ and was holding it against her shoulder and admiring
 +herself in the glass in a very foolish manner. The others reproached her
 +sharply, and they went outside. Some hams hanging in the kitchen were
 +taken out for burial, and the barrel of beer in the scullery was stove in
 +with a kick from Boxer'​s hoof, otherwise nothing in the house was touched.
 +A unanimous resolution was passed on the spot that the farmhouse should be
 +preserved as a museum. All were agreed that no animal must ever live there.
 +
 +The animals had their breakfast, and then Snowball and Napoleon called
 +them together again.
 +
 +"​Comrades,"​ said Snowball, "it is half-past six and we have a long day
 +before us. Today we begin the hay harvest. But there is another matter
 +that must be attended to first."​
 +
 +The pigs now revealed that during the past three months they had taught
 +themselves to read and write from an old spelling book which had belonged
 +to Mr. Jones'​s children and which had been thrown on the rubbish heap.
 +Napoleon sent for pots of black and white paint and led the way down to
 +the five-barred gate that gave on to the main road. Then Snowball (for it
 +was Snowball who was best at writing) took a brush between the two
 +knuckles of his trotter, painted out MANOR FARM from the top bar of the
 +gate and in its place painted ANIMAL FARM. This was to be the name of the
 +farm from now onwards. After this they went back to the farm buildings,
 +where Snowball and Napoleon sent for a ladder which they caused to be set
 +against the end wall of the big barn. They explained that by their studies
 +of the past three months the pigs had succeeded in reducing the principles
 +of Animalism to Seven Commandments. These Seven Commandments would now be
 +inscribed on the wall; they would form an unalterable law by which all the
 +animals on Animal Farm must live for ever after. With some difficulty
 +(for it is not easy for a pig to balance himself on a ladder) Snowball
 +climbed up and set to work, with Squealer a few rungs below him holding
 +the paint-pot. The Commandments were written on the tarred wall in great
 +white letters that could be read thirty yards away. They ran thus:
 +
 +THE SEVEN COMMANDMENTS
 +
 +1. Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.
 +2. Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.
 +3. No animal shall wear clothes.
 +4. No animal shall sleep in a bed.
 +5. No animal shall drink alcohol.
 +6. No animal shall kill any other animal.
 +7. All animals are equal.
 +
 +It was very neatly written, and except that "​friend"​ was written "​freind"​
 +and one of the "​S'​s"​ was the wrong way round, the spelling was correct all
 +the way through. Snowball read it aloud for the benefit of the others. All
 +the animals nodded in complete agreement, and the cleverer ones at once
 +began to learn the Commandments by heart.
 +
 +"Now, comrades,"​ cried Snowball, throwing down the paint-brush,​ "to the
 +hayfield! Let us make it a point of honour to get in the harvest more
 +quickly than Jones and his men could do."
 +
 +But at this moment the three cows, who had seemed uneasy for some time
 +past, set up a loud lowing. They had not been milked for twenty-four
 +hours, and their udders were almost bursting. After a little thought, the
 +pigs sent for buckets and milked the cows fairly successfully,​ their
 +trotters being well adapted to this task. Soon there were five buckets of
 +frothing creamy milk at which many of the animals looked with considerable
 +interest.
 +
 +"What is going to happen to all that milk?" said someone.
 +
 +"Jones used sometimes to mix some of it in our mash," said one of the hens.
 +
 +"Never mind the milk, comrades!"​ cried Napoleon, placing himself in front
 +of the buckets. "That will be attended to. The harvest is more important.
 +Comrade Snowball will lead the way. I shall follow in a few minutes.
 +Forward, comrades! The hay is waiting."​
 +
 +So the animals trooped down to the hayfield to begin the harvest, and when
 +they came back in the evening it was noticed that the milk had disappeared.
 +
 +====== Chapter III ======
 +
 +How they toiled and sweated to get the hay in! But their efforts were
 +rewarded, for the harvest was an even bigger success than they had hoped.
 +
 +Sometimes the work was hard; the implements had been designed for human
 +beings and not for animals, and it was a great drawback that no animal was
 +able to use any tool that involved standing on his hind legs. But the pigs
 +were so clever that they could think of a way round every difficulty. As
 +for the horses, they knew every inch of the field, and in fact understood
 +the business of mowing and raking far better than Jones and his men had
 +ever done. The pigs did not actually work, but directed and supervised the
 +others. With their superior knowledge it was natural that they should
 +assume the leadership. Boxer and Clover would harness themselves to the
 +cutter or the horse-rake (no bits or reins were needed in these days, of
 +course) and tramp steadily round and round the field with a pig walking
 +behind and calling out "Gee up, comrade!"​ or "Whoa back, comrade!"​ as the
 +case might be. And every animal down to the humblest worked at turning the
 +hay and gathering it. Even the ducks and hens toiled to and fro all day in
 +the sun, carrying tiny wisps of hay in their beaks. In the end they
 +finished the harvest in two days' less time than it had usually taken
 +Jones and his men. Moreover, it was the biggest harvest that the farm had
 +ever seen. There was no wastage whatever; the hens and ducks with their
 +sharp eyes had gathered up the very last stalk. And not an animal on the
 +farm had stolen so much as a mouthful.
 +
 +All through that summer the work of the farm went like clockwork. The
 +animals were happy as they had never conceived it possible to be. Every
 +mouthful of food was an acute positive pleasure, now that it was truly
 +their own food, produced by themselves and for themselves, not doled out
 +to them by a grudging master. With the worthless parasitical human beings
 +gone, there was more for everyone to eat. There was more leisure too,
 +inexperienced though the animals were. They met with many difficulties--for
 +instance, later in the year, when they harvested the corn, they had to
 +tread it out in the ancient style and blow away the chaff with their
 +breath, since the farm possessed no threshing machine--but the pigs with
 +their cleverness and Boxer with his tremendous muscles always pulled them
 +through. Boxer was the admiration of everybody. He had been a hard worker
 +even in Jones'​s time, but now he seemed more like three horses than one;
 +there were days when the entire work of the farm seemed to rest on his
 +mighty shoulders. From morning to night he was pushing and pulling, always
 +at the spot where the work was hardest. He had made an arrangement with
 +one of the cockerels to call him in the mornings half an hour earlier than
 +anyone else, and would put in some volunteer labour at whatever seemed to
 +be most needed, before the regular day's work began. His answer to every
 +problem, every setback, was "I will work harder!"​--which he had adopted as
 +his personal motto.
 +
 +But everyone worked according to his capacity. The hens and ducks, for
 +instance, saved five bushels of corn at the harvest by gathering up the
 +stray grains. Nobody stole, nobody grumbled over his rations, the
 +quarrelling and biting and jealousy which had been normal features of life
 +in the old days had almost disappeared. Nobody shirked--or almost nobody.
 +Mollie, it was true, was not good at getting up in the mornings, and had a
 +way of leaving work early on the ground that there was a stone in her
 +hoof. And the behaviour of the cat was somewhat peculiar. It was soon
 +noticed that when there was work to be done the cat could never be found.
 +She would vanish for hours on end, and then reappear at meal-times, or in
 +the evening after work was over, as though nothing had happened. But she
 +always made such excellent excuses, and purred so affectionately,​ that it
 +was impossible not to believe in her good intentions. Old Benjamin, the
 +donkey, seemed quite unchanged since the Rebellion. He did his work in the
 +same slow obstinate way as he had done it in Jones'​s time, never shirking
 +and never volunteering for extra work either. About the Rebellion and its
 +results he would express no opinion. When asked whether he was not happier
 +now that Jones was gone, he would say only "​Donkeys live a long time. None
 +of you has ever seen a dead donkey,"​ and the others had to be content with
 +this cryptic answer.
 +
 +On Sundays there was no work. Breakfast was an hour later than usual, and
 +after breakfast there was a ceremony which was observed every week without
 +fail. First came the hoisting of the flag. Snowball had found in the
 +harness-room an old green tablecloth of Mrs. Jones'​s and had painted on it
 +a hoof and a horn in white. This was run up the flagstaff in the farmhouse
 +garden every Sunday morning. The flag was green, Snowball explained, to
 +represent the green fields of England, while the hoof and horn signified
 +the future Republic of the Animals which would arise when the human race
 +had been finally overthrown. After the hoisting of the flag all the
 +animals trooped into the big barn for a general assembly which was known
 +as the Meeting. Here the work of the coming week was planned out and
 +resolutions were put forward and debated. It was always the pigs who put
 +forward the resolutions. The other animals understood how to vote, but
 +could never think of any resolutions of their own. Snowball and Napoleon
 +were by far the most active in the debates. But it was noticed that these
 +two were never in agreement: whatever suggestion either of them made, the
 +other could be counted on to oppose it. Even when it was resolved--a thing
 +no one could object to in itself--to set aside the small paddock behind
 +the orchard as a home of rest for animals who were past work, there was a
 +stormy debate over the correct retiring age for each class of animal. The
 +Meeting always ended with the singing of '​Beasts of England',​ and the
 +afternoon was given up to recreation.
 +
 +The pigs had set aside the harness-room as a headquarters for themselves.
 +Here, in the evenings, they studied blacksmithing,​ carpentering,​ and other
 +necessary arts from books which they had brought out of the farmhouse.
 +Snowball also busied himself with organising the other animals into what
 +he called Animal Committees. He was indefatigable at this. He formed the
 +Egg Production Committee for the hens, the Clean Tails League for the
 +cows, the Wild Comrades'​ Re-education Committee (the object of this was to
 +tame the rats and rabbits), the Whiter Wool Movement for the sheep, and
 +various others, besides instituting classes in reading and writing. On the
 +whole, these projects were a failure. The attempt to tame the wild
 +creatures, for instance, broke down almost immediately. They continued to
 +behave very much as before, and when treated with generosity, simply took
 +advantage of it. The cat joined the Re-education Committee and was very
 +active in it for some days. She was seen one day sitting on a roof and
 +talking to some sparrows who were just out of her reach. She was telling
 +them that all animals were now comrades and that any sparrow who chose
 +could come and perch on her paw; but the sparrows kept their distance.
 +
 +The reading and writing classes, however, were a great success. By the
 +autumn almost every animal on the farm was literate in some degree.
 +
 +As for the pigs, they could already read and write perfectly. The dogs
 +learned to read fairly well, but were not interested in reading anything
 +except the Seven Commandments. Muriel, the goat, could read somewhat
 +better than the dogs, and sometimes used to read to the others in the
 +evenings from scraps of newspaper which she found on the rubbish heap.
 +Benjamin could read as well as any pig, but never exercised his faculty.
 +So far as he knew, he said, there was nothing worth reading. Clover learnt
 +the whole alphabet, but could not put words together. Boxer could not get
 +beyond the letter D. He would trace out A, B, C, D, in the dust with his
 +great hoof, and then would stand staring at the letters with his ears
 +back, sometimes shaking his forelock, trying with all his might to
 +remember what came next and never succeeding. On several occasions,
 +indeed, he did learn E, F, G, H, but by the time he knew them, it was
 +always discovered that he had forgotten A, B, C, and D. Finally he decided
 +to be content with the first four letters, and used to write them out once
 +or twice every day to refresh his memory. Mollie refused to learn any but
 +the six letters which spelt her own name. She would form these very neatly
 +out of pieces of twig, and would then decorate them with a flower or two
 +and walk round them admiring them.
 +
 +None of the other animals on the farm could get further than the letter A.
 +It was also found that the stupider animals, such as the sheep, hens, and
 +ducks, were unable to learn the Seven Commandments by heart. After much
 +thought Snowball declared that the Seven Commandments could in effect be
 +reduced to a single maxim, namely: "Four legs good, two legs bad." This,
 +he said, contained the essential principle of Animalism. Whoever had
 +thoroughly grasped it would be safe from human influences. The birds at
 +first objected, since it seemed to them that they also had two legs, but
 +Snowball proved to them that this was not so.
 +
 +"A bird's wing, comrades,"​ he said, "is an organ of propulsion and not of
 +manipulation. It should therefore be regarded as a leg. The distinguishing
 +mark of man is the HAND, the instrument with which he does all his
 +mischief."​
 +
 +The birds did not understand Snowball'​s long words, but they accepted his
 +explanation,​ and all the humbler animals set to work to learn the new
 +maxim by heart. FOUR LEGS GOOD, TWO LEGS BAD, was inscribed on the end
 +wall of the barn, above the Seven Commandments and in bigger letters. When
 +they had once got it by heart, the sheep developed a great liking for this
 +maxim, and often as they lay in the field they would all start bleating
 +"Four legs good, two legs bad! Four legs good, two legs bad!" and keep it
 +up for hours on end, never growing tired of it.
 +
 +Napoleon took no interest in Snowball'​s committees. He said that the
 +education of the young was more important than anything that could be done
 +for those who were already grown up. It happened that Jessie and Bluebell
 +had both whelped soon after the hay harvest, giving birth between them to
 +nine sturdy puppies. As soon as they were weaned, Napoleon took them away
 +from their mothers, saying that he would make himself responsible for
 +their education. He took them up into a loft which could only be reached
 +by a ladder from the harness-room,​ and there kept them in such seclusion
 +that the rest of the farm soon forgot their existence.
 +
 +The mystery of where the milk went to was soon cleared up. It was mixed
 +every day into the pigs' mash. The early apples were now ripening, and the
 +grass of the orchard was littered with windfalls. The animals had assumed
 +as a matter of course that these would be shared out equally; one day,
 +however, the order went forth that all the windfalls were to be collected
 +and brought to the harness-room for the use of the pigs. At this some of
 +the other animals murmured, but it was no use. All the pigs were in full
 +agreement on this point, even Snowball and Napoleon. Squealer was sent to
 +make the necessary explanations to the others.
 +
 +"​Comrades!"​ he cried. "You do not imagine, I hope, that we pigs are doing
 +this in a spirit of selfishness and privilege? Many of us actually dislike
 +milk and apples. I dislike them myself. Our sole object in taking these
 +things is to preserve our health. Milk and apples (this has been proved by
 +Science, comrades) contain substances absolutely necessary to the
 +well-being of a pig. We pigs are brainworkers. The whole management and
 +organisation of this farm depend on us. Day and night we are watching over
 +your welfare. It is for YOUR sake that we drink that milk and eat those
 +apples. Do you know what would happen if we pigs failed in our duty? Jones
 +would come back! Yes, Jones would come back! Surely, comrades,"​ cried
 +Squealer almost pleadingly, skipping from side to side and whisking his
 +tail, "​surely there is no one among you who wants to see Jones come back?"
 +
 +Now if there was one thing that the animals were completely certain of, it
 +was that they did not want Jones back. When it was put to them in this
 +light, they had no more to say. The importance of keeping the pigs in good
 +health was all too obvious. So it was agreed without further argument that
 +the milk and the windfall apples (and also the main crop of apples when
 +they ripened) should be reserved for the pigs alone.
 +
 +====== Chapter IV ======
 +
 +By the late summer the news of what had happened on Animal Farm had spread
 +across half the county. Every day Snowball and Napoleon sent out flights
 +of pigeons whose instructions were to mingle with the animals on
 +neighbouring farms, tell them the story of the Rebellion, and teach them
 +the tune of '​Beasts of England'​.
 +
 +Most of this time Mr. Jones had spent sitting in the taproom of the Red
 +Lion at Willingdon, complaining to anyone who would listen of the
 +monstrous injustice he had suffered in being turned out of his property by
 +a pack of good-for-nothing animals. The other farmers sympathised in
 +principle, but they did not at first give him much help. At heart, each of
 +them was secretly wondering whether he could not somehow turn Jones'​s
 +misfortune to his own advantage. It was lucky that the owners of the two
 +farms which adjoined Animal Farm were on permanently bad terms. One of
 +them, which was named Foxwood, was a large, neglected, old-fashioned farm,
 +much overgrown by woodland, with all its pastures worn out and its hedges
 +in a disgraceful condition. Its owner, Mr. Pilkington, was an easy-going
 +gentleman farmer who spent most of his time in fishing or hunting
 +according to the season. The other farm, which was called Pinchfield, was
 +smaller and better kept. Its owner was a Mr. Frederick, a tough, shrewd
 +man, perpetually involved in lawsuits and with a name for driving hard
 +bargains. These two disliked each other so much that it was difficult for
 +them to come to any agreement, even in defence of their own interests.
 +
 +Nevertheless,​ they were both thoroughly frightened by the rebellion on
 +Animal Farm, and very anxious to prevent their own animals from learning
 +too much about it. At first they pretended to laugh to scorn the idea of
 +animals managing a farm for themselves. The whole thing would be over in a
 +fortnight, they said. They put it about that the animals on the Manor Farm
 +(they insisted on calling it the Manor Farm; they would not tolerate the
 +name "​Animal Farm") were perpetually fighting among themselves and were
 +also rapidly starving to death. When time passed and the animals had
 +evidently not starved to death, Frederick and Pilkington changed their
 +tune and began to talk of the terrible wickedness that now flourished on
 +Animal Farm. It was given out that the animals there practised cannibalism,​
 +tortured one another with red-hot horseshoes, and had their females in
 +common. This was what came of rebelling against the laws of Nature,
 +Frederick and Pilkington said.
 +
 +However, these stories were never fully believed. Rumours of a wonderful
 +farm, where the human beings had been turned out and the animals managed
 +their own affairs, continued to circulate in vague and distorted forms,
 +and throughout that year a wave of rebelliousness ran through the
 +countryside. Bulls which had always been tractable suddenly turned savage,
 +sheep broke down hedges and devoured the clover, cows kicked the pail
 +over, hunters refused their fences and shot their riders on to the other
 +side. Above all, the tune and even the words of '​Beasts of England'​ were
 +known everywhere. It had spread with astonishing speed. The human beings
 +could not contain their rage when they heard this song, though they
 +pretended to think it merely ridiculous. They could not understand, they
 +said, how even animals could bring themselves to sing such contemptible
 +rubbish. Any animal caught singing it was given a flogging on the spot.
 +And yet the song was irrepressible. The blackbirds whistled it in the
 +hedges, the pigeons cooed it in the elms, it got into the din of the
 +smithies and the tune of the church bells. And when the human beings
 +listened to it, they secretly trembled, hearing in it a prophecy of their
 +future doom.
 +
 +Early in October, when the corn was cut and stacked and some of it was
 +already threshed, a flight of pigeons came whirling through the air and
 +alighted in the yard of Animal Farm in the wildest excitement. Jones and
 +all his men, with half a dozen others from Foxwood and Pinchfield, had
 +entered the five-barred gate and were coming up the cart-track that led to
 +the farm. They were all carrying sticks, except Jones, who was marching
 +ahead with a gun in his hands. Obviously they were going to attempt the
 +recapture of the farm.
 +
 +This had long been expected, and all preparations had been made. Snowball,
 +who had studied an old book of Julius Caesar'​s campaigns which he had
 +found in the farmhouse, was in charge of the defensive operations. He gave
 +his orders quickly, and in a couple of minutes every animal was at his
 +post.
 +
 +As the human beings approached the farm buildings, Snowball launched his
 +first attack. All the pigeons, to the number of thirty-five,​ flew to and
 +fro over the men's heads and muted upon them from mid-air; and while the
 +men were dealing with this, the geese, who had been hiding behind the
 +hedge, rushed out and pecked viciously at the calves of their legs.
 +However, this was only a light skirmishing manoeuvre, intended to create a
 +little disorder, and the men easily drove the geese off with their sticks.
 +Snowball now launched his second line of attack. Muriel, Benjamin, and all
 +the sheep, with Snowball at the head of them, rushed forward and prodded
 +and butted the men from every side, while Benjamin turned around and
 +lashed at them with his small hoofs. But once again the men, with their
 +sticks and their hobnailed boots, were too strong for them; and suddenly,
 +at a squeal from Snowball, which was the signal for retreat, all the
 +animals turned and fled through the gateway into the yard.
 +
 +The men gave a shout of triumph. They saw, as they imagined, their enemies
 +in flight, and they rushed after them in disorder. This was just what
 +Snowball had intended. As soon as they were well inside the yard, the
 +three horses, the three cows, and the rest of the pigs, who had been lying
 +in ambush in the cowshed, suddenly emerged in their rear, cutting them
 +off. Snowball now gave the signal for the charge. He himself dashed
 +straight for Jones. Jones saw him coming, raised his gun and fired. The
 +pellets scored bloody streaks along Snowball'​s back, and a sheep dropped
 +dead. Without halting for an instant, Snowball flung his fifteen stone
 +against Jones'​s legs. Jones was hurled into a pile of dung and his gun
 +flew out of his hands. But the most terrifying spectacle of all was Boxer,
 +rearing up on his hind legs and striking out with his great iron-shod
 +hoofs like a stallion. His very first blow took a stable-lad from Foxwood
 +on the skull and stretched him lifeless in the mud. At the sight, several
 +men dropped their sticks and tried to run. Panic overtook them, and the
 +next moment all the animals together were chasing them round and round the
 +yard. They were gored, kicked, bitten, trampled on. There was not an
 +animal on the farm that did not take vengeance on them after his own
 +fashion. Even the cat suddenly leapt off a roof onto a cowman'​s shoulders
 +and sank her claws in his neck, at which he yelled horribly. At a moment
 +when the opening was clear, the men were glad enough to rush out of the
 +yard and make a bolt for the main road. And so within five minutes of
 +their invasion they were in ignominious retreat by the same way as they
 +had come, with a flock of geese hissing after them and pecking at their
 +calves all the way.
 +
 +All the men were gone except one. Back in the yard Boxer was pawing with
 +his hoof at the stable-lad who lay face down in the mud, trying to turn
 +him over. The boy did not stir.
 +
 +"He is dead," said Boxer sorrowfully. "I had no intention of doing that.
 +I forgot that I was wearing iron shoes. Who will believe that I did not do
 +this on purpose?"​
 +
 +"No sentimentality,​ comrade!"​ cried Snowball from whose wounds the blood
 +was still dripping. "War is war. The only good human being is a dead one."
 +
 +"I have no wish to take life, not even human life," repeated Boxer, and
 +his eyes were full of tears.
 +
 +"Where is Mollie?"​ exclaimed somebody.
 +
 +Mollie in fact was missing. For a moment there was great alarm; it was
 +feared that the men might have harmed her in some way, or even carried her
 +off with them. In the end, however, she was found hiding in her stall with
 +her head buried among the hay in the manger. She had taken to flight as
 +soon as the gun went off. And when the others came back from looking for
 +her, it was to find that the stable-lad, who in fact was only stunned, had
 +already recovered and made off.
 +
 +The animals had now reassembled in the wildest excitement, each recounting
 +his own exploits in the battle at the top of his voice. An impromptu
 +celebration of the victory was held immediately. The flag was run up and
 +'​Beasts of England'​ was sung a number of times, then the sheep who had been
 +killed was given a solemn funeral, a hawthorn bush being planted on her
 +grave. At the graveside Snowball made a little speech, emphasising the
 +need for all animals to be ready to die for Animal Farm if need be.
 +
 +The animals decided unanimously to create a military decoration, "​Animal
 +Hero, First Class,"​ which was conferred there and then on Snowball and
 +Boxer. It consisted of a brass medal (they were really some old
 +horse-brasses which had been found in the harness-room),​ to be worn on
 +Sundays and holidays. There was also "​Animal Hero, Second Class,"​ which
 +was conferred posthumously on the dead sheep.
 +
 +There was much discussion as to what the battle should be called. In the
 +end, it was named the Battle of the Cowshed, since that was where the
 +ambush had been sprung. Mr. Jones'​s gun had been found lying in the mud,
 +and it was known that there was a supply of cartridges in the farmhouse.
 +It was decided to set the gun up at the foot of the Flagstaff, like a
 +piece of artillery, and to fire it twice a year--once on October the
 +twelfth, the anniversary of the Battle of the Cowshed, and once on
 +Midsummer Day, the anniversary of the Rebellion.
 +
 +====== Chapter V ======
 +
 +As winter drew on, Mollie became more and more troublesome. She was late
 +for work every morning and excused herself by saying that she had
 +overslept, and she complained of mysterious pains, although her appetite
 +was excellent. On every kind of pretext she would run away from work and
 +go to the drinking pool, where she would stand foolishly gazing at her own
 +reflection in the water. But there were also rumours of something more
 +serious. One day, as Mollie strolled blithely into the yard, flirting her
 +long tail and chewing at a stalk of hay, Clover took her aside.
 +
 +"​Mollie,"​ she said, "I have something very serious to say to you. This
 +morning I saw you looking over the hedge that divides Animal Farm from
 +Foxwood. One of Mr. Pilkington'​s men was standing on the other side of the
 +hedge. And--I was a long way away, but I am almost certain I saw this--he
 +was talking to you and you were allowing him to stroke your nose. What
 +does that mean, Mollie?"​
 +
 +"He didn'​t! I wasn'​t! It isn't true!" cried Mollie, beginning to prance
 +about and paw the ground.
 +
 +"​Mollie! Look me in the face. Do you give me your word of honour that that
 +man was not stroking your nose?"
 +
 +"It isn't true!" repeated Mollie, but she could not look Clover in the
 +face, and the next moment she took to her heels and galloped away into the
 +field.
 +
 +A thought struck Clover. Without saying anything to the others, she went
 +to Mollie'​s stall and turned over the straw with her hoof. Hidden under
 +the straw was a little pile of lump sugar and several bunches of ribbon of
 +different colours.
 +
 +Three days later Mollie disappeared. For some weeks nothing was known of
 +her whereabouts,​ then the pigeons reported that they had seen her on the
 +other side of Willingdon. She was between the shafts of a smart dogcart
 +painted red and black, which was standing outside a public-house. A fat
 +red-faced man in check breeches and gaiters, who looked like a publican,
 +was stroking her nose and feeding her with sugar. Her coat was newly
 +clipped and she wore a scarlet ribbon round her forelock. She appeared to
 +be enjoying herself, so the pigeons said. None of the animals ever
 +mentioned Mollie again.
 +
 +In January there came bitterly hard weather. The earth was like iron, and
 +nothing could be done in the fields. Many meetings were held in the big
 +barn, and the pigs occupied themselves with planning out the work of the
 +coming season. It had come to be accepted that the pigs, who were
 +manifestly cleverer than the other animals, should decide all questions of
 +farm policy, though their decisions had to be ratified by a majority vote.
 +This arrangement would have worked well enough if it had not been for the
 +disputes between Snowball and Napoleon. These two disagreed at every point
 +where disagreement was possible. If one of them suggested sowing a bigger
 +acreage with barley, the other was certain to demand a bigger acreage of
 +oats, and if one of them said that such and such a field was just right
 +for cabbages, the other would declare that it was useless for anything
 +except roots. Each had his own following, and there were some violent
 +debates. At the Meetings Snowball often won over the majority by his
 +brilliant speeches, but Napoleon was better at canvassing support for
 +himself in between times. He was especially successful with the sheep. Of
 +late the sheep had taken to bleating "Four legs good, two legs bad" both
 +in and out of season, and they often interrupted the Meeting with this. It
 +was noticed that they were especially liable to break into "Four legs
 +good, two legs bad" at crucial moments in Snowball'​s speeches. Snowball
 +had made a close study of some back numbers of the '​Farmer and
 +Stockbreeder'​ which he had found in the farmhouse, and was full of plans
 +for innovations and improvements. He talked learnedly about field drains,
 +silage, and basic slag, and had worked out a complicated scheme for all
 +the animals to drop their dung directly in the fields, at a different spot
 +every day, to save the labour of cartage. Napoleon produced no schemes of
 +his own, but said quietly that Snowball'​s would come to nothing, and
 +seemed to be biding his time. But of all their controversies,​ none was so
 +bitter as the one that took place over the windmill.
 +
 +In the long pasture, not far from the farm buildings, there was a small
 +knoll which was the highest point on the farm. After surveying the ground,
 +Snowball declared that this was just the place for a windmill, which could
 +be made to operate a dynamo and supply the farm with electrical power.
 +This would light the stalls and warm them in winter, and would also run a
 +circular saw, a chaff-cutter,​ a mangel-slicer,​ and an electric milking
 +machine. The animals had never heard of anything of this kind before
 +(for the farm was an old-fashioned one and had only the most primitive
 +machinery), and they listened in astonishment while Snowball conjured up
 +pictures of fantastic machines which would do their work for them while
 +they grazed at their ease in the fields or improved their minds with
 +reading and conversation.
 +
 +Within a few weeks Snowball'​s plans for the windmill were fully worked
 +out. The mechanical details came mostly from three books which had
 +belonged to Mr. Jones--'​One Thousand Useful Things to Do About the House',​
 +'Every Man His Own Bricklayer',​ and '​Electricity for Beginners'​. Snowball
 +used as his study a shed which had once been used for incubators and had a
 +smooth wooden floor, suitable for drawing on. He was closeted there for
 +hours at a time. With his books held open by a stone, and with a piece of
 +chalk gripped between the knuckles of his trotter, he would move rapidly
 +to and fro, drawing in line after line and uttering little whimpers of
 +excitement. Gradually the plans grew into a complicated mass of cranks and
 +cog-wheels, covering more than half the floor, which the other animals
 +found completely unintelligible but very impressive. All of them came to
 +look at Snowball'​s drawings at least once a day. Even the hens and ducks
 +came, and were at pains not to tread on the chalk marks. Only Napoleon
 +held aloof. He had declared himself against the windmill from the start.
 +One day, however, he arrived unexpectedly to examine the plans. He walked
 +heavily round the shed, looked closely at every detail of the plans and
 +snuffed at them once or twice, then stood for a little while contemplating
 +them out of the corner of his eye; then suddenly he lifted his leg,
 +urinated over the plans, and walked out without uttering a word.
 +
 +The whole farm was deeply divided on the subject of the windmill. Snowball
 +did not deny that to build it would be a difficult business. Stone would
 +have to be carried and built up into walls, then the sails would have to
 +be made and after that there would be need for dynamos and cables. (How
 +these were to be procured, Snowball did not say.) But he maintained that
 +it could all be done in a year. And thereafter, he declared, so much
 +labour would be saved that the animals would only need to work three days
 +a week. Napoleon, on the other hand, argued that the great need of the
 +moment was to increase food production, and that if they wasted time on
 +the windmill they would all starve to death. The animals formed themselves
 +into two factions under the slogan, "Vote for Snowball and the three-day
 +week" and "Vote for Napoleon and the full manger."​ Benjamin was the only
 +animal who did not side with either faction. He refused to believe either
 +that food would become more plentiful or that the windmill would save
 +work. Windmill or no windmill, he said, life would go on as it had always
 +gone on--that is, badly.
 +
 +Apart from the disputes over the windmill, there was the question of the
 +defence of the farm. It was fully realised that though the human beings
 +had been defeated in the Battle of the Cowshed they might make another and
 +more determined attempt to recapture the farm and reinstate Mr. Jones.
 +They had all the more reason for doing so because the news of their defeat
 +had spread across the countryside and made the animals on the neighbouring
 +farms more restive than ever. As usual, Snowball and Napoleon were in
 +disagreement. According to Napoleon, what the animals must do was to
 +procure firearms and train themselves in the use of them. According to
 +Snowball, they must send out more and more pigeons and stir up rebellion
 +among the animals on the other farms. The one argued that if they could
 +not defend themselves they were bound to be conquered, the other argued
 +that if rebellions happened everywhere they would have no need to defend
 +themselves. The animals listened first to Napoleon, then to Snowball, and
 +could not make up their minds which was right; indeed, they always found
 +themselves in agreement with the one who was speaking at the moment.
 +
 +At last the day came when Snowball'​s plans were completed. At the Meeting
 +on the following Sunday the question of whether or not to begin work on
 +the windmill was to be put to the vote. When the animals had assembled in
 +the big barn, Snowball stood up and, though occasionally interrupted by
 +bleating from the sheep, set forth his reasons for advocating the building
 +of the windmill. Then Napoleon stood up to reply. He said very quietly
 +that the windmill was nonsense and that he advised nobody to vote for it,
 +and promptly sat down again; he had spoken for barely thirty seconds, and
 +seemed almost indifferent as to the effect he produced. At this Snowball
 +sprang to his feet, and shouting down the sheep, who had begun bleating
 +again, broke into a passionate appeal in favour of the windmill. Until now
 +the animals had been about equally divided in their sympathies, but in a
 +moment Snowball'​s eloquence had carried them away. In glowing sentences he
 +painted a picture of Animal Farm as it might be when sordid labour was
 +lifted from the animals'​ backs. His imagination had now run far beyond
 +chaff-cutters and turnip-slicers. Electricity,​ he said, could operate
 +threshing machines, ploughs, harrows, rollers, and reapers and binders,
 +besides supplying every stall with its own electric light, hot and cold
 +water, and an electric heater. By the time he had finished speaking, there
 +was no doubt as to which way the vote would go. But just at this moment
 +Napoleon stood up and, casting a peculiar sidelong look at Snowball,
 +uttered a high-pitched whimper of a kind no one had ever heard him utter
 +before.
 +
 +At this there was a terrible baying sound outside, and nine enormous dogs
 +wearing brass-studded collars came bounding into the barn. They dashed
 +straight for Snowball, who only sprang from his place just in time to
 +escape their snapping jaws. In a moment he was out of the door and they
 +were after him. Too amazed and frightened to speak, all the animals
 +crowded through the door to watch the chase. Snowball was racing across
 +the long pasture that led to the road. He was running as only a pig can
 +run, but the dogs were close on his heels. Suddenly he slipped and it
 +seemed certain that they had him. Then he was up again, running faster
 +than ever, then the dogs were gaining on him again. One of them all but
 +closed his jaws on Snowball'​s tail, but Snowball whisked it free just in
 +time. Then he put on an extra spurt and, with a few inches to spare,
 +slipped through a hole in the hedge and was seen no more.
 +
 +Silent and terrified, the animals crept back into the barn. In a moment
 +the dogs came bounding back. At first no one had been able to imagine
 +where these creatures came from, but the problem was soon solved: they
 +were the puppies whom Napoleon had taken away from their mothers and
 +reared privately. Though not yet full-grown, they were huge dogs, and as
 +fierce-looking as wolves. They kept close to Napoleon. It was noticed that
 +they wagged their tails to him in the same way as the other dogs had been
 +used to do to Mr. Jones.
 +
 +Napoleon, with the dogs following him, now mounted on to the raised
 +portion of the floor where Major had previously stood to deliver his
 +speech. He announced that from now on the Sunday-morning Meetings would
 +come to an end. They were unnecessary,​ he said, and wasted time. In future
 +all questions relating to the working of the farm would be settled by a
 +special committee of pigs, presided over by himself. These would meet in
 +private and afterwards communicate their decisions to the others. The
 +animals would still assemble on Sunday mornings to salute the flag, sing
 +'​Beasts of England',​ and receive their orders for the week; but there would
 +be no more debates.
 +
 +In spite of the shock that Snowball'​s expulsion had given them, the
 +animals were dismayed by this announcement. Several of them would have
 +protested if they could have found the right arguments. Even Boxer was
 +vaguely troubled. He set his ears back, shook his forelock several times,
 +and tried hard to marshal his thoughts; but in the end he could not think
 +of anything to say. Some of the pigs themselves, however, were more
 +articulate. Four young porkers in the front row uttered shrill squeals of
 +disapproval,​ and all four of them sprang to their feet and began speaking
 +at once. But suddenly the dogs sitting round Napoleon let out deep,
 +menacing growls, and the pigs fell silent and sat down again. Then the
 +sheep broke out into a tremendous bleating of "Four legs good, two legs
 +bad!" which went on for nearly a quarter of an hour and put an end to any
 +chance of discussion.
 +
 +Afterwards Squealer was sent round the farm to explain the new arrangement
 +to the others.
 +
 +"​Comrades,"​ he said, "I trust that every animal here appreciates the
 +sacrifice that Comrade Napoleon has made in taking this extra labour upon
 +himself. Do not imagine, comrades, that leadership is a pleasure! On the
 +contrary, it is a deep and heavy responsibility. No one believes more
 +firmly than Comrade Napoleon that all animals are equal. He would be only
 +too happy to let you make your decisions for yourselves. But sometimes you
 +might make the wrong decisions, comrades, and then where should we be?
 +Suppose you had decided to follow Snowball, with his moonshine of
 +windmills--Snowball,​ who, as we now know, was no better than a criminal?"​
 +
 +"He fought bravely at the Battle of the Cowshed,"​ said somebody.
 +
 +"​Bravery is not enough,"​ said Squealer. "​Loyalty and obedience are more
 +important. And as to the Battle of the Cowshed, I believe the time will
 +come when we shall find that Snowball'​s part in it was much exaggerated.
 +Discipline, comrades, iron discipline! That is the watchword for today.
 +One false step, and our enemies would be upon us. Surely, comrades, you do
 +not want Jones back?"
 +
 +Once again this argument was unanswerable. Certainly the animals did not
 +want Jones back; if the holding of debates on Sunday mornings was liable
 +to bring him back, then the debates must stop. Boxer, who had now had time
 +to think things over, voiced the general feeling by saying: "If Comrade
 +Napoleon says it, it must be right."​ And from then on he adopted the
 +maxim, "​Napoleon is always right,"​ in addition to his private motto of "I
 +will work harder."​
 +
 +By this time the weather had broken and the spring ploughing had begun.
 +The shed where Snowball had drawn his plans of the windmill had been shut
 +up and it was assumed that the plans had been rubbed off the floor. Every
 +Sunday morning at ten o'​clock the animals assembled in the big barn to
 +receive their orders for the week. The skull of old Major, now clean of
 +flesh, had been disinterred from the orchard and set up on a stump at the
 +foot of the flagstaff, beside the gun. After the hoisting of the flag, the
 +animals were required to file past the skull in a reverent manner before
 +entering the barn. Nowadays they did not sit all together as they had done
 +in the past. Napoleon, with Squealer and another pig named Minimus, who
 +had a remarkable gift for composing songs and poems, sat on the front of
 +the raised platform, with the nine young dogs forming a semicircle round
 +them, and the other pigs sitting behind. The rest of the animals sat
 +facing them in the main body of the barn. Napoleon read out the orders for
 +the week in a gruff soldierly style, and after a single singing of '​Beasts
 +of England',​ all the animals dispersed.
 +
 +On the third Sunday after Snowball'​s expulsion, the animals were somewhat
 +surprised to hear Napoleon announce that the windmill was to be built
 +after all. He did not give any reason for having changed his mind, but
 +merely warned the animals that this extra task would mean very hard work,
 +it might even be necessary to reduce their rations. The plans, however,
 +had all been prepared, down to the last detail. A special committee of
 +pigs had been at work upon them for the past three weeks. The building of
 +the windmill, with various other improvements,​ was expected to take two
 +years.
 +
 +That evening Squealer explained privately to the other animals that
 +Napoleon had never in reality been opposed to the windmill. On the
 +contrary, it was he who had advocated it in the beginning, and the plan
 +which Snowball had drawn on the floor of the incubator shed had actually
 +been stolen from among Napoleon'​s papers. The windmill was, in fact,
 +Napoleon'​s own creation. Why, then, asked somebody, had he spoken so
 +strongly against it? Here Squealer looked very sly. That, he said, was
 +Comrade Napoleon'​s cunning. He had SEEMED to oppose the windmill, simply
 +as a manoeuvre to get rid of Snowball, who was a dangerous character and a
 +bad influence. Now that Snowball was out of the way, the plan could go
 +forward without his interference. This, said Squealer, was something
 +called tactics. He repeated a number of times, "​Tactics,​ comrades,
 +tactics!"​ skipping round and whisking his tail with a merry laugh. The
 +animals were not certain what the word meant, but Squealer spoke so
 +persuasively,​ and the three dogs who happened to be with him growled so
 +threateningly,​ that they accepted his explanation without further
 +questions.
 +
 +====== Chapter VI ======
 +
 +All that year the animals worked like slaves. But they were happy in their
 +work; they grudged no effort or sacrifice, well aware that everything that
 +they did was for the benefit of themselves and those of their kind who
 +would come after them, and not for a pack of idle, thieving human beings.
 +
 +Throughout the spring and summer they worked a sixty-hour week, and in
 +August Napoleon announced that there would be work on Sunday afternoons
 +as well. This work was strictly voluntary, but any animal who absented
 +himself from it would have his rations reduced by half. Even so, it was
 +found necessary to leave certain tasks undone. The harvest was a little
 +less successful than in the previous year, and two fields which should
 +have been sown with roots in the early summer were not sown because the
 +ploughing had not been completed early enough. It was possible to foresee
 +that the coming winter would be a hard one.
 +
 +The windmill presented unexpected difficulties. There was a good quarry of
 +limestone on the farm, and plenty of sand and cement had been found in one
 +of the outhouses, so that all the materials for building were at hand. But
 +the problem the animals could not at first solve was how to break up the
 +stone into pieces of suitable size. There seemed no way of doing this
 +except with picks and crowbars, which no animal could use, because no
 +animal could stand on his hind legs. Only after weeks of vain effort did
 +the right idea occur to somebody-namely,​ to utilise the force of gravity.
 +Huge boulders, far too big to be used as they were, were lying all over
 +the bed of the quarry. The animals lashed ropes round these, and then all
 +together, cows, horses, sheep, any animal that could lay hold of the
 +rope--even the pigs sometimes joined in at critical moments--they dragged
 +them with desperate slowness up the slope to the top of the quarry, where
 +they were toppled over the edge, to shatter to pieces below. Transporting
 +the stone when it was once broken was comparatively simple. The horses
 +carried it off in cart-loads, the sheep dragged single blocks, even Muriel
 +and Benjamin yoked themselves into an old governess-cart and did their
 +share. By late summer a sufficient store of stone had accumulated,​ and
 +then the building began, under the superintendence of the pigs.
 +
 +But it was a slow, laborious process. Frequently it took a whole day of
 +exhausting effort to drag a single boulder to the top of the quarry, and
 +sometimes when it was pushed over the edge it failed to break. Nothing
 +could have been achieved without Boxer, whose strength seemed equal to
 +that of all the rest of the animals put together. When the boulder began
 +to slip and the animals cried out in despair at finding themselves dragged
 +down the hill, it was always Boxer who strained himself against the rope
 +and brought the boulder to a stop. To see him toiling up the slope inch by
 +inch, his breath coming fast, the tips of his hoofs clawing at the ground,
 +and his great sides matted with sweat, filled everyone with admiration.
 +Clover warned him sometimes to be careful not to overstrain himself, but
 +Boxer would never listen to her. His two slogans, "I will work harder"​
 +and "​Napoleon is always right,"​ seemed to him a sufficient answer to all
 +problems. He had made arrangements with the cockerel to call him
 +three-quarters of an hour earlier in the mornings instead of half an hour.
 +And in his spare moments, of which there were not many nowadays, he would
 +go alone to the quarry, collect a load of broken stone, and drag it down
 +to the site of the windmill unassisted.
 +
 +The animals were not badly off throughout that summer, in spite of the
 +hardness of their work. If they had no more food than they had had in
 +Jones'​s day, at least they did not have less. The advantage of only having
 +to feed themselves, and not having to support five extravagant human
 +beings as well, was so great that it would have taken a lot of failures to
 +outweigh it. And in many ways the animal method of doing things was more
 +efficient and saved labour. Such jobs as weeding, for instance, could be
 +done with a thoroughness impossible to human beings. And again, since no
 +animal now stole, it was unnecessary to fence off pasture from arable
 +land, which saved a lot of labour on the upkeep of hedges and gates.
 +Nevertheless,​ as the summer wore on, various unforeseen shortages began to
 +make them selves felt. There was need of paraffin oil, nails, string, dog
 +biscuits, and iron for the horses'​ shoes, none of which could be produced
 +on the farm. Later there would also be need for seeds and artificial
 +manures, besides various tools and, finally, the machinery for the
 +windmill. How these were to be procured, no one was able to imagine.
 +
 +One Sunday morning, when the animals assembled to receive their orders,
 +Napoleon announced that he had decided upon a new policy. From now onwards
 +Animal Farm would engage in trade with the neighbouring farms: not, of
 +course, for any commercial purpose, but simply in order to obtain certain
 +materials which were urgently necessary. The needs of the windmill must
 +override everything else, he said. He was therefore making arrangements to
 +sell a stack of hay and part of the current year's wheat crop, and later
 +on, if more money were needed, it would have to be made up by the sale of
 +eggs, for which there was always a market in Willingdon. The hens, said
 +Napoleon, should welcome this sacrifice as their own special contribution
 +towards the building of the windmill.
 +
 +Once again the animals were conscious of a vague uneasiness. Never to have
 +any dealings with human beings, never to engage in trade, never to make
 +use of money--had not these been among the earliest resolutions passed at
 +that first triumphant Meeting after Jones was expelled? All the animals
 +remembered passing such resolutions:​ or at least they thought that they
 +remembered it. The four young pigs who had protested when Napoleon
 +abolished the Meetings raised their voices timidly, but they were promptly
 +silenced by a tremendous growling from the dogs. Then, as usual, the sheep
 +broke into "Four legs good, two legs bad!" and the momentary awkwardness
 +was smoothed over. Finally Napoleon raised his trotter for silence and
 +announced that he had already made all the arrangements. There would be no
 +need for any of the animals to come in contact with human beings, which
 +would clearly be most undesirable. He intended to take the whole burden
 +upon his own shoulders. A Mr. Whymper, a solicitor living in Willingdon,
 +had agreed to act as intermediary between Animal Farm and the outside
 +world, and would visit the farm every Monday morning to receive his
 +instructions. Napoleon ended his speech with his usual cry of "Long live
 +Animal Farm!" and after the singing of '​Beasts of England'​ the animals
 +were dismissed.
 +
 +Afterwards Squealer made a round of the farm and set the animals'​ minds at
 +rest. He assured them that the resolution against engaging in trade and
 +using money had never been passed, or even suggested. It was pure
 +imagination,​ probably traceable in the beginning to lies circulated by
 +Snowball. A few animals still felt faintly doubtful, but Squealer asked
 +them shrewdly, "Are you certain that this is not something that you have
 +dreamed, comrades? Have you any record of such a resolution? Is it written
 +down anywhere?"​ And since it was certainly true that nothing of the kind
 +existed in writing, the animals were satisfied that they had been mistaken.
 +
 +Every Monday Mr. Whymper visited the farm as had been arranged. He was a
 +sly-looking little man with side whiskers, a solicitor in a very small way
 +of business, but sharp enough to have realised earlier than anyone else
 +that Animal Farm would need a broker and that the commissions would be
 +worth having. The animals watched his coming and going with a kind of
 +dread, and avoided him as much as possible. Nevertheless,​ the sight of
 +Napoleon, on all fours, delivering orders to Whymper, who stood on two
 +legs, roused their pride and partly reconciled them to the new
 +arrangement. Their relations with the human race were now not quite the
 +same as they had been before. The human beings did not hate Animal Farm
 +any less now that it was prospering; indeed, they hated it more than ever.
 +Every human being held it as an article of faith that the farm would go
 +bankrupt sooner or later, and, above all, that the windmill would be a
 +failure. They would meet in the public-houses and prove to one another by
 +means of diagrams that the windmill was bound to fall down, or that if it
 +did stand up, then that it would never work. And yet, against their will,
 +they had developed a certain respect for the efficiency with which the
 +animals were managing their own affairs. One symptom of this was that they
 +had begun to call Animal Farm by its proper name and ceased to pretend
 +that it was called the Manor Farm. They had also dropped their championship
 +of Jones, who had given up hope of getting his farm back and gone to live
 +in another part of the county. Except through Whymper, there was as yet no
 +contact between Animal Farm and the outside world, but there were constant
 +rumours that Napoleon was about to enter into a definite business agreement
 +either with Mr. Pilkington of Foxwood or with Mr. Frederick of
 +Pinchfield--but never, it was noticed, with both simultaneously.
 +
 +It was about this time that the pigs suddenly moved into the farmhouse and
 +took up their residence there. Again the animals seemed to remember that a
 +resolution against this had been passed in the early days, and again
 +Squealer was able to convince them that this was not the case. It was
 +absolutely necessary, he said, that the pigs, who were the brains of the
 +farm, should have a quiet place to work in. It was also more suited to the
 +dignity of the Leader (for of late he had taken to speaking of Napoleon
 +under the title of "​Leader"​) to live in a house than in a mere sty.
 +Nevertheless,​ some of the animals were disturbed when they heard that the
 +pigs not only took their meals in the kitchen and used the drawing-room
 +as a recreation room, but also slept in the beds. Boxer passed it off as
 +usual with "​Napoleon is always right!",​ but Clover, who thought she
 +remembered a definite ruling against beds, went to the end of the barn and
 +tried to puzzle out the Seven Commandments which were inscribed there.
 +Finding herself unable to read more than individual letters, she fetched
 +Muriel.
 +
 +"​Muriel,"​ she said, "read me the Fourth Commandment. Does it not say
 +something about never sleeping in a bed?"
 +
 +With some difficulty Muriel spelt it out.
 +
 +"It says, 'No animal shall sleep in a bed with sheets,"'​ she announced
 +finally.
 +
 +Curiously enough, Clover had not remembered that the Fourth Commandment
 +mentioned sheets; but as it was there on the wall, it must have done so.
 +And Squealer, who happened to be passing at this moment, attended by two
 +or three dogs, was able to put the whole matter in its proper perspective.
 +
 +"You have heard then, comrades,"​ he said, "that we pigs now sleep in the
 +beds of the farmhouse? And why not? You did not suppose, surely, that
 +there was ever a ruling against beds? A bed merely means a place to sleep
 +in. A pile of straw in a stall is a bed, properly regarded. The rule was
 +against sheets, which are a human invention. We have removed the sheets
 +from the farmhouse beds, and sleep between blankets. And very comfortable
 +beds they are too! But not more comfortable than we need, I can tell you,
 +comrades, with all the brainwork we have to do nowadays. You would not rob
 +us of our repose, would you, comrades? You would not have us too tired to
 +carry out our duties? Surely none of you wishes to see Jones back?"
 +
 +The animals reassured him on this point immediately,​ and no more was said
 +about the pigs sleeping in the farmhouse beds. And when, some days
 +afterwards, it was announced that from now on the pigs would get up an
 +hour later in the mornings than the other animals, no complaint was made
 +about that either.
 +
 +By the autumn the animals were tired but happy. They had had a hard year,
 +and after the sale of part of the hay and corn, the stores of food for the
 +winter were none too plentiful, but the windmill compensated for
 +everything. It was almost half built now. After the harvest there was a
 +stretch of clear dry weather, and the animals toiled harder than ever,
 +thinking it well worth while to plod to and fro all day with blocks of
 +stone if by doing so they could raise the walls another foot. Boxer would
 +even come out at nights and work for an hour or two on his own by the
 +light of the harvest moon. In their spare moments the animals would walk
 +round and round the half-finished mill, admiring the strength and
 +perpendicularity of its walls and marvelling that they should ever have
 +been able to build anything so imposing. Only old Benjamin refused to grow
 +enthusiastic about the windmill, though, as usual, he would utter nothing
 +beyond the cryptic remark that donkeys live a long time.
 +
 +November came, with raging south-west winds. Building had to stop because
 +it was now too wet to mix the cement. Finally there came a night when the
 +gale was so violent that the farm buildings rocked on their foundations
 +and several tiles were blown off the roof of the barn. The hens woke up
 +squawking with terror because they had all dreamed simultaneously of
 +hearing a gun go off in the distance. In the morning the animals came out
 +of their stalls to find that the flagstaff had been blown down and an elm
 +tree at the foot of the orchard had been plucked up like a radish. They
 +had just noticed this when a cry of despair broke from every animal'​s
 +throat. A terrible sight had met their eyes. The windmill was in ruins.
 +
 +With one accord they dashed down to the spot. Napoleon, who seldom moved
 +out of a walk, raced ahead of them all. Yes, there it lay, the fruit of
 +all their struggles, levelled to its foundations,​ the stones they had
 +broken and carried so laboriously scattered all around. Unable at first to
 +speak, they stood gazing mournfully at the litter of fallen stone. Napoleon
 +paced to and fro in silence, occasionally snuffing at the ground. His tail
 +had grown rigid and twitched sharply from side to side, a sign in him of
 +intense mental activity. Suddenly he halted as though his mind were
 +made up.
 +
 +"​Comrades,"​ he said quietly, "do you know who is responsible for this? Do
 +you know the enemy who has come in the night and overthrown our windmill?
 +SNOWBALL!"​ he suddenly roared in a voice of thunder. "​Snowball has done
 +this thing! In sheer malignity, thinking to set back our plans and avenge
 +himself for his ignominious expulsion, this traitor has crept here under
 +cover of night and destroyed our work of nearly a year. Comrades, here
 +and now I pronounce the death sentence upon Snowball. '​Animal Hero, Second
 +Class,'​ and half a bushel of apples to any animal who brings him to
 +justice. A full bushel to anyone who captures him alive!"​
 +
 +The animals were shocked beyond measure to learn that even Snowball could
 +be guilty of such an action. There was a cry of indignation,​ and everyone
 +began thinking out ways of catching Snowball if he should ever come back.
 +Almost immediately the footprints of a pig were discovered in the grass at
 +a little distance from the knoll. They could only be traced for a few
 +yards, but appeared to lead to a hole in the hedge. Napoleon snuffed
 +deeply at them and pronounced them to be Snowball'​s. He gave it as his
 +opinion that Snowball had probably come from the direction of Foxwood Farm.
 +
 +"No more delays, comrades!"​ cried Napoleon when the footprints had been
 +examined. "There is work to be done. This very morning we begin rebuilding
 +the windmill, and we will build all through the winter, rain or shine. We
 +will teach this miserable traitor that he cannot undo our work so easily.
 +Remember, comrades, there must be no alteration in our plans: they shall
 +be carried out to the day. Forward, comrades! Long live the windmill! Long
 +live Animal Farm!"
 +
 +====== Chapter VII ======
 +
 +It was a bitter winter. The stormy weather was followed by sleet and snow,
 +and then by a hard frost which did not break till well into February. The
 +animals carried on as best they could with the rebuilding of the windmill,
 +well knowing that the outside world was watching them and that the envious
 +human beings would rejoice and triumph if the mill were not finished
 +on time.
 +
 +Out of spite, the human beings pretended not to believe that it was
 +Snowball who had destroyed the windmill: they said that it had fallen down
 +because the walls were too thin. The animals knew that this was not the
 +case. Still, it had been decided to build the walls three feet thick this
 +time instead of eighteen inches as before, which meant collecting much
 +larger quantities of stone. For a long time the quarry was full of
 +snowdrifts and nothing could be done. Some progress was made in the dry
 +frosty weather that followed, but it was cruel work, and the animals could
 +not feel so hopeful about it as they had felt before. They were always
 +cold, and usually hungry as well. Only Boxer and Clover never lost heart.
 +Squealer made excellent speeches on the joy of service and the dignity of
 +labour, but the other animals found more inspiration in Boxer'​s strength
 +and his never-failing cry of "I will work harder!"​
 +
 +In January food fell short. The corn ration was drastically reduced, and
 +it was announced that an extra potato ration would be issued to make up
 +for it. Then it was discovered that the greater part of the potato crop
 +had been frosted in the clamps, which had not been covered thickly enough.
 +The potatoes had become soft and discoloured,​ and only a few were edible.
 +For days at a time the animals had nothing to eat but chaff and mangels.
 +Starvation seemed to stare them in the face.
 +
 +It was vitally necessary to conceal this fact from the outside world.
 +Emboldened by the collapse of the windmill, the human beings were
 +inventing fresh lies about Animal Farm. Once again it was being put about
 +that all the animals were dying of famine and disease, and that they were
 +continually fighting among themselves and had resorted to cannibalism and
 +infanticide. Napoleon was well aware of the bad results that might follow
 +if the real facts of the food situation were known, and he decided to make
 +use of Mr. Whymper to spread a contrary impression. Hitherto the animals
 +had had little or no contact with Whymper on his weekly visits: now,
 +however, a few selected animals, mostly sheep, were instructed to remark
 +casually in his hearing that rations had been increased. In addition,
 +Napoleon ordered the almost empty bins in the store-shed to be filled
 +nearly to the brim with sand, which was then covered up with what remained
 +of the grain and meal. On some suitable pretext Whymper was led through
 +the store-shed and allowed to catch a glimpse of the bins. He was
 +deceived, and continued to report to the outside world that there was no
 +food shortage on Animal Farm.
 +
 +Nevertheless,​ towards the end of January it became obvious that it would
 +be necessary to procure some more grain from somewhere. In these days
 +Napoleon rarely appeared in public, but spent all his time in the
 +farmhouse, which was guarded at each door by fierce-looking dogs. When he
 +did emerge, it was in a ceremonial manner, with an escort of six dogs who
 +closely surrounded him and growled if anyone came too near. Frequently he
 +did not even appear on Sunday mornings, but issued his orders through one
 +of the other pigs, usually Squealer.
 +
 +One Sunday morning Squealer announced that the hens, who had just come in
 +to lay again, must surrender their eggs. Napoleon had accepted, through
 +Whymper, a contract for four hundred eggs a week. The price of these would
 +pay for enough grain and meal to keep the farm going till summer came on
 +and conditions were easier.
 +
 +When the hens heard this, they raised a terrible outcry. They had been
 +warned earlier that this sacrifice might be necessary, but had not
 +believed that it would really happen. They were just getting their
 +clutches ready for the spring sitting, and they protested that to take the
 +eggs away now was murder. For the first time since the expulsion of Jones,
 +there was something resembling a rebellion. Led by three young Black
 +Minorca pullets, the hens made a determined effort to thwart Napoleon'​s
 +wishes. Their method was to fly up to the rafters and there lay their
 +eggs, which smashed to pieces on the floor. Napoleon acted swiftly and
 +ruthlessly. He ordered the hens' rations to be stopped, and decreed that
 +any animal giving so much as a grain of corn to a hen should be punished
 +by death. The dogs saw to it that these orders were carried out. For five
 +days the hens held out, then they capitulated and went back to their
 +nesting boxes. Nine hens had died in the meantime. Their bodies were
 +buried in the orchard, and it was given out that they had died of
 +coccidiosis. Whymper heard nothing of this affair, and the eggs were duly
 +delivered, a grocer'​s van driving up to the farm once a week to take them
 +away.
 +
 +All this while no more had been seen of Snowball. He was rumoured to be
 +hiding on one of the neighbouring farms, either Foxwood or Pinchfield.
 +Napoleon was by this time on slightly better terms with the other farmers
 +than before. It happened that there was in the yard a pile of timber which
 +had been stacked there ten years earlier when a beech spinney was cleared.
 +It was well seasoned, and Whymper had advised Napoleon to sell it; both
 +Mr. Pilkington and Mr. Frederick were anxious to buy it. Napoleon was
 +hesitating between the two, unable to make up his mind. It was noticed
 +that whenever he seemed on the point of coming to an agreement with
 +Frederick, Snowball was declared to be in hiding at Foxwood, while, when
 +he inclined toward Pilkington, Snowball was said to be at Pinchfield.
 +
 +Suddenly, early in the spring, an alarming thing was discovered. Snowball
 +was secretly frequenting the farm by night! The animals were so disturbed
 +that they could hardly sleep in their stalls. Every night, it was said, he
 +came creeping in under cover of darkness and performed all kinds of
 +mischief. He stole the corn, he upset the milk-pails, he broke the eggs,
 +he trampled the seedbeds, he gnawed the bark off the fruit trees. Whenever
 +anything went wrong it became usual to attribute it to Snowball. If a
 +window was broken or a drain was blocked up, someone was certain to say
 +that Snowball had come in the night and done it, and when the key of the
 +store-shed was lost, the whole farm was convinced that Snowball had thrown
 +it down the well. Curiously enough, they went on believing this even after
 +the mislaid key was found under a sack of meal. The cows declared
 +unanimously that Snowball crept into their stalls and milked them in their
 +sleep. The rats, which had been troublesome that winter, were also said to
 +be in league with Snowball.
 +
 +Napoleon decreed that there should be a full investigation into Snowball'​s
 +activities. With his dogs in attendance he set out and made a careful tour
 +of inspection of the farm buildings, the other animals following at a
 +respectful distance. At every few steps Napoleon stopped and snuffed the
 +ground for traces of Snowball'​s footsteps, which, he said, he could detect
 +by the smell. He snuffed in every corner, in the barn, in the cow-shed,
 +in the henhouses, in the vegetable garden, and found traces of Snowball
 +almost everywhere. He would put his snout to the ground, give several deep
 +sniffs, ad exclaim in a terrible voice, "​Snowball! He has been here! I can
 +smell him distinctly!"​ and at the word "​Snowball"​ all the dogs let out
 +blood-curdling growls and showed their side teeth.
 +
 +The animals were thoroughly frightened. It seemed to them as though
 +Snowball were some kind of invisible influence, pervading the air about
 +them and menacing them with all kinds of dangers. In the evening Squealer
 +called them together, and with an alarmed expression on his face told
 +them that he had some serious news to report.
 +
 +"​Comrades!"​ cried Squealer, making little nervous skips, "a most terrible
 +thing has been discovered. Snowball has sold himself to Frederick of
 +Pinchfield Farm, who is even now plotting to attack us and take our farm
 +away from us! Snowball is to act as his guide when the attack begins. But
 +there is worse than that. We had thought that Snowball'​s rebellion was
 +caused simply by his vanity and ambition. But we were wrong, comrades. Do
 +you know what the real reason was? Snowball was in league with Jones from
 +the very start! He was Jones'​s secret agent all the time. It has all been
 +proved by documents which he left behind him and which we have only just
 +discovered. To my mind this explains a great deal, comrades. Did we not
 +see for ourselves how he attempted--fortunately without success--to get us
 +defeated and destroyed at the Battle of the Cowshed?"​
 +
 +The animals were stupefied. This was a wickedness far outdoing Snowball'​s
 +destruction of the windmill. But it was some minutes before they could
 +fully take it in. They all remembered, or thought they remembered, how
 +they had seen Snowball charging ahead of them at the Battle of the
 +Cowshed, how he had rallied and encouraged them at every turn, and how he
 +had not paused for an instant even when the pellets from Jones'​s gun had
 +wounded his back. At first it was a little difficult to see how this
 +fitted in with his being on Jones'​s side. Even Boxer, who seldom asked
 +questions, was puzzled. He lay down, tucked his fore hoofs beneath him,
 +shut his eyes, and with a hard effort managed to formulate his thoughts.
 +
 +"I do not believe that," he said. "​Snowball fought bravely at the Battle
 +of the Cowshed. I saw him myself. Did we not give him '​Animal Hero, first
 +Class,'​ immediately afterwards?"​
 +
 +"That was our mistake, comrade. For we know now--it is all written down in
 +the secret documents that we have found--that in reality he was trying to
 +lure us to our doom."
 +
 +"But he was wounded,"​ said Boxer. "We all saw him running with blood."​
 +
 +"That was part of the arrangement!"​ cried Squealer. "​Jones'​s shot only
 +grazed him. I could show you this in his own writing, if you were able to
 +read it. The plot was for Snowball, at the critical moment, to give the
 +signal for flight and leave the field to the enemy. And he very nearly
 +succeeded--I will even say, comrades, he WOULD have succeeded if it had
 +not been for our heroic Leader, Comrade Napoleon. Do you not remember how,
 +just at the moment when Jones and his men had got inside the yard,
 +Snowball suddenly turned and fled, and many animals followed him? And do
 +you not remember, too, that it was just at that moment, when panic was
 +spreading and all seemed lost, that Comrade Napoleon sprang forward with a
 +cry of 'Death to Humanity!'​ and sank his teeth in Jones'​s leg? Surely you
 +remember THAT, comrades?"​ exclaimed Squealer, frisking from side to side.
 +
 +Now when Squealer described the scene so graphically,​ it seemed to the
 +animals that they did remember it. At any rate, they remembered that at
 +the critical moment of the battle Snowball had turned to flee. But Boxer
 +was still a little uneasy.
 +
 +"I do not believe that Snowball was a traitor at the beginning,"​ he said
 +finally. "What he has done since is different. But I believe that at the
 +Battle of the Cowshed he was a good comrade."​
 +
 +"Our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,"​ announced Squealer, speaking very slowly
 +and firmly, "has stated categorically--categorically,​ comrade--that
 +Snowball was Jones'​s agent from the very beginning--yes,​ and from long
 +before the Rebellion was ever thought of."
 +
 +"Ah, that is different!"​ said Boxer. "If Comrade Napoleon says it, it must
 +be right."​
 +
 +"That is the true spirit, comrade!"​ cried Squealer, but it was noticed he
 +cast a very ugly look at Boxer with his little twinkling eyes. He turned
 +to go, then paused and added impressively:​ "I warn every animal on this
 +farm to keep his eyes very wide open. For we have reason to think that
 +some of Snowball'​s secret agents are lurking among us at this moment!"​
 +
 +Four days later, in the late afternoon, Napoleon ordered all the animals
 +to assemble in the yard. When they were all gathered together, Napoleon
 +emerged from the farmhouse, wearing both his medals (for he had recently
 +awarded himself "​Animal Hero, First Class",​ and "​Animal Hero, Second
 +Class"​),​ with his nine huge dogs frisking round him and uttering growls
 +that sent shivers down all the animals'​ spines. They all cowered silently
 +in their places, seeming to know in advance that some terrible thing was
 +about to happen.
 +
 +Napoleon stood sternly surveying his audience; then he uttered a
 +high-pitched whimper. Immediately the dogs bounded forward, seized four of
 +the pigs by the ear and dragged them, squealing with pain and terror, to
 +Napoleon'​s feet. The pigs' ears were bleeding, the dogs had tasted blood,
 +and for a few moments they appeared to go quite mad. To the amazement of
 +everybody, three of them flung themselves upon Boxer. Boxer saw them
 +coming and put out his great hoof, caught a dog in mid-air, and pinned
 +him to the ground. The dog shrieked for mercy and the other two fled with
 +their tails between their legs. Boxer looked at Napoleon to know whether
 +he should crush the dog to death or let it go. Napoleon appeared to change
 +countenance,​ and sharply ordered Boxer to let the dog go, whereat Boxer
 +lifted his hoof, and the dog slunk away, bruised and howling.
 +
 +Presently the tumult died down. The four pigs waited, trembling, with
 +guilt written on every line of their countenances. Napoleon now called
 +upon them to confess their crimes. They were the same four pigs as had
 +protested when Napoleon abolished the Sunday Meetings. Without any further
 +prompting they confessed that they had been secretly in touch with
 +Snowball ever since his expulsion, that they had collaborated with him in
 +destroying the windmill, and that they had entered into an agreement with
 +him to hand over Animal Farm to Mr. Frederick. They added that Snowball
 +had privately admitted to them that he had been Jones'​s secret agent for
 +years past. When they had finished their confession, the dogs promptly
 +tore their throats out, and in a terrible voice Napoleon demanded whether
 +any other animal had anything to confess.
 +
 +The three hens who had been the ringleaders in the attempted rebellion
 +over the eggs now came forward and stated that Snowball had appeared to
 +them in a dream and incited them to disobey Napoleon'​s orders. They, too,
 +were slaughtered. Then a goose came forward and confessed to having
 +secreted six ears of corn during the last year's harvest and eaten them in
 +the night. Then a sheep confessed to having urinated in the drinking
 +pool--urged to do this, so she said, by Snowball--and two other sheep
 +confessed to having murdered an old ram, an especially devoted follower of
 +Napoleon, by chasing him round and round a bonfire when he was suffering
 +from a cough. They were all slain on the spot. And so the tale of
 +confessions and executions went on, until there was a pile of corpses
 +lying before Napoleon'​s feet and the air was heavy with the smell of
 +blood, which had been unknown there since the expulsion of Jones.
 +
 +When it was all over, the remaining animals, except for the pigs and dogs,
 +crept away in a body. They were shaken and miserable. They did not know
 +which was more shocking--the treachery of the animals who had leagued
 +themselves with Snowball, or the cruel retribution they had just
 +witnessed. In the old days there had often been scenes of bloodshed
 +equally terrible, but it seemed to all of them that it was far worse now
 +that it was happening among themselves. Since Jones had left the farm,
 +until today, no animal had killed another animal. Not even a rat had been
 +killed. They had made their way on to the little knoll where the
 +half-finished windmill stood, and with one accord they all lay down as
 +though huddling together for warmth--Clover,​ Muriel, Benjamin, the cows,
 +the sheep, and a whole flock of geese and hens--everyone,​ indeed, except
 +the cat, who had suddenly disappeared just before Napoleon ordered the
 +animals to assemble. For some time nobody spoke. Only Boxer remained on
 +his feet. He fidgeted to and fro, swishing his long black tail against his
 +sides and occasionally uttering a little whinny of surprise. Finally he
 +said:
 +
 +"I do not understand it. I would not have believed that such things could
 +happen on our farm. It must be due to some fault in ourselves. The
 +solution, as I see it, is to work harder. From now onwards I shall get up
 +a full hour earlier in the mornings."​
 +
 +And he moved off at his lumbering trot and made for the quarry. Having got
 +there, he collected two successive loads of stone and dragged them down to
 +the windmill before retiring for the night.
 +
 +The animals huddled about Clover, not speaking. The knoll where they were
 +lying gave them a wide prospect across the countryside. Most of Animal
 +Farm was within their view--the long pasture stretching down to the main
 +road, the hayfield, the spinney, the drinking pool, the ploughed fields
 +where the young wheat was thick and green, and the red roofs of the farm
 +buildings with the smoke curling from the chimneys. It was a clear spring
 +evening. The grass and the bursting hedges were gilded by the level rays
 +of the sun. Never had the farm--and with a kind of surprise they
 +remembered that it was their own farm, every inch of it their own
 +property--appeared to the animals so desirable a place. As Clover looked
 +down the hillside her eyes filled with tears. If she could have spoken her
 +thoughts, it would have been to say that this was not what they had aimed
 +at when they had set themselves years ago to work for the overthrow of the
 +human race. These scenes of terror and slaughter were not what they had
 +looked forward to on that night when old Major first stirred them to
 +rebellion. If she herself had had any picture of the future, it had been
 +of a society of animals set free from hunger and the whip, all equal, each
 +working according to his capacity, the strong protecting the weak, as she
 +had protected the lost brood of ducklings with her foreleg on the night of
 +Major'​s speech. Instead--she did not know why--they had come to a time
 +when no one dared speak his mind, when fierce, growling dogs roamed
 +everywhere, and when you had to watch your comrades torn to pieces after
 +confessing to shocking crimes. There was no thought of rebellion or
 +disobedience in her mind. She knew that, even as things were, they were
 +far better off than they had been in the days of Jones, and that before
 +all else it was needful to prevent the return of the human beings.
 +Whatever happened she would remain faithful, work hard, carry out the
 +orders that were given to her, and accept the leadership of Napoleon. But
 +still, it was not for this that she and all the other animals had hoped
 +and toiled. It was not for this that they had built the windmill and faced
 +the bullets of Jones'​s gun. Such were her thoughts, though she lacked the
 +words to express them.
 +
 +At last, feeling this to be in some way a substitute for the words she was
 +unable to find, she began to sing '​Beasts of England'​. The other animals
 +sitting round her took it up, and they sang it three times over--very
 +tunefully, but slowly and mournfully, in a way they had never sung it
 +before.
 +
 +They had just finished singing it for the third time when Squealer,
 +attended by two dogs, approached them with the air of having something
 +important to say. He announced that, by a special decree of Comrade
 +Napoleon, '​Beasts of England'​ had been abolished. From now onwards it was
 +forbidden to sing it.
 +
 +The animals were taken aback.
 +
 +"​Why?"​ cried Muriel.
 +
 +"​It'​s no longer needed, comrade,"​ said Squealer stiffly. "'​Beasts of
 +England'​ was the song of the Rebellion. But the Rebellion is now
 +completed. The execution of the traitors this afternoon was the final act.
 +The enemy both external and internal has been defeated. In '​Beasts of
 +England'​ we expressed our longing for a better society in days to come.
 +But that society has now been established. Clearly this song has no longer
 +any purpose."​
 +
 +Frightened though they were, some of the animals might possibly have
 +protested, but at this moment the sheep set up their usual bleating of
 +"Four legs good, two legs bad," which went on for several minutes and put
 +an end to the discussion.
 +
 +So '​Beasts of England'​ was heard no more. In its place Minimus, the poet,
 +had composed another song which began:
 +
 +
 +Animal Farm, Animal Farm,
 +Never through me shalt thou come to harm!
 +
 +
 +and this was sung every Sunday morning after the hoisting of the flag.
 +But somehow neither the words nor the tune ever seemed to the animals to
 +come up to '​Beasts of England'​.
 +
 +====== Chapter VIII ======
 +
 +A few days later, when the terror caused by the executions had died down,
 +some of the animals remembered--or thought they remembered--that the Sixth
 +Commandment decreed "No animal shall kill any other animal."​ And though no
 +one cared to mention it in the hearing of the pigs or the dogs, it was
 +felt that the killings which had taken place did not square with this.
 +Clover asked Benjamin to read her the Sixth Commandment,​ and when
 +Benjamin, as usual, said that he refused to meddle in such matters, she
 +fetched Muriel. Muriel read the Commandment for her. It ran: "No animal
 +shall kill any other animal WITHOUT CAUSE."​ Somehow or other, the last two
 +words had slipped out of the animals'​ memory. But they saw now that the
 +Commandment had not been violated; for clearly there was good reason for
 +killing the traitors who had leagued themselves with Snowball.
 +
 +Throughout the year the animals worked even harder than they had worked in
 +the previous year. To rebuild the windmill, with walls twice as thick as
 +before, and to finish it by the appointed date, together with the regular
 +work of the farm, was a tremendous labour. There were times when it seemed
 +to the animals that they worked longer hours and fed no better than they
 +had done in Jones'​s day. On Sunday mornings Squealer, holding down a long
 +strip of paper with his trotter, would read out to them lists of figures
 +proving that the production of every class of foodstuff had increased by
 +two hundred per cent, three hundred per cent, or five hundred per cent,
 +as the case might be. The animals saw no reason to disbelieve him,
 +especially as they could no longer remember very clearly what conditions
 +had been like before the Rebellion. All the same, there were days when
 +they felt that they would sooner have had less figures and more food.
 +
 +All orders were now issued through Squealer or one of the other pigs.
 +Napoleon himself was not seen in public as often as once in a fortnight.
 +When he did appear, he was attended not only by his retinue of dogs but by
 +a black cockerel who marched in front of him and acted as a kind of
 +trumpeter, letting out a loud "​cock-a-doodle-doo"​ before Napoleon spoke.
 +Even in the farmhouse, it was said, Napoleon inhabited separate apartments
 +from the others. He took his meals alone, with two dogs to wait upon him,
 +and always ate from the Crown Derby dinner service which had been in the
 +glass cupboard in the drawing-room. It was also announced that the gun
 +would be fired every year on Napoleon'​s birthday, as well as on the other
 +two anniversaries.
 +
 +Napoleon was now never spoken of simply as "​Napoleon."​ He was always
 +referred to in formal style as "our Leader, Comrade Napoleon,"​ and this
 +pigs liked to invent for him such titles as Father of All Animals, Terror
 +of Mankind, Protector of the Sheep-fold, Ducklings'​ Friend, and the like.
 +In his speeches, Squealer would talk with the tears rolling down his
 +cheeks of Napoleon'​s wisdom the goodness of his heart, and the deep love
 +he bore to all animals everywhere, even and especially the unhappy animals
 +who still lived in ignorance and slavery on other farms. It had become
 +usual to give Napoleon the credit for every successful achievement and
 +every stroke of good fortune. You would often hear one hen remark to
 +another, "Under the guidance of our Leader, Comrade Napoleon, I have laid
 +five eggs in six days"; or two cows, enjoying a drink at the pool, would
 +exclaim, "​Thanks to the leadership of Comrade Napoleon, how excellent this
 +water tastes!"​ The general feeling on the farm was well expressed in a
 +poem entitled Comrade Napoleon, which was composed by Minimus and which
 +ran as follows:
 +
 +Friend of fatherless!
 +Fountain of happiness!
 +Lord of the swill-bucket! Oh, how my soul is on
 +Fire when I gaze at thy
 +Calm and commanding eye,
 +Like the sun in the sky,
 +Comrade Napoleon!
 +
 +Thou are the giver of
 +All that thy creatures love,
 +Full belly twice a day, clean straw to roll upon;
 +Every beast great or small
 +Sleeps at peace in his stall,
 +Thou watchest over all,
 +Comrade Napoleon!
 +
 +Had I a sucking-pig,​
 +Ere he had grown as big
 +Even as a pint bottle or as a rolling-pin,​
 +He should have learned to be
 +Faithful and true to thee,
 +Yes, his first squeak should be
 +"​Comrade Napoleon!"​
 +
 +Napoleon approved of this poem and caused it to be inscribed on the wall
 +of the big barn, at the opposite end from the Seven Commandments. It was
 +surmounted by a portrait of Napoleon, in profile, executed by Squealer in
 +white paint.
 +
 +Meanwhile, through the agency of Whymper, Napoleon was engaged in
 +complicated negotiations with Frederick and Pilkington. The pile of timber
 +was still unsold. Of the two, Frederick was the more anxious to get hold
 +of it, but he would not offer a reasonable price. At the same time there
 +were renewed rumours that Frederick and his men were plotting to attack
 +Animal Farm and to destroy the windmill, the building of which had aroused
 +furious jealousy in him. Snowball was known to be still skulking on
 +Pinchfield Farm. In the middle of the summer the animals were alarmed to
 +hear that three hens had come forward and confessed that, inspired by
 +Snowball, they had entered into a plot to murder Napoleon. They were
 +executed immediately,​ and fresh precautions for Napoleon'​s safety were
 +taken. Four dogs guarded his bed at night, one at each corner, and a young
 +pig named Pinkeye was given the task of tasting all his food before he ate
 +it, lest it should be poisoned.
 +
 +At about the same time it was given out that Napoleon had arranged to sell
 +the pile of timber to Mr. Pilkington; he was also going to enter into a
 +regular agreement for the exchange of certain products between Animal Farm
 +and Foxwood. The relations between Napoleon and Pilkington, though they
 +were only conducted through Whymper, were now almost friendly. The animals
 +distrusted Pilkington, as a human being, but greatly preferred him to
 +Frederick, whom they both feared and hated. As the summer wore on, and the
 +windmill neared completion, the rumours of an impending treacherous attack
 +grew stronger and stronger. Frederick, it was said, intended to bring
 +against them twenty men all armed with guns, and he had already bribed the
 +magistrates and police, so that if he could once get hold of the
 +title-deeds of Animal Farm they would ask no questions. Moreover, terrible
 +stories were leaking out from Pinchfield about the cruelties that
 +Frederick practised upon his animals. He had flogged an old horse to
 +death, he starved his cows, he had killed a dog by throwing it into the
 +furnace, he amused himself in the evenings by making cocks fight with
 +splinters of razor-blade tied to their spurs. The animals'​ blood boiled
 +with rage when they heard of these things being done to their comrades,
 +and sometimes they clamoured to be allowed to go out in a body and attack
 +Pinchfield Farm, drive out the humans, and set the animals free. But
 +Squealer counselled them to avoid rash actions and trust in Comrade
 +Napoleon'​s strategy.
 +
 +Nevertheless,​ feeling against Frederick continued to run high. One Sunday
 +morning Napoleon appeared in the barn and explained that he had never at
 +any time contemplated selling the pile of timber to Frederick; he
 +considered it beneath his dignity, he said, to have dealings with
 +scoundrels of that description. The pigeons who were still sent out to
 +spread tidings of the Rebellion were forbidden to set foot anywhere on
 +Foxwood, and were also ordered to drop their former slogan of "Death to
 +Humanity"​ in favour of "Death to Frederick."​ In the late summer yet
 +another of Snowball'​s machinations was laid bare. The wheat crop was full
 +of weeds, and it was discovered that on one of his nocturnal visits
 +Snowball had mixed weed seeds with the seed corn. A gander who had been
 +privy to the plot had confessed his guilt to Squealer and immediately
 +committed suicide by swallowing deadly nightshade berries. The animals
 +now also learned that Snowball had never--as many of them had believed
 +hitherto--received the order of "​Animal Hero, First Class."​ This was
 +merely a legend which had been spread some time after the Battle of the
 +Cowshed by Snowball himself. So far from being decorated, he had been
 +censured for showing cowardice in the battle. Once again some of the
 +animals heard this with a certain bewilderment,​ but Squealer was soon able
 +to convince them that their memories had been at fault.
 +
 +In the autumn, by a tremendous, exhausting effort--for the harvest had to
 +be gathered at almost the same time--the windmill was finished. The
 +machinery had still to be installed, and Whymper was negotiating the
 +purchase of it, but the structure was completed. In the teeth of every
 +difficulty, in spite of inexperience,​ of primitive implements, of bad luck
 +and of Snowball'​s treachery, the work had been finished punctually to the
 +very day! Tired out but proud, the animals walked round and round their
 +masterpiece,​ which appeared even more beautiful in their eyes than when it
 +had been built the first time. Moreover, the walls were twice as thick as
 +before. Nothing short of explosives would lay them low this time! And when
 +they thought of how they had laboured, what discouragements they had
 +overcome, and the enormous difference that would be made in their lives
 +when the sails were turning and the dynamos running--when they thought of
 +all this, their tiredness forsook them and they gambolled round and round
 +the windmill, uttering cries of triumph. Napoleon himself, attended by his
 +dogs and his cockerel, came down to inspect the completed work; he
 +personally congratulated the animals on their achievement,​ and announced
 +that the mill would be named Napoleon Mill.
 +
 +Two days later the animals were called together for a special meeting in
 +the barn. They were struck dumb with surprise when Napoleon announced that
 +he had sold the pile of timber to Frederick. Tomorrow Frederick'​s wagons
 +would arrive and begin carting it away. Throughout the whole period of his
 +seeming friendship with Pilkington, Napoleon had really been in secret
 +agreement with Frederick.
 +
 +All relations with Foxwood had been broken off; insulting messages had
 +been sent to Pilkington. The pigeons had been told to avoid Pinchfield
 +Farm and to alter their slogan from "Death to Frederick"​ to "Death to
 +Pilkington."​ At the same time Napoleon assured the animals that the
 +stories of an impending attack on Animal Farm were completely untrue, and
 +that the tales about Frederick'​s cruelty to his own animals had been
 +greatly exaggerated. All these rumours had probably originated with
 +Snowball and his agents. It now appeared that Snowball was not, after all,
 +hiding on Pinchfield Farm, and in fact had never been there in his life:
 +he was living--in considerable luxury, so it was said--at Foxwood, and had
 +in reality been a pensioner of Pilkington for years past.
 +
 +The pigs were in ecstasies over Napoleon'​s cunning. By seeming to be
 +friendly with Pilkington he had forced Frederick to raise his price by
 +twelve pounds. But the superior quality of Napoleon'​s mind, said Squealer,
 +was shown in the fact that he trusted nobody, not even Frederick.
 +Frederick had wanted to pay for the timber with something called a cheque,
 +which, it seemed, was a piece of paper with a promise to pay written upon
 +it. But Napoleon was too clever for him. He had demanded payment in real
 +five-pound notes, which were to be handed over before the timber was
 +removed. Already Frederick had paid up; and the sum he had paid was just
 +enough to buy the machinery for the windmill.
 +
 +Meanwhile the timber was being carted away at high speed. When it was all
 +gone, another special meeting was held in the barn for the animals to
 +inspect Frederick'​s bank-notes. Smiling beatifically,​ and wearing both his
 +decorations,​ Napoleon reposed on a bed of straw on the platform, with the
 +money at his side, neatly piled on a china dish from the farmhouse
 +kitchen. The animals filed slowly past, and each gazed his fill. And Boxer
 +put out his nose to sniff at the bank-notes, and the flimsy white things
 +stirred and rustled in his breath.
 +
 +Three days later there was a terrible hullabaloo. Whymper, his face deadly
 +pale, came racing up the path on his bicycle, flung it down in the yard
 +and rushed straight into the farmhouse. The next moment a choking roar of
 +rage sounded from Napoleon'​s apartments. The news of what had happened
 +sped round the farm like wildfire. The banknotes were forgeries! Frederick
 +had got the timber for nothing!
 +
 +Napoleon called the animals together immediately and in a terrible voice
 +pronounced the death sentence upon Frederick. When captured, he said,
 +Frederick should be boiled alive. At the same time he warned them that
 +after this treacherous deed the worst was to be expected. Frederick and
 +his men might make their long-expected attack at any moment. Sentinels
 +were placed at all the approaches to the farm. In addition, four pigeons
 +were sent to Foxwood with a conciliatory message, which it was hoped might
 +re-establish good relations with Pilkington.
 +
 +The very next morning the attack came. The animals were at breakfast when
 +the look-outs came racing in with the news that Frederick and his
 +followers had already come through the five-barred gate. Boldly enough the
 +animals sallied forth to meet them, but this time they did not have the
 +easy victory that they had had in the Battle of the Cowshed. There were
 +fifteen men, with half a dozen guns between them, and they opened fire as
 +soon as they got within fifty yards. The animals could not face the
 +terrible explosions and the stinging pellets, and in spite of the efforts
 +of Napoleon and Boxer to rally them, they were soon driven back. A number
 +of them were already wounded. They took refuge in the farm buildings and
 +peeped cautiously out from chinks and knot-holes. The whole of the big
 +pasture, including the windmill, was in the hands of the enemy. For the
 +moment even Napoleon seemed at a loss. He paced up and down without a
 +word, his tail rigid and twitching. Wistful glances were sent in the
 +direction of Foxwood. If Pilkington and his men would help them, the day
 +might yet be won. But at this moment the four pigeons, who had been sent
 +out on the day before, returned, one of them bearing a scrap of paper from
 +Pilkington. On it was pencilled the words: "​Serves you right."​
 +
 +Meanwhile Frederick and his men had halted about the windmill. The animals
 +watched them, and a murmur of dismay went round. Two of the men had
 +produced a crowbar and a sledge hammer. They were going to knock the
 +windmill down.
 +
 +"​Impossible!"​ cried Napoleon. "We have built the walls far too thick for
 +that. They could not knock it down in a week. Courage, comrades!"​
 +
 +But Benjamin was watching the movements of the men intently. The two with
 +the hammer and the crowbar were drilling a hole near the base of the
 +windmill. Slowly, and with an air almost of amusement, Benjamin nodded his
 +long muzzle.
 +
 +"I thought so," he said. "Do you not see what they are doing? In another
 +moment they are going to pack blasting powder into that hole."
 +
 +Terrified, the animals waited. It was impossible now to venture out of the
 +shelter of the buildings. After a few minutes the men were seen to be
 +running in all directions. Then there was a deafening roar. The pigeons
 +swirled into the air, and all the animals, except Napoleon, flung
 +themselves flat on their bellies and hid their faces. When they got up
 +again, a huge cloud of black smoke was hanging where the windmill had
 +been. Slowly the breeze drifted it away. The windmill had ceased to exist!
 +
 +At this sight the animals'​ courage returned to them. The fear and despair
 +they had felt a moment earlier were drowned in their rage against this
 +vile, contemptible act. A mighty cry for vengeance went up, and without
 +waiting for further orders they charged forth in a body and made straight
 +for the enemy. This time they did not heed the cruel pellets that swept
 +over them like hail. It was a savage, bitter battle. The men fired again
 +and again, and, when the animals got to close quarters, lashed out with
 +their sticks and their heavy boots. A cow, three sheep, and two geese were
 +killed, and nearly everyone was wounded. Even Napoleon, who was directing
 +operations from the rear, had the tip of his tail chipped by a pellet. But
 +the men did not go unscathed either. Three of them had their heads broken
 +by blows from Boxer'​s hoofs; another was gored in the belly by a cow's
 +horn; another had his trousers nearly torn off by Jessie and Bluebell. And
 +when the nine dogs of Napoleon'​s own bodyguard, whom he had instructed to
 +make a detour under cover of the hedge, suddenly appeared on the men's
 +flank, baying ferociously,​ panic overtook them. They saw that they were in
 +danger of being surrounded. Frederick shouted to his men to get out while
 +the going was good, and the next moment the cowardly enemy was running for
 +dear life. The animals chased them right down to the bottom of the field,
 +and got in some last kicks at them as they forced their way through the
 +thorn hedge.
 +
 +They had won, but they were weary and bleeding. Slowly they began to limp
 +back towards the farm. The sight of their dead comrades stretched upon the
 +grass moved some of them to tears. And for a little while they halted in
 +sorrowful silence at the place where the windmill had once stood. Yes, it
 +was gone; almost the last trace of their labour was gone! Even the
 +foundations were partially destroyed. And in rebuilding it they could not
 +this time, as before, make use of the fallen stones. This time the stones
 +had vanished too. The force of the explosion had flung them to distances
 +of hundreds of yards. It was as though the windmill had never been.
 +
 +As they approached the farm Squealer, who had unaccountably been absent
 +during the fighting, came skipping towards them, whisking his tail and
 +beaming with satisfaction. And the animals heard, from the direction of
 +the farm buildings, the solemn booming of a gun.
 +
 +"What is that gun firing for?" said Boxer.
 +
 +"To celebrate our victory!"​ cried Squealer.
 +
 +"What victory?"​ said Boxer. His knees were bleeding, he had lost a shoe
 +and split his hoof, and a dozen pellets had lodged themselves in his hind
 +leg.
 +
 +"What victory, comrade? Have we not driven the enemy off our soil--the
 +sacred soil of Animal Farm?"
 +
 +"But they have destroyed the windmill. And we had worked on it for two
 +years!"​
 +
 +"What matter? We will build another windmill. We will build six windmills
 +if we feel like it. You do not appreciate, comrade, the mighty thing that
 +we have done. The enemy was in occupation of this very ground that we
 +stand upon. And now--thanks to the leadership of Comrade Napoleon--we have
 +won every inch of it back again!"​
 +
 +"Then we have won back what we had before,"​ said Boxer.
 +
 +"That is our victory,"​ said Squealer.
 +
 +They limped into the yard. The pellets under the skin of Boxer'​s leg
 +smarted painfully. He saw ahead of him the heavy labour of rebuilding the
 +windmill from the foundations,​ and already in imagination he braced
 +himself for the task. But for the first time it occurred to him that he
 +was eleven years old and that perhaps his great muscles were not quite
 +what they had once been.
 +
 +But when the animals saw the green flag flying, and heard the gun firing
 +again--seven times it was fired in all--and heard the speech that Napoleon
 +made, congratulating them on their conduct, it did seem to them after all
 +that they had won a great victory. The animals slain in the battle were
 +given a solemn funeral. Boxer and Clover pulled the wagon which served as
 +a hearse, and Napoleon himself walked at the head of the procession. Two
 +whole days were given over to celebrations. There were songs, speeches,
 +and more firing of the gun, and a special gift of an apple was bestowed on
 +every animal, with two ounces of corn for each bird and three biscuits for
 +each dog. It was announced that the battle would be called the Battle of
 +the Windmill, and that Napoleon had created a new decoration, the Order
 +of the Green Banner, which he had conferred upon himself. In the general
 +rejoicings the unfortunate affair of the banknotes was forgotten.
 +
 +It was a few days later than this that the pigs came upon a case of whisky
 +in the cellars of the farmhouse. It had been overlooked at the time when
 +the house was first occupied. That night there came from the farmhouse the
 +sound of loud singing, in which, to everyone'​s surprise, the strains of
 +'​Beasts of England'​ were mixed up. At about half past nine Napoleon,
 +wearing an old bowler hat of Mr. Jones'​s,​ was distinctly seen to emerge
 +from the back door, gallop rapidly round the yard, and disappear indoors
 +again. But in the morning a deep silence hung over the farmhouse. Not a
 +pig appeared to be stirring. It was nearly nine o'​clock when Squealer made
 +his appearance, walking slowly and dejectedly, his eyes dull, his tail
 +hanging limply behind him, and with every appearance of being seriously
 +ill. He called the animals together and told them that he had a terrible
 +piece of news to impart. Comrade Napoleon was dying!
 +
 +A cry of lamentation went up. Straw was laid down outside the doors of the
 +farmhouse, and the animals walked on tiptoe. With tears in their eyes they
 +asked one another what they should do if their Leader were taken away from
 +them. A rumour went round that Snowball had after all contrived to
 +introduce poison into Napoleon'​s food. At eleven o'​clock Squealer came
 +out to make another announcement. As his last act upon earth, Comrade
 +Napoleon had pronounced a solemn decree: the drinking of alcohol was to be
 +punished by death.
 +
 +By the evening, however, Napoleon appeared to be somewhat better, and the
 +following morning Squealer was able to tell them that he was well on the
 +way to recovery. By the evening of that day Napoleon was back at work, and
 +on the next day it was learned that he had instructed Whymper to purchase
 +in Willingdon some booklets on brewing and distilling. A week later
 +Napoleon gave orders that the small paddock beyond the orchard, which it
 +had previously been intended to set aside as a grazing-ground for animals
 +who were past work, was to be ploughed up. It was given out that the
 +pasture was exhausted and needed re-seeding; but it soon became known that
 +Napoleon intended to sow it with barley.
 +
 +About this time there occurred a strange incident which hardly anyone was
 +able to understand. One night at about twelve o'​clock there was a loud
 +crash in the yard, and the animals rushed out of their stalls. It was a
 +moonlit night. At the foot of the end wall of the big barn, where the
 +Seven Commandments were written, there lay a ladder broken in two pieces.
 +Squealer, temporarily stunned, was sprawling beside it, and near at hand
 +there lay a lantern, a paint-brush,​ and an overturned pot of white paint.
 +The dogs immediately made a ring round Squealer, and escorted him back to
 +the farmhouse as soon as he was able to walk. None of the animals could
 +form any idea as to what this meant, except old Benjamin, who nodded his
 +muzzle with a knowing air, and seemed to understand, but would say nothing.
 +
 +But a few days later Muriel, reading over the Seven Commandments to
 +herself, noticed that there was yet another of them which the animals had
 +remembered wrong. They had thought the Fifth Commandment was "No animal
 +shall drink alcohol,"​ but there were two words that they had forgotten.
 +Actually the Commandment read: "No animal shall drink alcohol TO EXCESS."​
 +
 +====== Chapter IX ======
 +
 +Boxer'​s split hoof was a long time in healing. They had started the
 +rebuilding of the windmill the day after the victory celebrations were
 +ended. Boxer refused to take even a day off work, and made it a point of
 +honour not to let it be seen that he was in pain. In the evenings he would
 +admit privately to Clover that the hoof troubled him a great deal. Clover
 +treated the hoof with poultices of herbs which she prepared by chewing
 +them, and both she and Benjamin urged Boxer to work less hard. "A horse'​s
 +lungs do not last for ever," she said to him. But Boxer would not listen.
 +He had, he said, only one real ambition left--to see the windmill well
 +under way before he reached the age for retirement.
 +
 +At the beginning, when the laws of Animal Farm were first formulated,
 +the retiring age had been fixed for horses and pigs at twelve, for cows at
 +fourteen, for dogs at nine, for sheep at seven, and for hens and geese at
 +five. Liberal old-age pensions had been agreed upon. As yet no animal had
 +actually retired on pension, but of late the subject had been discussed
 +more and more. Now that the small field beyond the orchard had been set
 +aside for barley, it was rumoured that a corner of the large pasture was
 +to be fenced off and turned into a grazing-ground for superannuated
 +animals. For a horse, it was said, the pension would be five pounds of
 +corn a day and, in winter, fifteen pounds of hay, with a carrot or
 +possibly an apple on public holidays. Boxer'​s twelfth birthday was due in
 +the late summer of the following year.
 +
 +Meanwhile life was hard. The winter was as cold as the last one had been,
 +and food was even shorter. Once again all rations were reduced, except
 +those of the pigs and the dogs. A too rigid equality in rations, Squealer
 +explained, would have been contrary to the principles of Animalism. In any
 +case he had no difficulty in proving to the other animals that they were
 +NOT in reality short of food, whatever the appearances might be. For the
 +time being, certainly, it had been found necessary to make a readjustment
 +of rations (Squealer always spoke of it as a "​readjustment,"​ never as a
 +"​reduction"​),​ but in comparison with the days of Jones, the improvement
 +was enormous. Reading out the figures in a shrill, rapid voice, he proved
 +to them in detail that they had more oats, more hay, more turnips than
 +they had had in Jones'​s day, that they worked shorter hours, that their
 +drinking water was of better quality, that they lived longer, that a
 +larger proportion of their young ones survived infancy, and that they had
 +more straw in their stalls and suffered less from fleas. The animals
 +believed every word of it. Truth to tell, Jones and all he stood for had
 +almost faded out of their memories. They knew that life nowadays was harsh
 +and bare, that they were often hungry and often cold, and that they were
 +usually working when they were not asleep. But doubtless it had been worse
 +in the old days. They were glad to believe so. Besides, in those days they
 +had been slaves and now they were free, and that made all the difference,
 +as Squealer did not fail to point out.
 +
 +There were many more mouths to feed now. In the autumn the four sows had
 +all littered about simultaneously,​ producing thirty-one young pigs between
 +them. The young pigs were piebald, and as Napoleon was the only boar on
 +the farm, it was possible to guess at their parentage. It was announced
 +that later, when bricks and timber had been purchased, a schoolroom would
 +be built in the farmhouse garden. For the time being, the young pigs were
 +given their instruction by Napoleon himself in the farmhouse kitchen. They
 +took their exercise in the garden, and were discouraged from playing with
 +the other young animals. About this time, too, it was laid down as a rule
 +that when a pig and any other animal met on the path, the other animal
 +must stand aside: and also that all pigs, of whatever degree, were to have
 +the privilege of wearing green ribbons on their tails on Sundays.
 +
 +The farm had had a fairly successful year, but was still short of money.
 +There were the bricks, sand, and lime for the schoolroom to be purchased,
 +and it would also be necessary to begin saving up again for the machinery
 +for the windmill. Then there were lamp oil and candles for the house,
 +sugar for Napoleon'​s own table (he forbade this to the other pigs, on the
 +ground that it made them fat), and all the usual replacements such as
 +tools, nails, string, coal, wire, scrap-iron, and dog biscuits. A stump of
 +hay and part of the potato crop were sold off, and the contract for eggs
 +was increased to six hundred a week, so that that year the hens barely
 +hatched enough chicks to keep their numbers at the same level. Rations,
 +reduced in December, were reduced again in February, and lanterns in the
 +stalls were forbidden to save oil. But the pigs seemed comfortable enough,
 +and in fact were putting on weight if anything. One afternoon in late
 +February a warm, rich, appetising scent, such as the animals had never
 +smelt before, wafted itself across the yard from the little brew-house,
 +which had been disused in Jones'​s time, and which stood beyond the
 +kitchen. Someone said it was the smell of cooking barley. The animals
 +sniffed the air hungrily and wondered whether a warm mash was being
 +prepared for their supper. But no warm mash appeared, and on the following
 +Sunday it was announced that from now onwards all barley would be reserved
 +for the pigs. The field beyond the orchard had already been sown with
 +barley. And the news soon leaked out that every pig was now receiving a
 +ration of a pint of beer daily, with half a gallon for Napoleon himself,
 +which was always served to him in the Crown Derby soup tureen.
 +
 +But if there were hardships to be borne, they were partly offset by the
 +fact that life nowadays had a greater dignity than it had had before.
 +There were more songs, more speeches, more processions. Napoleon had
 +commanded that once a week there should be held something called a
 +Spontaneous Demonstration,​ the object of which was to celebrate the
 +struggles and triumphs of Animal Farm. At the appointed time the animals
 +would leave their work and march round the precincts of the farm in
 +military formation, with the pigs leading, then the horses, then the cows,
 +then the sheep, and then the poultry. The dogs flanked the procession and
 +at the head of all marched Napoleon'​s black cockerel. Boxer and Clover
 +always carried between them a green banner marked with the hoof and the
 +horn and the caption, "Long live Comrade Napoleon!"​ Afterwards there were
 +recitations of poems composed in Napoleon'​s honour, and a speech by
 +Squealer giving particulars of the latest increases in the production of
 +foodstuffs, and on occasion a shot was fired from the gun. The sheep were
 +the greatest devotees of the Spontaneous Demonstration,​ and if anyone
 +complained (as a few animals sometimes did, when no pigs or dogs were near)
 +that they wasted time and meant a lot of standing about in the cold, the
 +sheep were sure to silence him with a tremendous bleating of "Four legs
 +good, two legs bad!" But by and large the animals enjoyed these
 +celebrations. They found it comforting to be reminded that, after all,
 +they were truly their own masters and that the work they did was for their
 +own benefit. So that, what with the songs, the processions,​ Squealer'​s
 +lists of figures, the thunder of the gun, the crowing of the cockerel,
 +and the fluttering of the flag, they were able to forget that their
 +bellies were empty, at least part of the time.
 +
 +In April, Animal Farm was proclaimed a Republic, and it became necessary
 +to elect a President. There was only one candidate, Napoleon, who was
 +elected unanimously. On the same day it was given out that fresh documents
 +had been discovered which revealed further details about Snowball'​s
 +complicity with Jones. It now appeared that Snowball had not, as the
 +animals had previously imagined, merely attempted to lose the Battle of
 +the Cowshed by means of a stratagem, but had been openly fighting on
 +Jones'​s side. In fact, it was he who had actually been the leader of the
 +human forces, and had charged into battle with the words "Long live
 +Humanity!"​ on his lips. The wounds on Snowball'​s back, which a few of the
 +animals still remembered to have seen, had been inflicted by Napoleon'​s
 +teeth.
 +
 +In the middle of the summer Moses the raven suddenly reappeared on the
 +farm, after an absence of several years. He was quite unchanged, still did
 +no work, and talked in the same strain as ever about Sugarcandy Mountain.
 +He would perch on a stump, flap his black wings, and talk by the hour to
 +anyone who would listen. "Up there, comrades,"​ he would say solemnly,
 +pointing to the sky with his large beak--"​up there, just on the other side
 +of that dark cloud that you can see--there it lies, Sugarcandy Mountain,
 +that happy country where we poor animals shall rest for ever from our
 +labours!"​ He even claimed to have been there on one of his higher flights,
 +and to have seen the everlasting fields of clover and the linseed cake and
 +lump sugar growing on the hedges. Many of the animals believed him. Their
 +lives now, they reasoned, were hungry and laborious; was it not right and
 +just that a better world should exist somewhere else? A thing that was
 +difficult to determine was the attitude of the pigs towards Moses. They
 +all declared contemptuously that his stories about Sugarcandy Mountain
 +were lies, and yet they allowed him to remain on the farm, not working,
 +with an allowance of a gill of beer a day.
 +
 +After his hoof had healed up, Boxer worked harder than ever. Indeed, all
 +the animals worked like slaves that year. Apart from the regular work of
 +the farm, and the rebuilding of the windmill, there was the schoolhouse
 +for the young pigs, which was started in March. Sometimes the long hours
 +on insufficient food were hard to bear, but Boxer never faltered. In
 +nothing that he said or did was there any sign that his strength was not
 +what it had been. It was only his appearance that was a little altered;
 +his hide was less shiny than it had used to be, and his great haunches
 +seemed to have shrunken. The others said, "Boxer will pick up when the
 +spring grass comes on"; but the spring came and Boxer grew no fatter.
 +Sometimes on the slope leading to the top of the quarry, when he braced
 +his muscles against the weight of some vast boulder, it seemed that
 +nothing kept him on his feet except the will to continue. At such times
 +his lips were seen to form the words, "I will work harder";​ he had no
 +voice left. Once again Clover and Benjamin warned him to take care of his
 +health, but Boxer paid no attention. His twelfth birthday was approaching.
 +He did not care what happened so long as a good store of stone was
 +accumulated before he went on pension.
 +
 +Late one evening in the summer, a sudden rumour ran round the farm that
 +something had happened to Boxer. He had gone out alone to drag a load of
 +stone down to the windmill. And sure enough, the rumour was true. A few
 +minutes later two pigeons came racing in with the news; "Boxer has fallen!
 +He is lying on his side and can't get up!"
 +
 +About half the animals on the farm rushed out to the knoll where the
 +windmill stood. There lay Boxer, between the shafts of the cart, his neck
 +stretched out, unable even to raise his head. His eyes were glazed, his
 +sides matted with sweat. A thin stream of blood had trickled out of his
 +mouth. Clover dropped to her knees at his side.
 +
 +"​Boxer!"​ she cried, "how are you?"
 +
 +"It is my lung," said Boxer in a weak voice. "It does not matter. I think
 +you will be able to finish the windmill without me. There is a pretty good
 +store of stone accumulated. I had only another month to go in any case.
 +To tell you the truth, I had been looking forward to my retirement. And
 +perhaps, as Benjamin is growing old too, they will let him retire at the
 +same time and be a companion to me."
 +
 +"We must get help at once," said Clover. "Run, somebody, and tell Squealer
 +what has happened."​
 +
 +All the other animals immediately raced back to the farmhouse to give
 +Squealer the news. Only Clover remained, and Benjamin who lay down at
 +Boxer'​s side, and, without speaking, kept the flies off him with his long
 +tail. After about a quarter of an hour Squealer appeared, full of sympathy
 +and concern. He said that Comrade Napoleon had learned with the very
 +deepest distress of this misfortune to one of the most loyal workers on
 +the farm, and was already making arrangements to send Boxer to be treated
 +in the hospital at Willingdon. The animals felt a little uneasy at this.
 +Except for Mollie and Snowball, no other animal had ever left the farm,
 +and they did not like to think of their sick comrade in the hands of human
 +beings. However, Squealer easily convinced them that the veterinary
 +surgeon in Willingdon could treat Boxer'​s case more satisfactorily than
 +could be done on the farm. And about half an hour later, when Boxer had
 +somewhat recovered, he was with difficulty got on to his feet, and managed
 +to limp back to his stall, where Clover and Benjamin had prepared a good
 +bed of straw for him.
 +
 +For the next two days Boxer remained in his stall. The pigs had sent out a
 +large bottle of pink medicine which they had found in the medicine chest
 +in the bathroom, and Clover administered it to Boxer twice a day after
 +meals. In the evenings she lay in his stall and talked to him, while
 +Benjamin kept the flies off him. Boxer professed not to be sorry for what
 +had happened. If he made a good recovery, he might expect to live another
 +three years, and he looked forward to the peaceful days that he would
 +spend in the corner of the big pasture. It would be the first time that he
 +had had leisure to study and improve his mind. He intended, he said, to
 +devote the rest of his life to learning the remaining twenty-two letters
 +of the alphabet.
 +
 +However, Benjamin and Clover could only be with Boxer after working hours,
 +and it was in the middle of the day when the van came to take him away.
 +The animals were all at work weeding turnips under the supervision of a
 +pig, when they were astonished to see Benjamin come galloping from the
 +direction of the farm buildings, braying at the top of his voice. It was
 +the first time that they had ever seen Benjamin excited--indeed,​ it was
 +the first time that anyone had ever seen him gallop. "​Quick,​ quick!"​ he
 +shouted. "Come at once! They'​re taking Boxer away!" Without waiting for
 +orders from the pig, the animals broke off work and raced back to the farm
 +buildings. Sure enough, there in the yard was a large closed van, drawn by
 +two horses, with lettering on its side and a sly-looking man in a
 +low-crowned bowler hat sitting on the driver'​s seat. And Boxer'​s stall was
 +empty.
 +
 +The animals crowded round the van. "​Good-bye,​ Boxer!"​ they chorused,
 +"​good-bye!"​
 +
 +"​Fools! Fools!"​ shouted Benjamin, prancing round them and stamping the
 +earth with his small hoofs. "​Fools! Do you not see what is written on the
 +side of that van?"
 +
 +That gave the animals pause, and there was a hush. Muriel began to spell
 +out the words. But Benjamin pushed her aside and in the midst of a deadly
 +silence he read:
 +
 +"'​Alfred Simmonds, Horse Slaughterer and Glue Boiler, Willingdon. Dealer
 +in Hides and Bone-Meal. Kennels Supplied.'​ Do you not understand what that
 +means? They are taking Boxer to the knacker'​s!"​
 +
 +A cry of horror burst from all the animals. At this moment the man on the
 +box whipped up his horses and the van moved out of the yard at a smart
 +trot. All the animals followed, crying out at the tops of their voices.
 +Clover forced her way to the front. The van began to gather speed. Clover
 +tried to stir her stout limbs to a gallop, and achieved a canter. "​Boxer!"​
 +she cried. "​Boxer! Boxer! Boxer!"​ And just at this moment, as though he
 +had heard the uproar outside, Boxer'​s face, with the white stripe down his
 +nose, appeared at the small window at the back of the van.
 +
 +"​Boxer!"​ cried Clover in a terrible voice. "​Boxer! Get out! Get out
 +quickly! They'​re taking you to your death!"​
 +
 +All the animals took up the cry of "Get out, Boxer, get out!" But the van
 +was already gathering speed and drawing away from them. It was uncertain
 +whether Boxer had understood what Clover had said. But a moment later his
 +face disappeared from the window and there was the sound of a tremendous
 +drumming of hoofs inside the van. He was trying to kick his way out. The
 +time had been when a few kicks from Boxer'​s hoofs would have smashed the
 +van to matchwood. But alas! his strength had left him; and in a few
 +moments the sound of drumming hoofs grew fainter and died away. In
 +desperation the animals began appealing to the two horses which drew the
 +van to stop. "​Comrades,​ comrades!"​ they shouted. "​Don'​t take your own
 +brother to his death!"​ But the stupid brutes, too ignorant to realise
 +what was happening, merely set back their ears and quickened their pace.
 +Boxer'​s face did not reappear at the window. Too late, someone thought of
 +racing ahead and shutting the five-barred gate; but in another moment the
 +van was through it and rapidly disappearing down the road. Boxer was never
 +seen again.
 +
 +Three days later it was announced that he had died in the hospital at
 +Willingdon, in spite of receiving every attention a horse could have.
 +Squealer came to announce the news to the others. He had, he said, been
 +present during Boxer'​s last hours.
 +
 +"It was the most affecting sight I have ever seen!" said Squealer, lifting
 +his trotter and wiping away a tear. "I was at his bedside at the very
 +last. And at the end, almost too weak to speak, he whispered in my ear
 +that his sole sorrow was to have passed on before the windmill was
 +finished. '​Forward,​ comrades!'​ he whispered. '​Forward in the name of the
 +Rebellion. Long live Animal Farm! Long live Comrade Napoleon! Napoleon is
 +always right.'​ Those were his very last words, comrades."​
 +
 +Here Squealer'​s demeanour suddenly changed. He fell silent for a moment,
 +and his little eyes darted suspicious glances from side to side before he
 +proceeded.
 +
 +It had come to his knowledge, he said, that a foolish and wicked rumour
 +had been circulated at the time of Boxer'​s removal. Some of the animals
 +had noticed that the van which took Boxer away was marked "Horse
 +Slaughterer,"​ and had actually jumped to the conclusion that Boxer was
 +being sent to the knacker'​s. It was almost unbelievable,​ said Squealer,
 +that any animal could be so stupid. Surely, he cried indignantly,​ whisking
 +his tail and skipping from side to side, surely they knew their beloved
 +Leader, Comrade Napoleon, better than that? But the explanation was really
 +very simple. The van had previously been the property of the knacker, and
 +had been bought by the veterinary surgeon, who had not yet painted the old
 +name out. That was how the mistake had arisen.
 +
 +The animals were enormously relieved to hear this. And when Squealer went
 +on to give further graphic details of Boxer'​s death-bed, the admirable
 +care he had received, and the expensive medicines for which Napoleon had
 +paid without a thought as to the cost, their last doubts disappeared and
 +the sorrow that they felt for their comrade'​s death was tempered by the
 +thought that at least he had died happy.
 +
 +Napoleon himself appeared at the meeting on the following Sunday morning
 +and pronounced a short oration in Boxer'​s honour. It had not been
 +possible, he said, to bring back their lamented comrade'​s remains for
 +interment on the farm, but he had ordered a large wreath to be made from
 +the laurels in the farmhouse garden and sent down to be placed on Boxer'​s
 +grave. And in a few days' time the pigs intended to hold a memorial
 +banquet in Boxer'​s honour. Napoleon ended his speech with a reminder of
 +Boxer'​s two favourite maxims, "I will work harder"​ and "​Comrade Napoleon
 +is always right"​--maxims,​ he said, which every animal would do well to
 +adopt as his own.
 +
 +On the day appointed for the banquet, a grocer'​s van drove up from
 +Willingdon and delivered a large wooden crate at the farmhouse. That night
 +there was the sound of uproarious singing, which was followed by what
 +sounded like a violent quarrel and ended at about eleven o'​clock with a
 +tremendous crash of glass. No one stirred in the farmhouse before noon on
 +the following day, and the word went round that from somewhere or other
 +the pigs had acquired the money to buy themselves another case of whisky.
 +
 +====== Chapter X ======
 +
 +Years passed. The seasons came and went, the short animal lives fled by.
 +A time came when there was no one who remembered the old days before the
 +Rebellion, except Clover, Benjamin, Moses the raven, and a number of the
 +pigs.
 +
 +Muriel was dead; Bluebell, Jessie, and Pincher were dead. Jones too was
 +dead--he had died in an inebriates'​ home in another part of the country.
 +Snowball was forgotten. Boxer was forgotten, except by the few who had
 +known him. Clover was an old stout mare now, stiff in the joints and with
 +a tendency to rheumy eyes. She was two years past the retiring age, but in
 +fact no animal had ever actually retired. The talk of setting aside a
 +corner of the pasture for superannuated animals had long since been
 +dropped. Napoleon was now a mature boar of twenty-four stone. Squealer was
 +so fat that he could with difficulty see out of his eyes. Only old
 +Benjamin was much the same as ever, except for being a little greyer about
 +the muzzle, and, since Boxer'​s death, more morose and taciturn than ever.
 +
 +There were many more creatures on the farm now, though the increase was
 +not so great as had been expected in earlier years. Many animals had been
 +born to whom the Rebellion was only a dim tradition, passed on by word of
 +mouth, and others had been bought who had never heard mention of such a
 +thing before their arrival. The farm possessed three horses now besides
 +Clover. They were fine upstanding beasts, willing workers and good
 +comrades, but very stupid. None of them proved able to learn the alphabet
 +beyond the letter B. They accepted everything that they were told about
 +the Rebellion and the principles of Animalism, especially from Clover, for
 +whom they had an almost filial respect; but it was doubtful whether they
 +understood very much of it.
 +
 +The farm was more prosperous now, and better organised: it had even been
 +enlarged by two fields which had been bought from Mr. Pilkington. The
 +windmill had been successfully completed at last, and the farm possessed a
 +threshing machine and a hay elevator of its own, and various new buildings
 +had been added to it. Whymper had bought himself a dogcart. The windmill,
 +however, had not after all been used for generating electrical power. It
 +was used for milling corn, and brought in a handsome money profit. The
 +animals were hard at work building yet another windmill; when that one was
 +finished, so it was said, the dynamos would be installed. But the luxuries
 +of which Snowball had once taught the animals to dream, the stalls with
 +electric light and hot and cold water, and the three-day week, were no
 +longer talked about. Napoleon had denounced such ideas as contrary to the
 +spirit of Animalism. The truest happiness, he said, lay in working hard
 +and living frugally.
 +
 +Somehow it seemed as though the farm had grown richer without making the
 +animals themselves any richer-except,​ of course, for the pigs and the
 +dogs. Perhaps this was partly because there were so many pigs and so many
 +dogs. It was not that these creatures did not work, after their fashion.
 +There was, as Squealer was never tired of explaining, endless work in the
 +supervision and organisation of the farm. Much of this work was of a kind
 +that the other animals were too ignorant to understand. For example,
 +Squealer told them that the pigs had to expend enormous labours every day
 +upon mysterious things called "​files,"​ "​reports,"​ "​minutes,"​ and
 +"​memoranda"​. These were large sheets of paper which had to be closely
 +covered with writing, and as soon as they were so covered, they were burnt
 +in the furnace. This was of the highest importance for the welfare of the
 +farm, Squealer said. But still, neither pigs nor dogs produced any food by
 +their own labour; and there were very many of them, and their appetites
 +were always good.
 +
 +As for the others, their life, so far as they knew, was as it had always
 +been. They were generally hungry, they slept on straw, they drank from the
 +pool, they laboured in the fields; in winter they were troubled by the
 +cold, and in summer by the flies. Sometimes the older ones among them
 +racked their dim memories and tried to determine whether in the early
 +days of the Rebellion, when Jones'​s expulsion was still recent, things had
 +been better or worse than now. They could not remember. There was nothing
 +with which they could compare their present lives: they had nothing to go
 +upon except Squealer'​s lists of figures, which invariably demonstrated
 +that everything was getting better and better. The animals found the
 +problem insoluble; in any case, they had little time for speculating on
 +such things now. Only old Benjamin professed to remember every detail of
 +his long life and to know that things never had been, nor ever could be
 +much better or much worse--hunger,​ hardship, and disappointment being, so
 +he said, the unalterable law of life.
 +
 +And yet the animals never gave up hope. More, they never lost, even for an
 +instant, their sense of honour and privilege in being members of Animal
 +Farm. They were still the only farm in the whole county--in all
 +England!--owned and operated by animals. Not one of them, not even the
 +youngest, not even the newcomers who had been brought from farms ten or
 +twenty miles away, ever ceased to marvel at that. And when they heard the
 +gun booming and saw the green flag fluttering at the masthead, their
 +hearts swelled with imperishable pride, and the talk turned always towards
 +the old heroic days, the expulsion of Jones, the writing of the Seven
 +Commandments,​ the great battles in which the human invaders had been
 +defeated. None of the old dreams had been abandoned. The Republic of the
 +Animals which Major had foretold, when the green fields of England should
 +be untrodden by human feet, was still believed in. Some day it was coming:
 +it might not be soon, it might not be with in the lifetime of any animal
 +now living, but still it was coming. Even the tune of '​Beasts of England'​
 +was perhaps hummed secretly here and there: at any rate, it was a fact
 +that every animal on the farm knew it, though no one would have dared to
 +sing it aloud. It might be that their lives were hard and that not all of
 +their hopes had been fulfilled; but they were conscious that they were not
 +as other animals. If they went hungry, it was not from feeding tyrannical
 +human beings; if they worked hard, at least they worked for themselves.
 +No creature among them went upon two legs. No creature called any other
 +creature "​Master."​ All animals were equal.
 +
 +One day in early summer Squealer ordered the sheep to follow him, and led
 +them out to a piece of waste ground at the other end of the farm, which
 +had become overgrown with birch saplings. The sheep spent the whole day
 +there browsing at the leaves under Squealer'​s supervision. In the evening
 +he returned to the farmhouse himself, but, as it was warm weather, told
 +the sheep to stay where they were. It ended by their remaining there for a
 +whole week, during which time the other animals saw nothing of them.
 +Squealer was with them for the greater part of every day. He was, he said,
 +teaching them to sing a new song, for which privacy was needed.
 +
 +It was just after the sheep had returned, on a pleasant evening when the
 +animals had finished work and were making their way back to the farm
 +buildings, that the terrified neighing of a horse sounded from the yard.
 +Startled, the animals stopped in their tracks. It was Clover'​s voice. She
 +neighed again, and all the animals broke into a gallop and rushed into the
 +yard. Then they saw what Clover had seen.
 +
 +It was a pig walking on his hind legs.
 +
 +Yes, it was Squealer. A little awkwardly, as though not quite used to
 +supporting his considerable bulk in that position, but with perfect
 +balance, he was strolling across the yard. And a moment later, out from
 +the door of the farmhouse came a long file of pigs, all walking on their
 +hind legs. Some did it better than others, one or two were even a trifle
 +unsteady and looked as though they would have liked the support of a
 +stick, but every one of them made his way right round the yard
 +successfully. And finally there was a tremendous baying of dogs and a
 +shrill crowing from the black cockerel, and out came Napoleon himself,
 +majestically upright, casting haughty glances from side to side, and with
 +his dogs gambolling round him.
 +
 +He carried a whip in his trotter.
 +
 +There was a deadly silence. Amazed, terrified, huddling together, the
 +animals watched the long line of pigs march slowly round the yard. It was
 +as though the world had turned upside-down. Then there came a moment when
 +the first shock had worn off and when, in spite of everything-in spite of
 +their terror of the dogs, and of the habit, developed through long years,
 +of never complaining,​ never criticising,​ no matter what happened--they
 +might have uttered some word of protest. But just at that moment, as
 +though at a signal, all the sheep burst out into a tremendous bleating of--
 +
 +"Four legs good, two legs BETTER! Four legs good, two legs BETTER! Four
 +legs good, two legs BETTER!"​
 +
 +It went on for five minutes without stopping. And by the time the sheep
 +had quieted down, the chance to utter any protest had passed, for the pigs
 +had marched back into the farmhouse.
 +
 +Benjamin felt a nose nuzzling at his shoulder. He looked round. It was
 +Clover. Her old eyes looked dimmer than ever. Without saying anything, she
 +tugged gently at his mane and led him round to the end of the big barn,
 +where the Seven Commandments were written. For a minute or two they stood
 +gazing at the tatted wall with its white lettering.
 +
 +"My sight is failing,"​ she said finally. "Even when I was young I could
 +not have read what was written there. But it appears to me that that wall
 +looks different. Are the Seven Commandments the same as they used to be,
 +Benjamin?"​
 +
 +For once Benjamin consented to break his rule, and he read out to her what
 +was written on the wall. There was nothing there now except a single
 +Commandment. It ran:
 +
 +ALL ANIMALS ARE EQUAL
 +BUT SOME ANIMALS ARE MORE EQUAL THAN OTHERS
 +
 +After that it did not seem strange when next day the pigs who were
 +supervising the work of the farm all carried whips in their trotters. It
 +did not seem strange to learn that the pigs had bought themselves a
 +wireless set, were arranging to install a telephone, and had taken out
 +subscriptions to 'John Bull', '​Tit-Bits',​ and the 'Daily Mirror'​. It did
 +not seem strange when Napoleon was seen strolling in the farmhouse garden
 +with a pipe in his mouth--no, not even when the pigs took Mr. Jones'​s
 +clothes out of the wardrobes and put them on, Napoleon himself appearing
 +in a black coat, ratcatcher breeches, and leather leggings, while his
 +favourite sow appeared in the watered silk dress which Mrs. Jones had been
 +used to wearing on Sundays.
 +
 +A week later, in the afternoon, a number of dog-carts drove up to the farm.
 +A deputation of neighbouring farmers had been invited to make a tour of
 +inspection. They were shown all over the farm, and expressed great
 +admiration for everything they saw, especially the windmill. The animals
 +were weeding the turnip field. They worked diligently hardly raising their
 +faces from the ground, and not knowing whether to be more frightened of
 +the pigs or of the human visitors.
 +
 +That evening loud laughter and bursts of singing came from the farmhouse.
 +And suddenly, at the sound of the mingled voices, the animals were
 +stricken with curiosity. What could be happening in there, now that for
 +the first time animals and human beings were meeting on terms of equality?
 +With one accord they began to creep as quietly as possible into the
 +farmhouse garden.
 +
 +At the gate they paused, half frightened to go on but Clover led the way
 +in. They tiptoed up to the house, and such animals as were tall enough
 +peered in at the dining-room window. There, round the long table, sat half
 +a dozen farmers and half a dozen of the more eminent pigs, Napoleon
 +himself occupying the seat of honour at the head of the table. The pigs
 +appeared completely at ease in their chairs. The company had been enjoying
 +a game of cards but had broken off for the moment, evidently in order to
 +drink a toast. A large jug was circulating,​ and the mugs were being
 +refilled with beer. No one noticed the wondering faces of the animals that
 +gazed in at the window.
 +
 +Mr. Pilkington, of Foxwood, had stood up, his mug in his hand. In a
 +moment, he said, he would ask the present company to drink a toast. But
 +before doing so, there were a few words that he felt it incumbent upon him
 +to say.
 +
 +It was a source of great satisfaction to him, he said--and, he was sure,
 +to all others present--to feel that a long period of mistrust and
 +misunderstanding had now come to an end. There had been a time--not that
 +he, or any of the present company, had shared such sentiments--but there
 +had been a time when the respected proprietors of Animal Farm had been
 +regarded, he would not say with hostility, but perhaps with a certain
 +measure of misgiving, by their human neighbours. Unfortunate incidents had
 +occurred, mistaken ideas had been current. It had been felt that the
 +existence of a farm owned and operated by pigs was somehow abnormal and
 +was liable to have an unsettling effect in the neighbourhood. Too many
 +farmers had assumed, without due enquiry, that on such a farm a spirit of
 +licence and indiscipline would prevail. They had been nervous about the
 +effects upon their own animals, or even upon their human employees. But
 +all such doubts were now dispelled. Today he and his friends had visited
 +Animal Farm and inspected every inch of it with their own eyes, and what
 +did they find? Not only the most up-to-date methods, but a discipline and
 +an orderliness which should be an example to all farmers everywhere. He
 +believed that he was right in saying that the lower animals on Animal Farm
 +did more work and received less food than any animals in the county.
 +Indeed, he and his fellow-visitors today had observed many features which
 +they intended to introduce on their own farms immediately.
 +
 +He would end his remarks, he said, by emphasising once again the friendly
 +feelings that subsisted, and ought to subsist, between Animal Farm and its
 +neighbours. Between pigs and human beings there was not, and there need
 +not be, any clash of interests whatever. Their struggles and their
 +difficulties were one. Was not the labour problem the same everywhere?
 +Here it became apparent that Mr. Pilkington was about to spring some
 +carefully prepared witticism on the company, but for a moment he was too
 +overcome by amusement to be able to utter it. After much choking, during
 +which his various chins turned purple, he managed to get it out: "If you
 +have your lower animals to contend with," he said, "we have our lower
 +classes!"​ This BON MOT set the table in a roar; and Mr. Pilkington once
 +again congratulated the pigs on the low rations, the long working hours,
 +and the general absence of pampering which he had observed on Animal Farm.
 +
 +And now, he said finally, he would ask the company to rise to their feet
 +and make certain that their glasses were full. "​Gentlemen,"​ concluded
 +Mr. Pilkington, "​gentlemen,​ I give you a toast: To the prosperity of
 +Animal Farm!"
 +
 +There was enthusiastic cheering and stamping of feet. Napoleon was so
 +gratified that he left his place and came round the table to clink his
 +mug against Mr. Pilkington'​s before emptying it. When the cheering had
 +died down, Napoleon, who had remained on his feet, intimated that he too
 +had a few words to say.
 +
 +Like all of Napoleon'​s speeches, it was short and to the point. He too,
 +he said, was happy that the period of misunderstanding was at an end. For
 +a long time there had been rumours--circulated,​ he had reason to think,
 +by some malignant enemy--that there was something subversive and even
 +revolutionary in the outlook of himself and his colleagues. They had been
 +credited with attempting to stir up rebellion among the animals on
 +neighbouring farms. Nothing could be further from the truth! Their sole
 +wish, now and in the past, was to live at peace and in normal business
 +relations with their neighbours. This farm which he had the honour to
 +control, he added, was a co-operative enterprise. The title-deeds,​ which
 +were in his own possession, were owned by the pigs jointly.
 +
 +He did not believe, he said, that any of the old suspicions still
 +lingered, but certain changes had been made recently in the routine of the
 +farm which should have the effect of promoting confidence still further.
 +Hitherto the animals on the farm had had a rather foolish custom of
 +addressing one another as "​Comrade."​ This was to be suppressed. There had
 +also been a very strange custom, whose origin was unknown, of marching
 +every Sunday morning past a boar's skull which was nailed to a post in the
 +garden. This, too, would be suppressed, and the skull had already been
 +buried. His visitors might have observed, too, the green flag which flew
 +from the masthead. If so, they would perhaps have noted that the white
 +hoof and horn with which it had previously been marked had now been
 +removed. It would be a plain green flag from now onwards.
 +
 +He had only one criticism, he said, to make of Mr. Pilkington'​s excellent
 +and neighbourly speech. Mr. Pilkington had referred throughout to
 +"​Animal Farm." He could not of course know--for he, Napoleon, was only
 +now for the first time announcing it--that the name "​Animal Farm"
 +had been abolished. Henceforward the farm was to be known as "The Manor
 +Farm"​--which,​ he believed, was its correct and original name.
 +
 +"​Gentlemen,"​ concluded Napoleon, "I will give you the same toast as
 +before, but in a different form. Fill your glasses to the brim. Gentlemen,
 +here is my toast: To the prosperity of The Manor Farm!"
 +
 +There was the same hearty cheering as before, and the mugs were emptied to
 +the dregs. But as the animals outside gazed at the scene, it seemed to
 +them that some strange thing was happening. What was it that had altered
 +in the faces of the pigs? Clover'​s old dim eyes flitted from one face to
 +another. Some of them had five chins, some had four, some had three. But
 +what was it that seemed to be melting and changing? Then, the applause
 +having come to an end, the company took up their cards and continued the
 +game that had been interrupted,​ and the animals crept silently away.
 +
 +But they had not gone twenty yards when they stopped short. An uproar of
 +voices was coming from the farmhouse. They rushed back and looked through
 +the window again. Yes, a violent quarrel was in progress. There were
 +shoutings, bangings on the table, sharp suspicious glances, furious
 +denials. The source of the trouble appeared to be that Napoleon and
 +Mr. Pilkington had each played an ace of spades simultaneously.
 +
 +Twelve voices were shouting in anger, and they were all alike. No question,
 +now, what had happened to the faces of the pigs. The creatures outside
 +looked from pig to man, and from man to pig, and from pig to man again;
 +but already it was impossible to say which was which.
 +
 +November 1943-February 1944
 +
 +THE END
animal_farm_george_orwell.txt ยท Last modified: 2018/04/21 03:26 (external edit)