User Tools

Site Tools


de_bello_civili_1

Differences

This shows you the differences between two versions of the page.

Link to this comparison view

de_bello_civili_1 [2018/04/21 03:30] (current)
Line 1: Line 1:
 +====== The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar 1 ======
  
 +C. IULI CAESARIS DE BELLO CIVILS COMMENTARIUS
 +
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​09 The Civil Wars, I [IofII].mp3">​Book I Part I of II In Audio</​a><​br />
 +<a href="/​music/​10 The Civil Wars, I [IIofII].mp3">​Book I Part II of II In Audio</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​www.ganino.com/​player.js"></​script><​br />
 +alt version not a transcription and starts at Chapter 1, second part of audio starts from Chapter 37
 +</​html>​
 +
 +(50 B.C.)
 +
 +===== Chapter 0 =====
 +
 +//​Vossius'​s supplement to the first book:// I will now say nothing concerning
 +the absurd opinion of those who assert that the following Commentaries
 +on the Civil War were not written by Caesar himself. Even without
 +the authority of Suetonius, the diction itself would be sufficient
 +to convince the most skeptical that Caesar and no other was the author.
 +I am of the opinion of those who think that the beginning of these
 +Commentaries is lost. For I can not be convinced that Caesar commenced
 +so abruptly; and History itself gives sufficient evidence that many
 +circumstances require to be previously stated. For which reason we
 +thought that it would be well worth our attention to compile from
 +Plutarch, Appian, and Dion, a narrative of such facts as seemed necessary
 +to fill up the chasm; these facts are as follows: "When Caesar, after
 +reducing all Transalpine Gaul, had passed into Cisalpine Gaul, he
 +determined for many reasons to send embassadors to Rome to request
 +for him the consulate, and a prolongation of the command of his province.
 +Pompey, who was estranged from Caesar, although he was not as yet
 +at open enmity with him, determined neither to aid him by his influence
 +nor openly oppose him on this occasion. But the consuls Lentulus and
 +Marcellus, who had previously been on unfriendly terms with Caesar,
 +resolved to use all means in their power to prevent him from gaining
 +his object. Marcellus in particular did not hesitate to offer Caesar
 +other insults. Caesar had lately planned the colony of Novumcomum
 +in Gaul: Marcellus, not content with taking from it the right of citizenship,​
 +ordered the principal man of the colony to be arrested and scourged
 +at Rome, and sent him to make his complaints to Caesar: an insult
 +of this description had never before been offered to a Roman citizen.
 +While these transactions are taking place, Caius Curio, tribune of
 +the commons, comes to Caesar in his province. Curio had made many
 +and energetic struggles, in behalf of the republic and Caesar'​s cause:
 +at length when he perceived that all his efforts were vain, he fled
 +through fear of his adversaries,​ and informed Caesar of all the transactions
 +that had taken place, and of the efforts made by his enemies to crush
 +him. Caesar received Curio with great kindness, as he was a man of
 +the highest rank, and had great claims on himself and the republic,
 +and thanked him warmly for his numerous personal favors. But Curio,
 +as war was being openly prepared against Caesar, advised him to concentrate
 +his troops, and rescue the republic now oppressed by a few daring
 +men. Caesar, although he was not ignorant of the real state of affairs,
 +was however of opinion that particular regard should be paid to the
 +tranquillity of the republic, lest any one should suppose that he
 +was the originator of the war. Therefore, through his friends, he
 +made this one request, that two legions, and the province of Cisalpine
 +Gaul, and Illyricum, should be left him. All these acts were performed
 +by Caesar, with the hope that his enemies might be induced by the
 +justice of his demands, to preserve the peace of the republic. Even
 +Pompey himself did not dare to oppose them. But when Caesar could
 +not obtain his request from the consuls, he wrote to the senate a
 +letter, in which he briefly stated his exploits and public services,
 +and entreated that he should not be deprived of the favor of the people,
 +who had ordered, that he, although absent, should be considered a
 +candidate at the next elections; and he stated also that he would
 +disband his army, if the senate and people of Rome would pass a resolution
 +to that effect, provided that Pompey would do the same. That, as long
 +as the latter should retain the command of his army, no just reason
 +could exist that he [Caesar] should disband his troops and expose
 +himself to the insults of his enemies. He intrusts this letter to
 +Curio to bear to its destination;​ the latter traveled one hundred
 +and sixty miles with incredible dispatch, and reached the city in
 +three days' time, before the beginning of January, and before the
 +consuls could pass any decree concerning Caesar'​s command. Curio,
 +after accomplishing his journey, kept the letter, and did not give
 +it up, until there was a crowded meeting of the senate, and the tribunes
 +of the commons were present; for he was afraid, lest, if he gave it
 +up previously, the consuls should suppress it. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +
 +When Caesar'​s letter was delivered to the consuls, they were with
 +great difficulty, and a hard struggle of the tribunes, prevailed on
 +to suffer it to be read in the senate; but the tribunes could not
 +prevail, that any question should be put to the senate on the subject
 +of the letter. The consuls put the question on the regulation of the
 +state. Lucius Lentulus the consul promises that he will not fail the
 +senate and republic, "if they declared their sentiments boldly and
 +resolutely, but if they turned their regard to Caesar, and courted
 +his favor, as they did on former occasions, he would adopt a plan
 +for himself, and not submit to the authority of the senate: that he
 +too had a means of regaining Caesar'​s favor and friendship."​ Scipio
 +spoke to the same purport, "that it was Pompey'​s intention not to
 +abandon the republic, if the senate would support him; but if they
 +should hesitate and act without energy, they would in vain implore
 +his aid, if they should require it hereafter." ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +
 +This speech of Scipio'​s,​ as the senate was convened in the city, and
 +Pompey was near at hand, seemed to have fallen from the lips of Pompey
 +himself. Some delivered their sentiments with more moderation, as
 +Marcellus first, who in the beginning of his speech, said, "that the
 +question ought not to be put to the senate on this matter, till levies
 +were made throughout all Italy, and armies raised under whose protection
 +the senate might freely and safely pass such resolutions as they thought
 +proper;"​ as Marcus Calidius afterward, who was of opinion, "that Pompey
 +should set out for his province, that there might be no cause for
 +arms; that Caesar was naturally apprehensive as two legions were forced
 +from him, that Pompey was retaining those troops, and keeping them
 +near the city to do him injury:"​ as Marcus Rufus, who followed Calidius
 +almost word for word. They were all harshly rebuked by Lentulus, who
 +peremptorily refused to propose Calidius'​s motion. Marcellus, overawed
 +by his reproofs, retracted his opinion. Thus most of the senate, intimidated
 +by the expressions of the consul, by the fears of a present army,
 +and the threats of Pompey'​s friends, unwillingly and reluctantly adopted
 +Scipio'​s opinion, that Caesar should disband his army by a certain
 +day, and should he not do so, he should he considered as acting against
 +the state. Marcus Antonius, and Quintus Cassius, tribunes of the people,
 +interposed. The question was immediately put on their interposition.
 +Violent opinions were expressed; whoever spoke with the greatest acrimony
 +and cruelty was most highly commended by Caesar'​s enemies.
 +
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +
 +The senate having broken up in the evening, all who belonged to that
 +order were summoned by Pompey. He applauded the forward, and secured
 +their votes for the next day; the more moderate he reproved and excited
 +against Caesar. Many veterans, from all parts, who had served in Pompey'​s
 +armies, were invited to his standard by the hopes of rewards and promotions.
 +Several officers belonging to the two legions, which had been delivered
 +up by Caesar, were sent for. The city and the comitium were crowded
 +with tribunes, centurions, and veterans. All the consul'​s friends,
 +all Pompey'​s connections,​ all those who bore any ancient enmity to
 +Caesar, were forced into the senate house. By their concourse and
 +declarations the timid were awed, the irresolute confirmed, and the
 +greater part deprived of the power of speaking their sentiments with
 +freedom. Lucius Piso, the censor, offered to go to Caesar: as did
 +likewise Lucius Roscius, the praetor, to inform him of these affairs,
 +and require only six days' time to finish the business. Opinions were
 +expressed by some to the effect that commissioners should be sent
 +to Caesar to acquaint him with the senate'​s pleasure. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +
 +All these proposals were rejected, and opposition made to them all,
 +in the speeches of the consul, Scipio, and Cato. An old grudge against
 +Caesar and chagrin at a defeat actuated Cato. Lentulus was wrought
 +upon by the magnitude of his debts, and the hopes of having the government
 +of an army and provinces, and by the presents which he expected from
 +such princes as should receive the title of friends of the Roman people,
 +and boasted among his friends, that he would be a second Sylla, to
 +whom the supreme authority should return. Similar hopes of a province
 +and armies, which he expected to share with Pompey on account of his
 +connection with him, urged on Scipio; and moreover [he was influenced
 +by] the fear of being called to trial, and the adulation and an ostentatious
 +display of himself and his friends in power, who at that time had
 +great influence in the republic, and courts of judicature. Pompey
 +himself, incited by Caesar'​s enemies, because he was unwilling that
 +any person should bear an equal degree of dignity, had wholly alienated
 +himself from Caesar'​s friendship, and procured a reconciliation with
 +their common enemies; the greatest part of whom he had himself brought
 +upon Caesar during his affinity with him. At the same time, chagrined
 +at the disgrace which he had incurred by converting the two legions
 +from their expedition through Asia and Syria, to [augment] his own
 +power and authority, he was anxious to bring matters to a war.
 +
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +
 +For these reasons every thing was done in a hasty and disorderly manner,
 +and neither was time given to Caesar'​s relations to inform him [of
 +the state of affairs] nor liberty to the tribunes of the people to
 +deprecate their own danger, nor even to retain the last privilege,
 +which Sylla had left them, the interposing their authority; but on
 +the seventh day they were obliged to think of their own safety, which
 +the most turbulent tribunes of the people were not accustomed to attend
 +to, nor to fear being called to an account for their actions, till
 +the eighth month. Recourse is had to that extreme and final decree
 +of the senate (which was never resorted to even by daring proposers
 +except when the city was in danger of being set on fire, or when the
 +public safety was despaired of). "That the consuls, praetors, tribunes
 +of the people, and proconsuls in the city, should take care that the
 +state received no injury."​ These decrees are dated the eighth day
 +before the ides of January; therefore, in the first five days, on
 +which the senate could meet, from the day on which Lentulus entered
 +into his consulate, the two days of election excepted, the severest
 +and most virulent decrees were passed against Caesar'​s government,
 +and against those most illustrious characters, the tribunes of the
 +people. The latter immediately made their escape from the city, and
 +withdrew to Caesar, who was then at Ravenna, awaiting an answer to
 +his moderate demands; [to see] if matters could be brought to a peaceful
 +termination by any equitable act on the part of his enemies.
 +
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +
 +During the succeeding days the senate is convened outside the city.
 +Pompey repeated the same things which he had declared through Scipio.
 +He applauded the courage and firmness of the senate, acquainted them
 +with his force, and told them that he had ten legions ready; that
 +he was moreover informed and assured that Caesar'​s soldiers were disaffected,​
 +and that he could not persuade them to defend or even follow him.
 +Motions were made in the senate concerning other matters; that levies
 +should be made through all Italy; that Faustus Sylla should be sent
 +as propraetor into Mauritania; that money should be granted to Pompey
 +from the public treasury. It was also put to the vote that king Juba
 +should be [honored with the title of] friend and ally. But Marcellus
 +said that he would not allow this motion for the present. Philip,
 +one of the tribunes, stopped [the appointment of] Sylla; the resolutions
 +respecting the other matters passed. The provinces, two of which were
 +consular, the remainder praetorian, were decreed to private persons;
 +Scipio got Syria, Lucius Domitius Gaul: Philip and Marcellus were
 +omitted, from a private motive, and their lots were not even admitted.
 +To the other provinces praetors were sent, nor was time granted as
 +in former years, to refer to the people on their appointment,​ nor
 +to make them take the usual oath, and march out of the city in a public
 +manner, robed in the military habit, after offering their vows: a
 +circumstance which had never before happened. Both the consuls leave
 +the city, and private men had lictors in the city and capital, contrary
 +to all precedents of former times. Levies were made throughout Italy,
 +arms demanded, and money exacted from the municipal towns, and violently
 +taken from the temples. All distinctions between things human and
 +divine, are confounded. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +
 +These things being made known to Caesar, he harangued his soldiers;
 +he reminded them "of the wrongs done to him at all times by his enemies,
 +and complained that Pompey had been alienated from him and led astray
 +by them through envy and a malicious opposition to his glory, though
 +he had always favored and promoted Pompey'​s honor and dignity. He
 +complained that an innovation had been introduced into the republic,
 +that the intercession of the tribunes, which had been restored a few
 +years before by Sylla, was branded as a crime, and suppressed by force
 +of arms; that Sylla, who had stripped the tribunes of every other
 +power, had, nevertheless,​ left the privilege of intercession unrestrained;​
 +that Pompey, who pretended to restore what they had lost, had taken
 +away the privileges which they formerly had; that whenever the senate
 +decreed, 'that the magistrates should take care that the republic
 +sustained no injury'​ (by which words and decree the Roman people were
 +obliged to repair to arms), it was only when pernicious laws were
 +proposed; when the tribunes attempted violent measures; when the people
 +seceded, and possessed themselves of the temples and eminences of
 +the city; (and these instances of former times, he showed them were
 +expiated by the fate of Saturninus and the Gracchi): that nothing
 +of this kind was attempted now, nor even thought of: that no law was
 +promulgated,​ no intrigue with the people going forward, no secession
 +made; he exhorted them to defend from the malice of his enemies the
 +reputation and honor of that general under whose command they had
 +for nine years most successfully supported the state; fought many
 +successful battles, and subdued all Gaul and Germany."​ The soldiers
 +of the thirteenth legion, which was present (for in the beginning
 +of the disturbances he had called it out, his other legions not having
 +yet arrived), all cry out that they are ready to defend their general,
 +and the tribunes of the commons, from all injuries. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +
 +Having made himself acquainted with the disposition of his soldiers,
 +Caesar set off with that legion to Ariminum, and there met the tribunes,
 +who had fled to him for protection; he called his other legions from
 +winter quarters; and ordered them to follow him. Thither came Lucius
 +Caesar, a young man, whose father was a lieutenant-general under Caesar.
 +He, after concluding the rest of his speech, and stating for what
 +purpose he had come, told Caesar that he had commands of a private
 +nature for him from Pompey; that Pompey wished to clear himself to
 +Caesar, lest he should impute those actions which he did for the republic,
 +to a design of affronting him; that he had ever preferred the interest
 +of the state to his own private connections;​ that Caesar, too, for
 +his own honor, ought to sacrifice his desires and resentment to the
 +public good, and not vent his anger so violently against his enemies,
 +lest in his hopes of injuring them, he should injure the republic.
 +He spoke a few words to the same purport from himself, in addition
 +to Pompey'​s apology. Roscius, the praetor, conferred with Caesar almost
 +in the same words, and on the same subject, and declared that Pompey
 +had empowered him to do so. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +
 +Though these things seemed to have no tendency toward redressing his
 +injuries, yet having got proper persons by whom he could communicate
 +his wishes to Pompey; he required of them both, that, as they had
 +conveyed Pompey'​s demands to him, they should not refuse to convey
 +his demands to Pompey; if by so little trouble they could terminate
 +a great dispute, and liberate all Italy from her fears. "That the
 +honor of the republic had ever been his first object, and dearer to
 +him than life; that he was chagrined, that the favor of the Roman
 +people was wrested from him by the injurious reports of his enemies;
 +that he was deprived of a half-year'​s command, and dragged back to
 +the city, though the people had ordered that regard should be paid
 +to his suit for the consulate at the next election, though he was
 +not present; that, however, he had patiently submitted to this loss
 +of honor, for the sake of the republic; that when he wrote letters
 +to the senate, requiring that all persons should resign the command
 +of their armies, he did not obtain even that request; that levies
 +were made throughout Italy; that the two legions which had been taken
 +from him, under the pretense of the Parthian war, were kept at home,
 +and that the state was in arms. To what did all these things tend,
 +unless to his ruin? But, nevertheless,​ he was ready to condescend
 +to any terms, and to endure every thing for the sake of the republic.
 +Let Pompey go to his own province; let them both disband their armies;
 +let all persons in Italy lay down their arms; let all fears be removed
 +from the city; let free elections, and the whole republic be resigned
 +to the direction of the senate and Roman people. That these things
 +might be the more easily performed, and conditions secured and confirmed
 +by oath, either let Pompey come to Caesar, or allow Caesar to go to
 +him; it might be that all their disputes would be settled by an interview."​
 +
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +
 +Roscius and Lucius Caesar, having received this message, went to Capua,
 +where they met the consuls and Pompey, and declared to them Caesar'​s
 +terms. Having deliberated on the matter, they replied, and sent written
 +proposals to him by the same persons, the purport of which was, that
 +Caesar should return into Gaul, leave Ariminum, and disband his army:
 +if he complied with this, that Pompey would go to Spain. In the mean
 +time, until security was given that Caesar would perform his promises,
 +that the consuls and Pompey would not give over their levies.
 +
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +
 +It was not an equitable proposal, to require that Caesar should quit
 +Ariminum and return to his province; but that he [Pompey] should himself
 +retain his province and the legions that belonged to another, and
 +desire that Caesar'​s army should be disbanded, while he himself was
 +making new levies: and that he should merely promise to go to his
 +province, without naming the day on which he would set out; so that
 +if he should not set out till after Caesar'​s consulate expired, yet
 +he would not appear bound by any religious scruples about asserting
 +a falsehood. But his not granting time for a conference, nor promising
 +to set out to meet him, made the expectation of peace appear very
 +hopeless. Caesar, therefore, sent Marcus Antonius, with five cohorts
 +from Ariminum to Arretium; he himself staid at Ariminum with two legions,
 +with the intention of raising levies there. He secured Pisaurus, Fanum,
 +and Ancona, with a cohort each. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +
 +In the mean time, being informed that Thermus the praetor was in possession
 +of Iguvium, with five cohorts, and was fortifying the town, but that
 +the affections of all the inhabitants were very well inclined toward
 +himself, he detached Curio with three cohorts, which he had at Ariminum
 +and Pisaurus. Upon notice of his approach, Thermus, distrusting the
 +affections of the townsmen, drew his cohorts out of it and made his
 +escape; his soldiers deserted him on the road, and returned home.
 +Curio recovered Iguvium, with the cheerful concurrence of all the
 +inhabitants. Caesar, having received an account of this, and relying
 +on the affections of the municipal towns, drafted all the cohorts
 +of the thirteenth legion from the garrison, and set out for Auximum,
 +a town into which Attius had brought his cohorts, and of which he
 +had taken possession, and from which he had sent senators round about
 +the country of Picenum, to raise new levies. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +
 +Upon news of Caesar'​s approach, the senate of Auximum went in a body
 +to Attius Varus; and told him that it was not a subject for them to
 +determine upon: yet neither they, nor the rest of the freemen would
 +suffer Caius Caesar, a general, who had merited so well of the republic,
 +after performing such great achievements,​ to be excluded from their
 +town and walls; wherefore he ought to pay some regard to the opinion
 +of posterity, and his own danger. Alarmed at this declaration,​ Attius
 +Varus drew out of the town the garrison which he had introduced, and
 +fled. A fear of Caesar'​s front rank having pursued him, obliged him
 +to halt, and when the battle began, Varus is deserted by his troops:
 +some of them disperse to their homes, the rest come over to Caesar;
 +and along with them, Lucius Pupius, the chief centurion, is taken
 +prisoner and brought to Caesar. He had held the same rank before in
 +Cneius Pompey'​s army. But Caesar applauded the soldiers of Attius,
 +set Pupius at liberty, returned thanks to the people of Auximum, and
 +promised to be grateful for their conduct. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +
 +Intelligence of this being brought to Rome, so great a panic spread
 +on a sudden that when Lentulus, the consul, came to open the treasury,
 +to deliver money to Pompey by the senate'​s decree, immediately on
 +opening the hallowed door he fled from the city. For it was falsely
 +rumored that Caesar was approaching,​ and that his cavalry were already
 +at the gates. Marcellus, his colleague, followed him, and so did most
 +of the magistrates. Cneius Pompey had left the city the day before,
 +and was on his march to those legions which he had received from Caesar,
 +and had disposed in winter quarters in Apulia. The levies were stopped
 +within the city. No place on this side of Capua was thought secure.
 +At Capua they first began to take courage and to rally, and determined
 +to raise levies in the colonies, which had been sent thither by the
 +Julian law: and Lentulus brought into the public market place the
 +gladiators which Caesar maintained there for the entertainment of
 +the people, and confirmed them in their liberty, and gave them horses
 +and ordered them to attend him; but afterward, being warned by his
 +friends that this action was censured by the judgment of all, he distributed
 +them among the slaves of the district of Campania, to keep guard there.
 +
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +
 +Caesar, having moved forward from Auximum, traversed the whole country
 +of Picenum. All the governors in these countries most cheerfully received
 +him, and aided his army with every necessary. Embassadors came to
 +him even from Cingulum, a town which Labienus had laid out and built
 +at his own expense, and offered most earnestly to comply with his
 +orders. He demanded soldiers: they sent them. In the mean time, the
 +twelfth legion came to join Caesar; with these two he marched to Asculum,
 +the chief town of Picenum. Lentulus Spinther occupied that town with
 +ten cohorts; but, on being informed of Caesar'​s approach, he fled
 +from the town, and, in attempting to bring off his cohorts with him,
 +was deserted by a great part of his men. Being left on the road with
 +a small number, he fell in with Vibullius Rufus, who was sent by Pompey
 +into Picenum to confirm the people [in their allegiance]. Vibullius,
 +being informed by him of the transactions in Picenum, takes his soldiers
 +from him and dismisses him. He collects, likewise, from the neighboring
 +countries, as many cohorts as he can from Pompey'​s new levies. Among
 +them he meets with Ulcilles Hirrus fleeing from Camerinum, with six
 +cohorts, which he had in the garrison there; by a junction with which
 +he made up thirteen cohorts. With them he marched by hasty journeys
 +to Corfinium, to Domitius Aenobarbus, and informed him that Caesar
 +was advancing with two legions. Domitius had collected about twenty
 +cohorts from Alba, and the Marsians, Pelignians, and neighboring states.
 +
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +
 +Caesar, having recovered Asculum and driven out Lentulus, ordered
 +the soldiers that had deserted from him to be sought out and a muster
 +to be made; and, having delayed for one day there to provide corn,
 +he marched to Corfinium. On his approach, five cohorts, sent by Domitius
 +from the town, were breaking down a bridge which was over the river,
 +at three miles' distance from it. An engagement taking place there
 +with Caesar'​s advanced-guard,​ Domitius'​s men were quickly beaten off
 +from the bridge and retreated precipitately into the town. Caesar,
 +having marched his legions over, halted before the town and encamped
 +close by the walls. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +
 +Domitius, upon observing this, sent messengers well acquainted with
 +the country, encouraged by a promise of being amply rewarded, with
 +dispatches to Pompey to Apulia, to beg and entreat him to come to
 +his assistance. That Caesar could be easily inclosed by the two armies,
 +through the narrowness of the country, and prevented from obtaining
 +supplies: unless he did so, that he and upward of thirty cohorts,
 +and a great number of senators and Roman knights, would be in extreme
 +danger. In the mean time he encouraged his troops, disposed engines
 +on the walls, and assigned to each man a particular part of the city
 +to defend. In a speech to the soldiers he promised them lands out
 +of his own estate; to every private soldier four acres, and a corresponding
 +share to the centurions and veterans. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +
 +In the mean time, word was brought to Caesar that the people of Sulmo,
 +a town about seven miles distant from Corfinium, were ready to obey
 +his orders, but were prevented by Quintus Lucretius, a senator, and
 +Attius, a Pelignian, who were in possession of the town with a garrison
 +of seven cohorts. He sent Marcus Antonius thither, with five cohorts
 +of the eighth legion. The inhabitants,​ as soon as they saw our standards,
 +threw open their gates, and all the people, both citizens and soldiers,
 +went out to meet and welcome Antonius. Lucretius and Attius leaped
 +off the walls. Attius, being brought before Antonius, begged that
 +he might be sent to Caesar. Antonius returned the same day on which
 +he had set out with the cohorts and Attius. Caesar added these cohorts
 +to his own army, and sent Attius away in safety. The three first days
 +Caesar employed in fortifying his camp with strong works, in bringing
 +in corn from the neighboring free towns, and waiting for the rest
 +of his forces. Within the three days the eighth legion came to him,
 +and twenty-two cohorts of the new levies in Gaul, and about three
 +hundred horse from the king of Noricum. On their arrival he made a
 +second camp on another part of the town, and gave the command of it
 +to Curio. He determined to surround the town with a rampart and turrets
 +during the remainder of the time. Nearly at the time when the greatest
 +part of the work was completed, all the messengers sent to Pompey
 +returned. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 19 =====
 +
 +Having read Pompey'​s letter, Domitius, concealing the truth, gave
 +out in council that Pompey would speedily come to their assistance;
 +and encouraged them not to despond, but to provide every thing necessary
 +for the defense of the town. He held private conferences with a few
 +of his most intimate friends, and determined on the design of fleeing.
 +As Domitius'​s countenance did not agree with his words, and he did
 +every thing with more confusion and fear than he had shown on the
 +preceding days, and as he had several private meetings with his friends,
 +contrary to his usual practice, in order to take their advice, and
 +as he avoided all public councils and assemblies of the people, the
 +truth could be no longer hid nor dissembled; for Pompey had written
 +back in answer, "That he would not put matters to the last hazard;
 +that Domitius had retreated into the town of Corfinium without either
 +his advice or consent. Therefore, if any opportunity should offer,
 +he [Domitius] should come to him with the whole force."​ But the blockade
 +and works round the town prevented his escape. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +
 +Domitius'​s design being noised abroad, the soldiers in Corfinium early
 +in the evening began to mutiny, and held a conference with each other
 +by their tribunes and centurions, and the most respectable among themselves:
 +"that they were besieged by Caesar; that his works and fortifications
 +were almost finished; that their general, Domitius, on whose hopes
 +and expectations they had confided, had thrown them off, and was meditating
 +his own escape; that they ought to provide for their own safety."​
 +At first the Marsians differed in opinion, and possessed themselves
 +of that part of the town which they thought the strongest. And so
 +violent a dispute arose between them, that they attempted to fight
 +and decide it by arms. However, in a little time, by messengers sent
 +from one side to the other, they were informed of Domitius'​s meditated
 +flight, of which they were previously ignorant. Therefore they all
 +with one consent brought Domitius into public view, gathered round
 +him, and guarded him; and sent deputies out of their number to Caesar,
 +to say that they were ready to throw open their gates, to do whatever
 +he should order, and deliver up Domitius alive into his hands."​
 +
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +
 +Upon intelligence of these matters, though Caesar thought it of great
 +consequence to become master of the town as soon as possible, and
 +to transfer the cohorts to his own camp, lest any change should be
 +wrought on their inclinations by bribes, encouragement,​ or ficticious
 +messages, because in war great events are often brought about by trifling
 +circumstances;​ yet, dreading lest the town should be plundered by
 +the soldiers entering into it, and taking advantage of the darkness
 +of the night, he commended the persons who came to him, and sent them
 +back to the town, and ordered the gates and walls to be secured. He
 +disposed his soldiers on the works which he had begun, not at certain
 +intervals, as was his practice before, but in one continued range
 +of sentinels and stations, so that they touched each other, and formed
 +a circle round the whole fortification;​ he ordered the tribunes and
 +general officers to ride round; and exhorted them not only to be on
 +their guard against sallies from the town, but also to watch that
 +no single person should get out privately. Nor was any man so negligent
 +or drowsy as to sleep that night. To so great height was their expectation
 +raised, that they were carried away, heart and soul, each to different
 +objects, what would become of the Corfinians, what of Domitius, what
 +of Lentulus, what of the rest; what event would be the consequence
 +of another. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +
 +About the fourth watch, Lentulus Spinther said to our sentinels and
 +guards from the walls, that he desired to have an interview with Caesar,
 +if permission were given him. Having obtained it, he was escorted
 +out of town; nor did the soldiers of Domitius leave him till they
 +brought him into Caesar'​s presence. He pleaded with Caesar for his
 +life, and entreated him to spare him, and reminded him of their former
 +friendship; and acknowledged that Caesar'​s favors to him were very
 +great; in that through his interest he had been admitted into the
 +college of priests; in that after his praetorship he had been appointed
 +to the government of Spain; in that he had been assisted by him in
 +his suit for the consulate. Caesar interrupted him in his speech,
 +and told him, "that he had not left his province to do mischief [to
 +any man], but to protect himself from the injuries of his enemies;
 +to restore to their dignity the tribunes of the people who had been
 +driven out of the city on his account, and to assert his own liberty,
 +and that of the Roman people, who were oppressed by a few factious
 +men. Encouraged by this address, Lentulus begged leave to return to
 +the town, that the security which he had obtained for himself might
 +be an encouragement to the rest to hope for theirs; saying that some
 +were so terrified that they were induced to make desperate attempts
 +on their own lives. Leave being granted him, he departed.
 +
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +
 +When day appeared, Caesar ordered all the senators and their children,
 +the tribunes of the soldiers, and the Roman knights to be brought
 +before him. Among the persons of senatorial rank were Lucius Domitius,
 +Publius Lentulus Spinther, Lucius Vibullius Rufus, Sextus Quintilius
 +Varus, the quaestor, and Lucius Rubrius, besides the son of Domitius,
 +and several other young men, and a great number of Roman knights and
 +burgesses, whom Domitius had summoned from the municipal towns. When
 +they were brought before him he protected them from the insolence
 +and taunts of the soldiers; told them in few words that they had not
 +made him a grateful return, on their part, for his very extraordinary
 +kindness to them, and dismissed them all in safety. Sixty sestertia,
 +which Domitius had brought with him and lodged in the public treasury,
 +being brought to Caesar by the magistrates of Corfinium, he gave them
 +back to Domitius, that he might not appear more moderate with respect
 +to the life of men than in money matters, though he knew that it was
 +public money, and had been given by Pompey to pay his army. He ordered
 +Domitius'​s soldiers to take the oath to himself, and that day decamped
 +and performed the regular march. He staid only seven days before Corfinium,
 +and marched into Apulia through the country of the Marrucinians,​ Frentanian'​s
 +and Larinates. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +
 +Pompey, being informed of what had passed at Corfinium, marches from
 +Luceria to Canusium, and thence to Brundusium. He orders all the forces
 +raised every where by the new levies to repair to him. He gives arms
 +to the slaves that attended the flocks, and appoints horses for them.
 +Of these he made up about three hundred horse. Lucius, the praetor,
 +fled from Alba, with six cohorts: Rutilus, Lupus, the praetor, from
 +Tarracina, with three. These having descried Caesar'​s cavalry at a
 +distance, which were commanded by Bivius Curius, and having deserted
 +the praetor, carried their colors to Curius and went over to him.
 +In like manner, during the rest of his march, several cohorts fell
 +in with the main body of Caesar'​s army, others with his horse. Cneius
 +Magius, from Cremona, engineer-general to Pompey, was taken prisoner
 +on the road and brought to Caesar, but sent back by him to Pompey
 +with this message: "As hitherto he had not been allowed an interview,
 +and was now on his march to him at Brundusium, that it deeply concerned
 +the commonwealth and general safety that he should have an interview
 +with Pompey; and that the same advantage could not be gained at a
 +great distance when the proposals were conveyed to them by others,
 +as if terms were argued by them both in person." ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +
 +Having delivered this message he marched to Brundusium with six legions,
 +four of them veterans: the rest those which he had raised in the late
 +levy and completed on his march, for he had sent all Domitius'​s cohorts
 +immediately from Corfinium to Sicily. He discovered that the consuls
 +were gone to Dyrrachium with a considerable part of the army, and
 +that Pompey remained at Brundusium with twenty cohorts; but could
 +not find out, for a certainty, whether Pompey staid behind to keep
 +possession of Brundusium, that he might the more easily command the
 +whole Adriatic sea, with the extremities of Italy and the coast of
 +Greece, and be able to conduct the war on either side of it, or whether
 +he remained there for want of shipping; and, being afraid that Pompey
 +would come to the conclusion that he ought not to relinquish Italy,
 +he determined to deprive him of the means of communication afforded
 +by the harbor of Brundusium. The plan of his work was as follows:
 +Where the mouth of the port was narrowest he threw up a mole of earth
 +on either side, because in these places the sea was shallow. Having
 +gone out so far that the mole could not be continued in the deep water,
 +he fixed double floats, thirty feet on either side, before the mole.
 +These he fastened with four anchors at the four corners, that they
 +might not be carried away by the waves. Having completed and secured
 +them, he then joined to them other floats of equal size. These he
 +covered over with earth and mold, that he might not be prevented from
 +access to them to defend them, and in the front and on both sides
 +he protected them with a parapet of wicker work; and on every fourth
 +one raised a turret, two stories high, to secure them the better from
 +being attacked by the shipping and set on fire. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +
 +To counteract this, Pompey fitted out large merchant ships, which
 +he found in the harbor of Brundusium: on them he erected turrets three
 +stories high, and, having furnished them with several engines and
 +all sorts of weapons, drove them among Caesar'​s works, to break through
 +the floats and interrupt the works; thus there happened skirmishes
 +every day at a distance with slings, arrows, and other weapons. Caesar
 +conducted matters as if he thought that the hopes of peace were not
 +yet to be given up. And though he was very much surprised that Magius,
 +whom he had sent to Pompey with a message, was not sent back to him;
 +and though his attempting a reconciliation often retarded the vigorous
 +prosecution of his plans, yet he thought that he ought by all means
 +to persevere in the same line of conduct. He therefore sent Caninius
 +Rebilus to have an interview with Scribonius Libo, his intimate friend
 +and relation. He charges him to exhort Libo to effect a peace, but,
 +above all things, requires that he should be admitted to an interview
 +with Pompey. He declared that he had great hopes, if that were allowed
 +him, that the consequence would be that both parties would lay down
 +their arms on equal terms; that a great share of the glory and reputation
 +of that event would redound to Libo, if, through his advice and agency,
 +hostilities should be ended. Libo, having parted from the conference
 +with Caninius, went to Pompey, and, shortly after, returns with answer
 +that, as the consuls were absent, no treaty of composition could be
 +engaged in without them. Caesar therefore thought it time at length
 +to give over the attempt which he had often made in vain, and act
 +with energy in the war. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +
 +When Caesar'​s works were nearly half finished, and after nine days
 +were spent in them, the ships which had conveyed the first division
 +of the army to Dyrrachium being sent back by the consuls, returned
 +to Brundusium. Pompey, either frightened at Caesar'​s works or determined
 +from the beginning to quit Italy, began to prepare for his departure
 +on the arrival of the ships; and the more effectually to retard Caesar'​s
 +attack, lest his soldiers should force their way into the town at
 +the moment of his departure, he stopped up the gates, built walls
 +across the streets and avenues, sunk trenches across the ways, and
 +in them fixed palisadoes and sharp stakes, which he made level with
 +the ground by means of hurdles and clay. But he barricaded with large
 +beams fastened in the ground and sharpened at the ends two passages
 +and roads without the walls, which led to the port. After making these
 +arrangements,​ he ordered his soldiers to go on board without noise,
 +and disposed here and there, on the wall and turrets, some light-armed
 +veterans, archers and slingers. These he designed to call off by a
 +certain signal, when all the soldiers were embarked, and left row-galleys
 +for them in a secure place. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +
 +The people of Brundusium, irritated by the insolence of Pompey'​s soldiers,
 +and the insults received from Pompey himself, were in favor of Caesar'​s
 +party. Therefore, as soon as they were aware of Pompey'​s departure,
 +while his men were running up and down, and busied about their voyage,
 +they made signs from the tops of the houses: Caesar, being apprised
 +of the design by them, ordered scaling-ladders to be got ready, and
 +his men to take arms, that he might not lose any opportunity of coming
 +to an action. Pompey weighed anchor at nightfall. The soldiers who
 +had been posted on the wall to guard it, were called off by the signal
 +which had been agreed on, and knowing the roads, ran down to the ships.
 +Caesar'​s soldiers fixed their ladders and scaled the walls: but being
 +cautioned by the people to beware of the hidden stakes and covered
 +trenches, they halted, and being conducted by the inhabitants by a
 +long circuit, they reached the port, and captured with their long
 +boats and small craft two of Pompey'​s ships, full of soldiers, which
 +had struck against Caesar'​s moles. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +
 +Though Caesar highly approved of collecting a fleet, and crossing
 +the sea, and pursuing Pompey before he could strengthen himself with
 +his transmarine auxiliaries,​ with the hope of bringing the war to
 +a conclusion, yet he dreaded the delay and length of time necessary
 +to effect it: because Pompey, by collecting all his ships, had deprived
 +him of the means of pursuing him at present. The only resource left
 +to Caesar, was to wait for a fleet from the distant regions of Gaul,
 +Picenum, and the straits of Gibraltar. But this, on account of the
 +season of the year, appeared tedious and troublesome. He was unwilling
 +that, in the mean time, the veteran army, and the two Spains, one
 +of which was bound to Pompey by the strongest obligations,​ should
 +be confirmed in his interest; that auxiliaries and cavalry should
 +be provided, and Gaul and Italy reduced in his absence. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 30 =====
 +
 +Therefore, for the present he relinquished all intention of pursuing
 +Pompey, and resolved to march to Spain, and commanded the magistrates
 +of the free towns to procure him ships, and to have them convoyed
 +to Brundusium. He detached Valerius, his lieutenant, with one legion
 +to Sardinia; Curio, the propraetor, to Sicily with three legions;
 +and ordered him, when he had recovered Sicily, to immediately transport
 +his army to Africa. Marcus Cotta was at this time governor of Sardinia:
 +Marcus Cato, of Sicily: and Tubero, by the lots, should have had the
 +government of Africa. The Caralitani, as soon as they heard that Valerius
 +was sent against them, even before he left Italy, of their own accord
 +drove Cotta out of the town; who, terrified because he understood
 +that the whole province was combined [against him], fled from Sardinia
 +to Africa. Cato was in Sicily, repairing the old ships of war, and
 +demanding new ones from the states, and these things he performed
 +with great zeal. He was raising levies of Roman citizens, among the
 +Lucani and Brutii, by his lieutenants,​ and exacting a certain quota
 +of horse and foot from the states of Sicily. When these things were
 +nearly completed, being informed of Curio'​s approach, he made a complaint
 +that he was abandoned and betrayed by Pompey, who had undertaken an
 +unnecessary war, without making any preparation,​ and when questioned
 +by him and other members in the senate, had assured them that every
 +thing was ready and provided for the war. After having made these
 +complaints in a public assembly, he fled from his province.
 +
 +===== Chapter 31 =====
 +
 +Valerius found Sardinia, and Curio, Sicily, deserted by their governors
 +when they arrived there with their armies. When Tubero arrived in
 +Africa, he found Attius Varus in the government of the province, who,
 +having lost his cohorts, as already related, at Auximum, had straightway
 +fled to Africa, and finding it without a governor, had seized it of
 +his own accord, and making levies, had raised two legions. From his
 +acquaintance with the people and country, and his knowledge of that
 +province, he found the means of effecting this; because a few years
 +before, at the expiration of his praetorship,​ he had obtained that
 +province. He, when Tubero came to Utica with his fleet, prevented
 +his entering the port or town, and did not suffer his son, though
 +laboring under sickness, to set foot on shore; but obliged him to
 +weigh anchor and quit the place. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 32 =====
 +
 +When these affairs were dispatched, Caesar, that there might be an
 +intermission from labor for the rest of the season, drew off his soldiers
 +to the nearest municipal towns, and set off in person for Rome. Having
 +assembled the senate, he reminded them of the injustice of his enemies;
 +and told them, "That he aimed at no extraordinary honor, but had waited
 +for the time appointed by law, for standing candidate for the consulate,
 +being contented with what was allowed to every citizen. That a bill
 +had been carried by the ten tribunes of the people (notwithstanding
 +the resistance of his enemies, and a very violent opposition from
 +Cato, who in his usual manner, consumed the day by a tedious harangue)
 +that he should be allowed to stand candidate, though absent, even
 +in the consulship of Pompey; and if the latter disapproved of the
 +bill, why did he allow it to pass? if he approved of it, why should
 +he debar him [Caesar] from the people'​s favor? He made mention of
 +his own patience, in that he had freely proposed that all armies should
 +be disbanded, by which he himself would suffer the loss both of dignity
 +and honor. He urged the virulence of his enemies, who refused to comply
 +with what they required from others, and had rather that all things
 +should be thrown into confusion, than that they should lose their
 +power and their armies. He expatiated on their injustice, in taking
 +away his legions: their cruelty and insolence in abridging the privileges
 +of the tribunes; the proposals he had made, and his entreaties of
 +an interview which had been refused him. For which reasons, he begged
 +and desired that they would undertake the management of the republic,
 +and unite with him in the administration of it. But if through fear
 +they declined it, he would not be a burden to them, but take the management
 +of it on himself. That deputies ought to be sent to Pompey, to propose
 +a reconciliation;​ as he did not regard what Pompey had lately asserted
 +in the senate, that authority was acknowledged to be vested in those
 +persons to whom embassadors were sent, and fear implied in those that
 +sent them. That these were the sentiments of low, weak minds: that
 +for his part, as he had made it his study to surpass others in glory,
 +so he was desirous of excelling them in justice and equity."​
 +
 +===== Chapter 33 =====
 +
 +The senate approved of sending deputies, but none could be found fit
 +to execute the commission: for every person, from his own private
 +fears, declined the office. For Pompey, on leaving the city, had declared
 +in the open senate, that he would hold in the same degree of estimation,
 +those who staid in Rome and those in Caesar'​s camp. Thus three days
 +were wasted in disputes and excuses. Besides, Lucius Metellus, one
 +of the tribunes, was suborned by Caesar'​s enemies, to prevent this,
 +and to embarrass every thing else which Caesar should propose. Caesar
 +having discovered his intention, after spending several days to no
 +purpose, left the city, in order that he might not lose any more time,
 +and went to Transalpine Gaul, without effecting what he had intended.
 +
 +===== Chapter 34 =====
 +
 +On his arrival there, he was informed that Vibullius Rufus, whom he
 +had taken a few days before at Corfinium, and set at liberty, was
 +sent by Pompey into Spain; and that Domitius also was gone to seize
 +Massilia with seven row-galleys,​ which were fitted up by some private
 +persons at Igilium and Cosa, and which he had manned with his own
 +slaves, freedmen, and colonists: and that some young noble men of
 +Massilia had been sent before him; whom Pompey, when leaving Rome
 +had exhorted, that the late services of Caesar should not erase from
 +their minds the memory of his former favors. On receiving this message,
 +the Massilians had shut their gates against Caesar, and invited over
 +to them the Albici, who had formerly been in alliance with them, and
 +who inhabited the mountains that overhung Massilia: they had likewise
 +conveyed the corn from the surrounding country, and from all the forts
 +into the city; had opened armories in the city; and were repairing
 +the walls, the fleet, and the gates. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 35 =====
 +
 +Caesar sent for fifteen of the principal persons of Massilia to attend
 +him. To prevent the war commencing among them, he remonstrates [in
 +the following language]; "that they ought to follow the precedent
 +set by all Italy, rather than submit to the will of any one man."
 +He made use of such arguments as he thought would tend to bring them
 +to reason. The deputies reported his speech to their countrymen, and
 +by the authority of the state bring him back this answer: "That they
 +understood that the Roman people was divided into two factions: that
 +they had neither judgment nor abilities to decide which had the juster
 +cause; but that the heads of these factions were Cneius Pompey and
 +Caius Caesar, the two patrons of the state: the former of whom had
 +granted to their state the lands of the Vocae Arecomici, and Helvii;
 +the latter had assigned them a part of his conquests in Gaul, and
 +had augmented their revenue. Wherefore, having received equal favors
 +from both, they ought to show equal affection to both, and assist
 +neither against the other, nor admit either into their city or harbors."​
 +
 +===== Chapter 36 =====
 +
 +While this treaty was going forward, Domitius arrived at Massilia
 +with his fleet, and was received into the city, and made governor
 +of it. The chief management of the war was intrusted to him. At his
 +command they send the fleet to all parts; they seize all the merchantmen
 +they could meet with, and carry them into the harbor; they apply the
 +nails, timber, and rigging, with which they were furnished to rig
 +and refit their other vessels. They lay up in the public stores, all
 +the corn that was found in the ships, and reserve the rest of their
 +lading and convoy for the siege of the town, should such an event
 +take place. Provoked at such ill treatment, Caesar led three legions
 +against Massilia, and resolved to provide turrets, and vineae to assault
 +the town, and to build twelve ships at Arelas, which being completed
 +and rigged in thirty days (from the time the timber was cut down),
 +and being brought to Massilia, he put under the command of Decimus
 +Brutus; and left Caius Trebonius his lieutenant, to invest the city.
 +
 +===== Chapter 37 =====
 +
 +end first part of audio second part of audio relates onwards from Chapter 37
 +
 +While he was preparing and getting these things in readiness, he sent
 +Caius Fabius one of his lieutenants into Spain with three legions,
 +which he had disposed to winter quarters in Narbo, and the neighboring
 +country; and ordered him immediately to seize the passes of the Pyrenees,
 +which were at that time occupied by detachments from Lucius Afranius,
 +one of Pompey'​s lieutenants. He desired the other legions, which were
 +passing the winter at a great distance, to follow close after him.
 +Fabius, according to his orders, by using expedition, dislodged the
 +party from the hills, and by hasty marches came up with the army of
 +Afranius. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 38 =====
 +
 +On the arrival of Vibullius Rufus, whom, we have already mentioned,
 +Pompey had sent into Spain, Afranius, Petreius, and Varro, his lieutenants
 +(one of whom had the command of Hither Spain, with three legions;
 +the second of the country from the forest of Castulo to the river
 +Guadiana with two legions; the third from the river Guadiana to the
 +country of the Vettones and Lusitania, with the like number of legions)
 +divided among themselves their respective departments. Petreius was
 +to march from Lusitania through the Vettones, and join Afranius with
 +all his forces; Varro was to guard all Further Spain with what legions
 +he had. These matters being settled, reinforcements of horse and foot
 +were demanded from Lusitania, by Petreius; from the Celtiberi, Cantabri,
 +and all the barbarous nations which border on the ocean, by Afranius.
 +When they were raised, Petreius immediately marched through the Vettones
 +to Afranius. They resolved by joint consent to carry on the war in
 +the vicinity of Herba, on account of the advantages of its situation.
 +
 +===== Chapter 39 =====
 +
 +Afranius, as above mentioned, had three legions, Petreius two. There
 +were besides about eighty cohorts raised in Hither and Further Spain
 +(of which, the troops belonging to the former province had shields,
 +those of the latter targets), and about five thousand horse raised
 +in both provinces. Caesar had sent his legions into Spain, with about
 +six thousand auxiliary foot, and three thousand horse, which had served
 +under him in all his former wars, and the same number from Gaul, which
 +he himself had provided, having expressly called out all the most
 +noble and valiant men of each state. The bravest of these were from
 +the Aquitani and the mountaineers,​ who border on the Province in Gaul.
 +He had been informed that Pompey was marching through Mauritania with
 +his legions to Spain, and would shortly arrive. He at the same time
 +borrowed money from the tribunes and centurions, which he distributed
 +among his soldiers. By this proceeding he gained two points; he secured
 +the interest of the centurions by this pledge in his hands, and by
 +his liberality he purchased the affections of his army. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 40 =====
 +
 +Fabius sounded the inclinations of the neighboring states by letters
 +and messengers. He had made two bridges over the river Segre, at the
 +distance of four miles from each other. He sent foraging parties over
 +these bridges, because he had already consumed all the forage that
 +was on his side of the river. The generals of Pompey'​s army did almost
 +the same thing, and for the same reason: and the horse had frequent
 +skirmishes with each other. When two of Fabius'​s legions had, as was
 +their constant practice, gone forth as the usual protection to the
 +foragers, and had crossed the river, and the baggage, and all the
 +horse were following them, on a sudden, from the weight of the cattle,
 +and the mass of water, the bridge fell, and all the horse were cut
 +off from the main army, which being known to Petreius and Afranius,
 +from the timber and hurdles that were carried down the river, Afranius
 +immediately crossed his own bridge, which communicated between his
 +camp and the town, with four legions and all the cavalry, and marched
 +against Fabius'​s two legions. When his approach was announced, Lucius
 +Plancus, who had the command of those legions, compelled by the emergency,
 +took post on a rising ground; and drew up his army with two fronts,
 +that it might not be surrounded by the cavalry. Thus, though engaged
 +with superior numbers, he sustained the furious charge of the legions
 +and the horse. When the battle was begun by the horse, there were
 +observed at a distance by both sides the colors of two legions, which
 +Caius Fabius had sent round by the further bridge to reinforce our
 +men, suspecting, as the event verified, that the enemy'​s generals
 +would take advantage of the opportunity which fortune had put in their
 +way, to attack our men. Their approach put an end to the battle, and
 +each general led back his legions to their respective camps.
 +
 +===== Chapter 41 =====
 +
 +In two days after Caesar came to the camp with nine hundred horse,
 +which he had retained for a body guard. The bridge which had been
 +broken down by the storm was almost repaired, and he ordered it to
 +be finished in the night. Being acquainted with the nature of the
 +country, he left behind him six cohorts to guard the bridge, the camp,
 +and all his baggage, and the next day set off in person for Ilerda,
 +with all his forces drawn up in three lines, and halted just before
 +the camp of Afranius, and having remained there a short time under
 +arms, he offered him battle on equal terms. When this affair was made,
 +Afranius drew out his forces, and posted them on the middle of a hill,
 +near his camp. When Caesar perceived that Afranius declined coming
 +to an engagement, he resolved to encamp at somewhat less than half
 +a mile's distance from the very foot of the mountain; and that his
 +soldiers while engaged in their works, might not be terrified by any
 +sudden attack of the enemy, or disturbed in their work, he ordered
 +them not to fortify it with a wall, which must rise high, and be seen
 +at a distance, but draw, on the front opposite the enemy, a trench
 +fifteen feet broad. The first and second lines confined under arms,
 +as was from the first appointed. Behind them the third line was carrying
 +on the work without being seen; so that the whole was completed before
 +Afranius discovered that the camp was being fortified. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 42 =====
 +
 +In the evening Caesar drew his legions within this trench, and rested
 +them under arms the next night. The day following he kept his whole
 +army within it, and as it was necessary to bring materials from a
 +considerable distance, he for the present pursued the same plan in
 +his work; and to each legion, one after the other, he assigned one
 +side of the camp to fortify, and ordered trenches of the same magnitude
 +to be cut: he kept the rest of the legions under arms without baggage
 +to oppose the enemy. Afranius and Petreius, to frighten us and obstruct
 +the work, drew out their forces at the very foot of the mountain,
 +and challenged us to battle. Caesar, however, did not interrupt his
 +work, relying on the protection of the three legions, and the strength
 +of the fosse. After staying for a short time, and advancing no great
 +distance from the bottom of the hill, they led back their forces to
 +their camp. The third day Caesar fortified his camp with a rampart,
 +and ordered the other cohorts which he had left in the upper camp,
 +and his baggage to be removed to it. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 43 =====
 +
 +Between the town of Ilerda and the next hill, on which Afranius and
 +Petreius were encamped, there was a plain about three hundred paces
 +broad, and near the middle of it an eminence somewhat raised above
 +the level: Caesar hoped that if he could get possession of this and
 +fortify it, he should be able to cut off the enemy from the town,
 +the bridge, and all the stores which they had laid up in the town.
 +In expectation of this he led three legions out of the camp, and,
 +drawing up his army in an advantageous position, he ordered the advanced
 +men of one legion to hasten forward and seize the eminence. Upon intelligence
 +of this the cohorts which were on guard before Afranius'​s camp were
 +instantly sent a nearer way to occupy the same post. The two parties
 +engage, and as Afranius'​s men had reached the eminence first, our
 +men were repulsed, and, on a reinforcement being sent, they were obliged
 +to turn their backs and retreat to the standards of legions.
 +
 +===== Chapter 44 =====
 +
 +The manner of fighting of those soldiers was to run forward with great
 +impetuosity and boldly take a post, and not to keep their ranks strictly,
 +but to fight in small scattered parties: if hard pressed they thought
 +it no disgrace to retire and give up the post, being accustomed to
 +this manner of fighting among the Lusitanians and other barbarous
 +nations; for it commonly happens that soldiers are strongly influenced
 +by the customs of those countries in which they have spent much time.
 +This method, however, alarmed our men, who were not used to such a
 +description of warfare. For they imagined that they were about to
 +be surrounded on their exposed flank by the single men who ran forward
 +from their ranks; and they thought it their duty to keep their ranks,
 +and not to quit their colors, nor, without good reason to give up
 +the post which they had taken. Accordingly,​ when the advanced guard
 +gave way, the legion which was stationed on that wing did not keep
 +its ground, but retreated to the next hill. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 45 =====
 +
 +Almost the whole army being daunted at this, because it had occurred
 +contrary to their expectations and custom, Caesar encouraged his men
 +and led the ninth legion to their relief, and checked the insolent
 +and eager pursuit of the enemy, and obliged them, in their turn, to
 +show their backs, and retreat to Ilerda, and take post under the walls.
 +But the soldiers of the ninth legion, being over zealous to repair
 +the dishonor which had been sustained, having rashly pursued the fleeing
 +enemy, advanced into disadvantageous ground and went up to the foot
 +of the mountain on which the town Ilerda was built. And when they
 +wished to retire they were again attacked by the enemy from the rising
 +ground. The place was craggy in the front and steep on either side,
 +and was so narrow that even three cohorts, drawn up in order of battle,
 +would fill it; but no relief could be sent on the flanks, and the
 +horse could be of no service to them when hard pressed. From the town,
 +indeed, the precipice inclined with a gentle slope for near four hundred
 +paces. Our men had to retreat this way, as they had, through their
 +eagerness, advanced too inconsiderately. The greatest contest was
 +in this place, which was much to the disadvantage of our troops, both
 +on account of its narrowness, and because they were posted at the
 +foot of the mountain, so that no weapon was thrown at them without
 +effect; yet they exerted their valor and patience, and bore every
 +wound. The enemy'​s forces were increasing, and cohorts were frequently
 +sent to their aid from the camp through the town, that fresh men might
 +relieve the weary. Caesar was obliged to do the same, and relieve
 +the fatigued by sending cohorts to that post. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 46 =====
 +
 +After the battle had in this manner continued incessantly for five
 +hours, and our men had suffered much from superior numbers, having
 +spent all their javelins, they drew their swords and charged the enemy
 +up the hill, and, having killed a few, obliged the rest to fly. The
 +cohorts being beaten back to the wall, and some being driven by their
 +fears into the town, an easy retreat was afforded to our men. Our
 +cavalry also, on either flank, though stationed on sloping or low
 +ground, yet bravely struggled up to the top of the hill, and, riding
 +between the two armies, made our retreat more easy and secure. Such
 +were the various turns of fortune in the battle. In the first encounter
 +about seventy of our men fell: among them Quintus Fulgenius, first
 +centurion of the second line of the fourteenth legion, who, for his
 +extraordinary valor, had been promoted from the lower ranks to that
 +post. About six hundred were wounded. Of Afranius'​s party there were
 +killed Titus Caecilius, principal centurion, and four other centurions,
 +and above two hundred men. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 47 =====
 +
 +But this opinion is spread abroad concerning this day, that each party
 +thought that they came off conquerors. Afranius'​s soldiers, because,
 +though they were esteemed inferior in the opinion of all, yet they
 +had stood our attack and sustained our charge, and, at first, had
 +kept the post on the hill which had been the occasion of the dispute;
 +and, in the first encounter, had obliged our men to fly: but ours,
 +because, notwithstanding the disadvantage of the ground and the disparity
 +of numbers, they had maintained the battle for five hours, had advanced
 +up the hill sword in hand, and had forced the enemy to fly from the
 +higher ground and driven them into the town. The enemy fortified the
 +hill, about which the contest had been, with strong works and posted
 +a garrison on it. 
 +
 +===== Chapter 48 =====
 +
 +In two days after this transaction,​ there happened an unexpected misfortune.
 +For so great a storm arose, that it was agreed that there were never
 +seen higher floods in those countries; it swept down the snow from
 +all the mountains, and broke over the banks of the river, and in one
 +day carried away both the bridges which Fabius had built - a circumstance
 +which caused great difficulties to Caesar'​s army. For as our camp,
 +as already mentioned, was pitched between two rivers, the Segre and
 +Cinca, and as neither of these could be forded for the space of thirty
 +miles, they were all of necessity confined within these narrow limits.
 +Neither could the states, which had espoused Caesar'​s cause, furnish
 +him with corn, nor the troops, which had gone far to forage, return,
 +as they were stopped by the waters: nor could the convoys, coming
 +from Italy and Gaul, make their way to the camp. Besides, it was the
 +most distressing season of the year, when there was no corn in the
 +blade, and it was nearly ripe: and the states were exhausted, because
 +Afranius had conveyed almost all the corn, before Caesar'​s arrival,
 +into Ilerda, and whatever he had left, had been already consumed by
 +Caesar. The cattle, which might have served as a secondary resource
 +against want, had been removed by the states to a great distance on
 +account of the war. They who had gone out to get forage or corn, were
 +chased by the light troops of the Lusitanians,​ and the targeteers
 +of Hither Spain, who were well acquainted with the country, and could
 +readily swim across the river, because it is the custom of all those
 +people not to join their armies without bladders. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 49 =====
 +
 +But Afranius'​s army had abundance of everything; a great stock of
 +corn had been provided and laid in long before, a large quantity was
 +coming in from the whole province: they had a good store of forage.
 +The bridge of Ilerda afforded an opportunity of getting all these
 +without any danger, and the places beyond the bridge, to which Caesar
 +had no access, were as yet untouched. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 50 =====
 +
 +Those floods continued several days. Caesar endeavored to repair the
 +bridges, but the height of the water did not allow him: and the cohorts
 +disposed along the banks did not suffer them to be completed; and
 +it was easy for them to prevent it, both from the nature of the river
 +and the height of the water, but especially because their darts were
 +thrown from the whole course of the bank on one confined spot; and
 +it was no easy matter at one and the same time to execute a work in
 +a very rapid flood, and to avoid the darts. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 51 =====
 +
 +Intelligence was brought to Afranius that the great convoys, which
 +were on their march to Caesar, had halted at the river. Archers from
 +the Rutheni, and horse from the Gauls, with a long train of baggage,
 +according to the Gallic custom of traveling, had arrived there; there
 +were besides about six thousand people of all descriptions,​ with slaves
 +and freed men. But there was no order, or regular discipline, as every
 +one followed his own humor, and all traveled without apprehension,​
 +taking the same liberty as on former marches. There were several young
 +noblemen, sons of senators, and of equestrian rank; there were embassadors
 +from several states; there were lieutenants of Caesar'​s. The river
 +stopped them all. To attack them by surprise, Afranius set out in
 +the beginning of the night, with all his cavalry and three legions,
 +and sent the horse on before, to fall on them unawares; but the Gallic
 +horse soon got themselves in readiness, and attacked them. Though
 +but few, they withstood the vast number of the enemy, as long as they
 +fought on equal terms; but when the legions began to approach, having
 +lost a few men, they retreated to the next mountains. The delay occasioned
 +by this battle was of great importance to the security of our men;
 +for having gained time, they retired to the higher grounds. There
 +were missing that day about two hundred bow-men, a few horse, and
 +an inconsiderable number of servants and baggage. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 52 =====
 +
 +However, by all these things, the price of provisions was raised,
 +which is commonly a disaster attendant, not only on a time of present
 +scarcity, but on the apprehension of future want. Provisions had now
 +reached fifty denarii each bushel; and the want of corn had diminished
 +the strength of the soldiers; and the inconveniences were increasing
 +every day; and so great an alteration was wrought in a few days, and
 +fortune had so changed sides, that our men had to struggle with the
 +want of every necessary; while the enemy had an abundant supply of
 +all things, and were considered to have the advantage. Caesar demanded
 +from those states which had acceded to his alliance, a supply of cattle,
 +as they had but little corn. He sent away the camp followers to the
 +more distant states, and endeavored to remedy the present scarcity
 +by every resource in his power. ​
 +
 +===== Chapter 53 =====
 +
 +Afranius and Petreius, and their friends, sent fuller and more
 +circumstantial accounts of these things to Rome, to their
 +acquaintances. Report exaggerated them so that the war appeared to be
 +almost at an end. When these letters and dispatches were received at
 +Rome, a great concourse of people resorted to the house of Afranius,
 +and congratulations ran high; several went out of Italy to Cneius
 +Pompey; some of them, to be the first to bring him the intelligence;​
 +others, that they might not be thought to have waited the issue of the
 +war, and to have come last of all.
 +
 +===== Chapter 54 =====
 +
 +When Caesar'​s affairs were in this unfavorable position, and all the
 +passes were guarded by the soldiers and horse of Afranius, and the
 +bridges could not be prepared, Caesar ordered his soldiers to make
 +ships of the kind that his knowledge of Britain a few years before had
 +taught him. First, the keels and ribs were made of light timber, then,
 +the rest of the hulk of the ships was wrought with wicker work, and
 +covered over with hides. When these were finished, he drew them down
 +to the river in wagons in one night, a distance of twenty-two miles
 +from his camp, and transported in them some soldiers across the river,
 +and on a sudden took possession of a hill adjoining the bank. This he
 +immediately fortified, before he was perceived by the enemy. To this
 +he afterward transported a legion: and having begun a bridge on both
 +sides, he finished it in two days. By this means, he brought safe to
 +his camp, the convoys, and those who had gone out to forage; and began
 +to prepare a conveyance for the provisions.
 +
 +===== Chapter 55 =====
 +
 +The same day he made a great part of his horse pass the river, who,
 +falling on the foragers by surprise as they were dispersed without any
 +suspicions, intercepted an incredible number of cattle and people; and
 +when some Spanish light-armed cohorts were sent to reinforce the
 +enemy, our men judiciously divided themselves into two parts, the one
 +to protect the spoil, the other to resist the advancing foe, and to
 +beat them back, and they cut off from the rest and surrounded one
 +cohort, which had rashly ventured out of the line before the others,
 +and after putting it to the sword, returned safe with considerable
 +booty to the camp over the same bridge.
 +
 +===== Chapter 56 =====
 +
 +While these affairs are going forward at Ilerda, the Massilians,
 +adopting the advice of Domitius, prepared seventeen ships of war, of
 +which eleven were decked. To these they add several smaller vessels,
 +that our fleet might be terrified by numbers; they man them with a
 +great number of archers and of the Albici, of whom mention has been
 +already made, and these they incited by rewards and promises. Domitius
 +required certain ships for his own use, which he manned with colonists
 +and shepherds, whom he had brought along with him. A fleet being thus
 +furnished with every necessary, he advanced with great confidence
 +against our ships, commanded by Decimus Brutus. It was stationed at an
 +island opposite to Massilia.
 +
 +===== Chapter 57 =====
 +
 +Brutus was much inferior in number of ships; but Caesar had appointed
 +to that fleet the bravest men selected from all his legions,
 +antesignani and centurions, who had requested to be employed in that
 +service. ​ They had provided iron hooks and harpoons, and had furnished
 +themselves with a vast number of javelins, darts, and missiles. Thus
 +prepared, and being apprised of the enemy'​s approach, they put out
 +from the harbor, and engaged the Massilians. Both sides fought with
 +great courage and resolution; nor did the Albici, a hardy people, bred
 +on the highlands and inured to arms, fall much short of our men in
 +valor: and being lately come from the Massilians, they retained in
 +their minds their recent promises: and the wild shepherds, encouraged
 +by the hope of liberty, were eager to prove their zeal in the presence
 +of their masters.
 +
 +===== Chapter 58 =====
 +
 +The Massilians themselves, confiding in the quickness of their ships,
 +and the skill of their pilots, eluded ours, and evaded the shock, and
 +as long as they were permitted by clear space, lengthening their line
 +they endeavored to surround us, or to attack single ships with several
 +of theirs, or to run across our ships, and carry away our oars, if
 +possible; but when necessity obliged them to come nearer, they had
 +recourse, from the skill and art of the pilots, to the valor of the
 +mountaineers. But our men, not having such expert seamen, or skillful
 +pilots, for they had been hastily drafted from the merchant ships, and
 +were not yet acquainted even with the names of the rigging, were
 +moreover impeded by the heaviness and slowness of our vessels, which
 +having been built in a hurry and of green timber, were not so easily
 +maneuvered. Therefore, when Caesar'​s men had an opportunity of a close
 +engagement, they cheerfully opposed two of the enemy'​s ships with one
 +of theirs. And throwing in the grappling-irons,​ and holding both ships
 +fast, they fought on both sides of the deck, and boarded the enemy'​s;​
 +and having killed numbers of the Albici and shepherds, they sank some
 +of their ships, took others with the men on board, and drove the rest
 +into the harbor. That day the Massilians lost nine ships, including
 +those that were taken.
 +
 +===== Chapter 59 =====
 +
 +When news of this battle was brought to Caesar at Ilerda, the bridge
 +being completed at the same time, fortune soon took a turn. The enemy,
 +daunted by the courage of our horse, did not scour the country as
 +freely or as boldly as before: but sometimes advancing a small
 +distance from the camp, that they might have a ready retreat, they
 +foraged within narrower bounds: at other times, they took a longer
 +circuit to avoid our outposts and parties of horse; or having
 +sustained some loss, or descried our horse at a distance, they fled in
 +the midst of their expedition, leaving their baggage behind them; at
 +length they resolved to leave off foraging for several days, and,
 +contrary to the practice of all nations, to go out at night.
 +
 +===== Chapter 60 =====
 +
 +In the mean time the Oscenses and the Calagurritani,​ who were under
 +the government of the Oscenses, send embassadors to Caesar, and offer
 +to submit to his orders. They are followed by the Tarraconenses,​
 +Jacetani, and Ausetani, and in a few days more by the Illurgavonenses,​
 +who dwell near the river Ebro. He requires of them all, to assist him
 +with corn, to which they agreed, and having collected all the cattle
 +in the country, they convey them into his camp. One entire cohort of
 +the Illurgavonenses,​ knowing the design of their state, came over to
 +Caesar, from the place where they were stationed, and carried their
 +colors with them. A great change is shortly made in the face of
 +affairs. The bridge being finished, five powerful states being joined
 +to Caesar, a way opened for the receiving of corn, and the rumors of
 +the assistance of legions which were said to be on their march, with
 +Pompey at their head, through Mauritania, having died away, several of
 +the more distant states revolt from Afranius, and enter into league
 +with Caesar.
 +
 +===== Chapter 61 =====
 +
 +While the spirits of the enemy were dismayed at these things, Caesar,
 +that he might not be always obliged to send his horse a long circuit
 +round by the bridge, having found a convenient place, began to sink
 +several drains, thirty feet deep, by which he might draw off a part of
 +the river Segre, and make a ford over it. When these were almost
 +finished, Afranius and Petreius began to be greatly alarmed, lest they
 +should be altogether cut off from corn and forage, because Caesar was
 +very strong in cavalry. They therefore resolved to quit their posts,
 +and to transfer the war to Celtiberia. There was, moreover, a
 +circumstance that confirmed them in this resolution: for of the two
 +adverse parties, that, which had stood by Sertorius in the late war,
 +being conquered by Pompey, still trembled at his name and sway, though
 +absent: the other which had remained firm in Pompey'​s interest, loved
 +him for the favors which they had received: but Caesar'​s name was not
 +known to the barbarians. From these they expected considerable aid,
 +both of horse and foot, and hoped to protract the war till winter, in
 +a friendly country. Having come to this resolution, they gave orders
 +to collect all the ships in the river Ebro, and to bring them to
 +Octogesa, a town situated on the river Ebro, about twenty miles
 +distant from their camp. At this part of the river, they ordered a
 +bridge to be made of boats fastened together, and transported two
 +legions over the river Segre, and fortified their camp with a rampart,
 +twelve feet high.
 +
 +===== Chapter 62 =====
 +
 +Notice of this being given by the scouts, Caesar continued his work
 +day and night, with very great fatigue to the soldiers, to drain the
 +river, and so far effected his purpose, that the horse were both able
 +and bold enough, though with some difficulty and danger, to pass the
 +river; but the foot had only their shoulders and upper part of their
 +breast above the water, so that their fording it was retarded, not
 +only by the depth of the water, but also by the rapidity of the
 +current. ​ However, almost at the same instant, news was received of
 +the bridge being nearly completed over the Ebro, and a ford was found
 +in the Segre.
 +
 +===== Chapter 63 =====
 +
 +Now indeed the enemy began to think that they ought to hasten their
 +march. Accordingly,​ leaving two auxiliary cohorts in the garrison at
 +Ilerda, they crossed the Segre with their whole force, and formed one
 +camp with the two legions which they had led across a few days
 +before. Caesar had no resource, but to annoy and cut down their rear;
 +since with his cavalry to go by the bridge, required him to take a
 +long circuit; so that they would arrive at the Ebro by a much shorter
 +route. The horse, which he had detached, crossed the ford, and when
 +Afranius and Petreius had broken up their camp about the third watch,
 +they suddenly appeared on their rear, and spreading round them in
 +great numbers, retard and impede their march.
 +
 +===== Chapter 64 =====
 +
 +At break of day, it was perceived from the rising grounds which joined
 +Caesar'​s camp, that their rear was vigorously pressed by our horse;
 +that the last line sometimes halted and was broken; at other times,
 +that they joined battle and that our men were beaten back by a general
 +charge of their cohorts, and, in their turn, pursued them when they
 +wheeled about: but through the whole camp the soldiers gathered in
 +parties, and declared their chagrin that the enemy had been suffered
 +to escape from their hands and that the war had been unnecessarily
 +protracted. They applied to their tribunes and centurions, and
 +entreated them to inform Caesar that he need not spare their labor or
 +consider their danger; that they were ready and able, and would
 +venture to ford the river where the horse had crossed. Caesar,
 +encouraged by their zeal and importunity,​ though he felt reluctant to
 +expose his army to a river so exceedingly large, yet judged it prudent
 +to attempt it and make a trial. Accordingly,​ he ordered all the weaker
 +soldiers, whose spirit or strength seemed unequal to the fatigue, to
 +be selected from each century, and left them, with one legion besides,
 +to guard the camp: the rest of the legions he drew out without any
 +baggage, and, having disposed a great number of horses in the river,
 +above and below the ford, he led his army over. A few of his soldiers
 +being carried away by the force of the current, were stopped by the
 +horse and taken up, and not a man perished. His army being safe on the
 +opposite bank, he drew out his forces and resolved to lead them
 +forward in three battalions: and so great was the ardor of the
 +soldiers that, notwithstanding the addition of a circuit of six miles
 +and a considerable delay in fording the river, before the ninth hour
 +of the day they came up with those who had set out at the third watch.
 +
 +===== Chapter 65 =====
 +
 +When Afranius, who was in company with Petreius, saw them at a
 +distance, being affrighted at so unexpected a sight, he halted on a
 +rising ground and drew up his army. Caesar refreshed his army on the
 +plain that he might not expose them to battle while fatigued; and when
 +the enemy attempted to renew their march, he pursued and stopped
 +them. They were obliged to pitch their camp sooner than they had
 +intended, for there were mountains at a small distance; and difficult
 +and narrow roads awaited them about five miles off. They retired
 +behind these mountains that they might avoid Caesar'​s cavalry, and,
 +placing parties in the narrow roads, stop the progress of his army and
 +lead their own forces across the Ebro without danger or
 +apprehension. This it was their interest to attempt and to effect by
 +any means possible; but, fatigued by the skirmishes all day, and by
 +the labor of their march, they deferred it till the following day;
 +Caesar likewise encamped on the next hill.
 +
 +===== Chapter 66 =====
 +
 +About midnight a few of their men who had gone some distance from the
 +camp to fetch water, being taken by our horse, Caesar is informed by
 +them that the generals of the enemy were drawing their troops out of
 +the camp without noise. Upon this information Caesar ordered the
 +signal to be given and the military shout to be raised for packing up
 +the baggage. When they heard the shout, being afraid lest they should
 +be stopped in the night and obliged to engage under their baggage, or
 +lest they should be confined in the narrow roads by Caesar'​s horse,
 +they put a stop to their march and kept their forces in their camp.
 +The next day Petreius went out privately with a few horse to
 +reconnoitre the country. A similar movement was made from Caesar'​s
 +camp. Lucius Decidius Saxa, was detached with a small party to explore
 +the nature of the country. Each returned with the same account to his
 +camp, that there was a level road for the next five miles, that there
 +then succeeded a rough and mountainous country. Whichever should first
 +obtain possession of the defiles would have no trouble in preventing
 +the other'​s progress.
 +
 +===== Chapter 67 =====
 +
 +There was a debate in the council between Afranius and Petreius, and
 +the time of marching was the subject. The majority were of opinion
 +that they should begin their march at night, "for they might reach the
 +defiles before they should be discovered."​ Others, because a shout had
 +been raised the night before in Caesar'​s camp, used this as an
 +argument that they could not leave the camp unnoticed: "that Caesar'​s
 +cavalry were patrolling the whole night, and that all the ways and
 +roads were beset; that battles at night ought to be avoided, because,
 +in civil dissension, a soldier once daunted is more apt to consult his
 +fears than his oath; that the daylight raised a strong sense of shame
 +in the eyes of all, and that the presence of the tribunes and
 +centurions had the same effect: by these things the soldiers would be
 +restrained and awed to their duty. Wherefore they should, by all
 +means, attempt to force their way by day; for, though a trifling loss
 +might be sustained, yet the post which they desired might be secured
 +with safety to the main body of the army." This opinion prevailed in
 +the council, and the next day, at the dawn, they resolved to set
 +forward.
 +
 +===== Chapter 68 =====
 +
 +Caesar, having taken a view of the country, the moment the sky began
 +to grow white, led his forces from the camp and marched at the head of
 +his army by a long circuit, keeping to no regular road; for the road
 +which led to the Ebro and Octogesa was occupied by the enemy'​s camp,
 +which lay in Caesar'​s way. His soldiers were obliged to cross
 +extensive and difficult valleys. Craggy cliffs, in several places,
 +interrupted their march, insomuch that their arms had to be handed to
 +one another, and the soldiers were forced to perform a great part of
 +their march unarmed, and were lifted up the rocks by each other. ​ But
 +not a man murmured at the fatigue, because they imagined that there
 +would be a period to all their toils, if they could cut off the enemy
 +from the Ebro and intercept their convoys.
 +
 +===== Chapter 69 =====
 +
 +At first, Afranius'​s soldiers ran in high spirits from their camp to
 +look at us, and in contumelious language upbraided us, "that we were
 +forced, for want of necessary subsistence,​ to run away, and return to
 +Ilerda."​ For our route was different from what we proposed, and we
 +appeared to be going a contrary way. But their generals applauded
 +their own prudence in keeping within their camp, and it was a strong
 +confirmation of their opinion, that they saw we marched without wagons
 +or baggage, which made them confident that we could not long endure
 +want. But when they saw our army gradually wheel to the right, and
 +observed our van was already passing the line of their camp, there was
 +nobody so stupid, or averse to fatigue, as not to think it necessary
 +to march from the camp immediately,​ and oppose us. The cry to arms was
 +raised, and all the army, except a few which were left to guard the
 +camp, set out and marched the direct road to the Ebro.
 +
 +===== Chapter 70 =====
 +
 +The contest depended entirely on dispatch, which should first get
 +possession of the defile and the mountains. The difficulty of the
 +roads delayed Caesar'​s army, but his cavalry pursuing Afranius'​s
 +forces, retarded their march. However, the affair was necessarily
 +reduced to this point, with respect to Afranius'​s men, that if they
 +first gained the mountains, which they desired, they would themselves
 +avoid all danger, but could not save the baggage of their whole army,
 +nor the cohorts which they had left behind in the camps, to which,
 +being intercepted by Caesar'​s army, by no means could assistance be
 +given. ​ Caesar first accomplished the march, and having found a plain
 +behind large rocks, drew up his army there in order of battle and
 +facing the enemy. Afranius, perceiving that his rear was galled by our
 +cavalry, and seeing the enemy before him, having come to a hill, made
 +a halt on it. Thence he detached four cohorts of Spanish light
 +infantry to the highest mountain which was in view: to this he ordered
 +them to hasten with all expedition, and to take possession of it, with
 +the intention of going to the same place with all his forces, then
 +altering his route, and crossing the hills to Octogesa. As the
 +Spaniards were making toward it in an oblique direction, Caesar'​s
 +horse espied them and attacked them, nor were they able to withstand
 +the charge of the cavalry even for a moment, but were all surrounded
 +and cut to pieces in the sight of the two armies.
 +
 +===== Chapter 71 =====
 +
 +There was now an opportunity for managing affairs successfully,​ nor
 +did it escape Caesar, that an army daunted at suffering such a loss
 +before their eyes, could not stand, especially as they were surrounded
 +by our horse, and the engagement would take place on even and open
 +ground. To this he was importuned on all sides. The lieutenants,​
 +centurions, and tribunes, gathered round him, and begged "that he
 +would not hesitate to begin the battle: that the hearts of all the
 +soldiers were very anxious for it: that Afranius'​s men had by several
 +circumstances betrayed signs of fear; in that they had not assisted
 +their party; in that they had not quitted the hill; in that they did
 +not sustain the charge of our cavalry, but crowding their standards
 +into one place, did not observe either rank or order. But if he had
 +any apprehensions from the disadvantage of the ground, that an
 +opportunity would be given him of coming to battle in some other
 +place: for that Afranius must certainly come down, and would not be
 +able to remain there for want of water."​
 +
 +===== Chapter 72 =====
 +
 +Caesar had conceived hopes of ending the affair without an engagement,
 +or without striking a blow, because he had cut off the enemy'​s
 +supplies. ​ Why should he hazard the loss of any of his men, even in a
 +successful battle? Why should he expose soldiers to be wounded, who
 +had deserved so well of him? Why, in short, should he tempt fortune?
 +especially when it was as much a general'​s duty to conquer by tactics
 +as by the sword. Besides, he was moved with compassion for those
 +citizens, who, he foresaw, must fall: and he had rather gain his
 +object without any loss or injury to them. This resolution of Caesar
 +was not generally approved of; but the soldiers openly declared to
 +each other that since such an opportunity of victory was let pass,
 +they would not come to an engagement, even when Caesar should wish
 +it. He persevered however in his resolution, and retired a little from
 +that place to abate the enemy'​s fears. Petreius and Afranius, having
 +got this opportunity,​ retired to their camp. Caesar, having disposed
 +parties on the mountains, and cut off all access to the Ebro,
 +fortified his camp as close to the enemy as he could.
 +
 +===== Chapter 73 =====
 +
 +The day following, the generals of his opponents, being alarmed that
 +they had lost all prospect of supplies, and of access to the Ebro,
 +consulted as to what other course they should take. There were two
 +roads, one to Ilerda, if they chose to return, the other to Tarraco,
 +if they should march to it. While they were deliberating on these
 +matters, intelligence was brought them that their watering parties
 +were attacked by our horse: upon which information,​ they dispose
 +several parties of horse and auxiliary foot along the road, and
 +intermix some legionary cohorts, and begin to throw up a rampart from
 +the camp to the water, that they might be able to procure water within
 +their lines, both without fear, and without a guard. Petreius and
 +Afranius divided this task between themselves, and went in person to
 +some distance from their camp for the purpose of seeing it
 +accomplished.
 +
 +===== Chapter 74 =====
 +
 +The soldiers having obtained by their absence a free opportunity of
 +conversing with each other, came out in great numbers, and inquired
 +each for whatever acquaintance or fellow-citizen he had in our camp,
 +and invited him to him. First they returned them general thanks for
 +sparing them the day before, when they were greatly terrified, and
 +acknowledged that they were alive through their kindness; then they
 +inquired about the honor of our general, and whether they could with
 +safety intrust themselves to him; and declared their sorrow that they
 +had not done so in the beginning, and that they had taken up arms
 +against their relations and kinsmen. Encouraged by these conferences,​
 +they desired the general'​s parole for the lives of Petreius and
 +Afranius, that they might not appear guilty of a crime, in having
 +betrayed their generals. When they were assured of obtaining their
 +demands, they promised that they would immediately remove their
 +standards, and sent centurions of the first rank as deputies to treat
 +with Caesar about a peace. In the mean time some of them invite their
 +acquaintances,​ and bring them to their camp, others are brought away
 +by their friends, so that the two camps seemed to be united into one,
 +and several of the tribunes and centurions came to Caesar, and paid
 +their respects to him. The same was done by some of the nobility of
 +Spain, whom they summoned to their assistance, and kept in their camp
 +as hostages. ​ They inquired after their acquaintance and friends, by
 +whom each might have the means of being recommended to Caesar. Even
 +Afranius'​s son, a young man, endeavored, by means of Sulpitius the
 +lieutenant, to make terms for his own and his father'​s life. Every
 +place was filled with mirth and congratulations;​ in the one army,
 +because they thought they had escaped so impending danger; in the
 +other, because they thought they had completed so important a matter
 +without blows; and Caesar, in every man's judgment, reaped the
 +advantage of his former lenity, and his conduct was applauded by all.
 +
 +===== Chapter 75 =====
 +
 +When these circumstances were announced to Afranius, he left the work
 +which he had begun, and returned to his camp, determined as it
 +appeared, whatever should be the event, to bear it with an even and
 +steady mind.  Petreius did not neglect himself; he armed his
 +domestics; with them and the praetorian cohort of Spaniards, and a few
 +foreign horse, his dependents, whom he commonly kept near him to guard
 +his person, he suddenly flew to the rampart, interrupted the
 +conferences of the soldiers, drove our men from the camp, and put to
 +death as many as he caught. ​ The rest formed into a body, and being
 +alarmed by the unexpected danger, wrapped their left arms in their
 +cloaks, and drew their swords, and in this manner, depending on the
 +nearness of their camp, defended themselves against the Spaniards, and
 +the horse, and made good their retreat to the camp, where they were
 +protected by the cohorts which were on guard.
 +
 +===== Chapter 76 =====
 +
 +Petreius, after accomplishing this, went round every maniple, calling
 +the soldiers by their names, and entreating with tears that they would
 +not give up him and their absent general Pompey, as a sacrifice to the
 +vengeance of their enemies. Immediately they ran in crowds to the
 +general'​s pavilion, when he required them all to take an oath that
 +they would not desert nor betray the army nor the generals, nor form
 +any design distinct from the general interest. He himself swore first
 +to the tenor of those words, and obliged Afranius to take the same
 +oath. The tribunes and centurions followed their example; the soldiers
 +were brought out by centuries, and took the same oath. They gave
 +orders, that whoever had any of Caesar'​s soldiers should produce them;
 +as soon as they were produced, they put them to death publicly in the
 +praetorium, but most of them concealed those that they had
 +entertained,​ and let them out at night over the rampart. Thus the
 +terror raised by the generals, the cruelty of the punishments,​ the new
 +obligation of an oath, removed all hopes of surrender for the present,
 +changed the soldiers'​ minds, and reduced matters to the former state
 +of war.
 +
 +===== Chapter 77 =====
 +
 +Caesar ordered the enemy'​s soldiers, who had come into his camp to
 +hold a conference, to be searched for with the strictest diligence,
 +and sent back. But of the tribunes and centurions, several voluntarily
 +remained with him, and he afterward treated them with great respect.
 +The centurions he promoted to higher ranks, and conferred on the Roman
 +knights the honor of tribunes.
 +
 +===== Chapter 78 =====
 +
 +Afranius'​s men were distressed in foraging, and procured water with
 +difficulty. The legionary soldiers had a tolerable supply of corn,
 +because they had beef ordered to bring from Ilerda sufficient to last
 +twenty-two days; the Spanish and auxiliary forces had none, for they
 +had but few opportunities of procuring any, and their bodies were not
 +accustomed to bear burdens; and therefore a great number of them came
 +over to Caesar every day. Their affairs were under these difficulties;​
 +but of the two schemes proposed, the most expedient seemed to be to
 +return to Ilerda, because they had left some corn there; and there
 +they hoped to decide on a plan for their future conduct. Tarraco lay
 +at a greater distance; and in such a space they knew affairs might
 +admit of many changes. Their design having met with approbation,​ they
 +set out from their camp. Caesar having sent forward his cavalry, to
 +annoy and retard their rear, followed close after with his legions.
 +Not a moment passed in which their rear was not engaged with our
 +horse.
 +
 +===== Chapter 79 =====
 +
 +Their manner of fighting was this: the light cohorts closed their
 +rear, and frequently made a stand on the level grounds. If they had a
 +mountain to ascend, the very nature of the place readily secured them
 +from any danger; for the advanced guards, from the rising grounds,
 +protected the rest in their ascent. When they approached a valley or
 +declivity, and the advanced men could not impart assistance to the
 +tardy, our horse threw their darts at them from the rising grounds
 +with advantage; then their affairs were in a perilous situation; the
 +only plan left was, that whenever they came near such places, they
 +should give orders to the legions to halt, and by a violent effort
 +repulse our horse; and these being forced to give way, they should
 +suddenly, with the utmost speed, run all together down to the valley,
 +and having passed it, should face about again on the next hill. For so
 +far were they from deriving any assistance from their horse (of which
 +they had a large number), that they were obliged to receive them into
 +the center of their army, and themselves protect them, as they were
 +daunted by former battles. And on their march no one could quit the
 +line without being taken by Caesar'​s horse.
 +
 +===== Chapter 80 =====
 +
 +While skirmishes were fought in this manner, they advanced but slowly
 +and gradually, and frequently halted to help their rear, as then
 +happened. ​ For having advanced four miles, and being very much
 +harassed by our horse, they took post on a high mountain, and there in
 +trenched themselves on the front only, facing the enemy; and did not
 +take their baggage off their cattle. When they perceived that Caesar'​s
 +camp was pitched, and the tents fixed up, and his horse sent out to
 +forage, they suddenly rushed out about twelve o'​clock the same day,
 +and, having hopes that we should be delayed by the absence of our
 +horse, they began to march, which Caesar perceiving, followed them
 +with the legions that remained. ​ He left a few cohorts to guard his
 +baggage, and ordered the foragers to be called home at the tenth hour,
 +and the horse to follow him.  The horse shortly returned to their
 +daily duty on march, and charged the rear so vigorously, that they
 +almost forced them to fly; and several privates and some centurions
 +were killed. The main body of Caesar'​s army was at hand, and universal
 +ruin threatened them.
 +
 +===== Chapter 81 =====
 +
 +Then indeed, not having opportunity either to choose a convenient
 +position for their camp, or to march forward, they were obliged to
 +halt, and to encamp at a distance from water, and on ground naturally
 +unfavorable. But for the reasons already given, Caesar did not attack
 +them, nor suffer a tent to be pitched that day, that his men might be
 +the readier to pursue them whether they attempted to run off by night
 +or by day. Observing the defect in their position, they spent the
 +whole night in extending their work, and turning their camp to
 +ours. The next day, at dawn, they do the same, and spend the whole day
 +in that manner, but in proportion as they advanced their works, and
 +extended their camp, they were further distant from the water; and one
 +evil was remedied by another. The first night, no one went out for
 +water. The next day, they left a guard in the camp, and led out all
 +their forces to water: but not a person was sent to look for
 +forage. Caesar was more desirous that they should be humbled by these
 +means, and forced to come to terms, than decide the contest by battle.
 +Yet he endeavored to surround them with a wall and trench, that he
 +might be able to check their most sudden sally, to which he imagined
 +that they must have recourse. Hereupon, urged by want of fodder, that
 +they might be the readier for a march, they killed all their baggage
 +cattle.
 +
 +===== Chapter 82 =====
 +
 +In this work, and the deliberations on it, two days were spent. By the
 +third day a considerable part of Caesar'​s work was finished. To
 +interrupt his progress, they drew out their legions about the eighth
 +hour, by a certain signal, and placed them in order of battle before
 +their camp. Caesar calling his legions off from their work, and
 +ordering the horse to hold themselves in readiness, marshaled his
 +army: for to appear to decline an engagement contrary to the opinion
 +of the soldiers and the general voice, would have been attended with
 +great disadvantage. But for the reasons already known, he was
 +dissuaded from wishing to engage, and the more especially, because the
 +short space between the camps, even if the enemy were put to flight,
 +would not contribute much to a decisive victory; for the two camps
 +were not distant from each other above two thousand feet. Two parts of
 +this were occupied by the armies, and one third left for the soldiers
 +to charge and make their attack. If a battle should be begun, the
 +nearness of the camps would afford a ready retreat to the conquered
 +party in the flight. For this reason Caesar had resolved to make
 +resistance if they attacked him, but not to be the first to provoke
 +the battle.
 +
 +===== Chapter 83 =====
 +
 +Afranius'​s five legions were drawn up in two lines, the auxiliary
 +cohorts formed the third line, and acted as reserves. Caesar had three
 +lines, four cohorts out of each of the five legions formed the first
 +line. Three more from each legion followed them, as reserves: and
 +three others were behind these. The slingers and archers were
 +stationed in the center of the line; the cavalry closed the
 +flanks. The hostile armies being arranged in this manner, each seemed
 +determined to adhere to his first intention: Caesar not to hazard a
 +battle, unless forced to it; Afranius to interrupt Caesar'​s
 +works. However, the matter was deferred, and both armies kept under
 +arms till sunset; when they both returned to their camp. The next day
 +Caesar prepared to finish the works which he had begun. The enemy
 +attempted to pass the river Segre by a ford. Caesar, having perceived
 +this, sent some light armed Germans and a party of horse across the
 +river, and disposed several parties along the banks to guard them.
 +
 +===== Chapter 84 =====
 +
 +At length, beset on all sides, their cattle having been four days
 +without fodder, and having no water, wood, or corn, they beg a
 +conference; and that, if possible, in a place remote from the
 +soldiers. When this was refused by Caesar, but a public interview
 +offered if they chose it, Afranius'​s son was given as a hostage to
 +Caesar. They met in the place appointed by Caesar. In the hearing of
 +both armies Afranius spoke thus: "That Caesar ought not to be
 +displeased either with him or his soldiers, for wishing to preserve
 +their attachment to their general, Cneius Pompey. That they had now
 +sufficiently discharged their duty to him, and had suffered punishment
 +enough, in having endured the want of every necessary: but now, pent
 +up almost like wild beasts, they were prevented from procuring water,
 +and prevented from walking abroad; and were not able to bear the
 +bodily pain or the mental disgrace: but confessed themselves
 +vanquished: and begged and entreated, if there was any room left for
 +mercy, that they should not be necessitated to suffer the most severe
 +penalties."​ These sentiments were delivered in the most submissive and
 +humble language.
 +
 +===== Chapter 85 =====
 +
 +Caesar replied, "That either to complain or sue for mercy became no
 +man less than him: for that every other person had done their duty:
 +himself, in having declined to engage on favorable terms, in an
 +advantageous situation and time, that all things tending to a peace
 +might be totally unembarrassed:​ his army, in having preserved and
 +protected the men whom they had in their power, notwithstanding the
 +injuries which they had received, and the murder of their comrades;
 +and even Afranius'​s soldiers, who of themselves treated about
 +concluding a peace, by which they thought that they would secure the
 +lives of all. Thus, that the parties on both sides inclined to mercy:
 +that the generals only were averse to peace: that they paid no regard
 +to the laws either of conference or truce; and had most inhumanly put
 +to death ignorant persons, who were deceived by a conference: that
 +therefore, they had met that fate which usually befalls men from
 +excessive obstinacy and arrogance; and were obliged to have recourse,
 +and most earnestly desire that which they had shortly before
 +disdained. That for his part, he would not avail himself of their
 +present humiliation,​ or his present advantage, to require terms by
 +which his power might be increased, but only that those armies, which
 +they had maintained for so many years to oppose him, should be
 +disbanded: for six legions had been sent into Spain, and a seventh
 +raised there, and many and powerful fleets provided, and generals of
 +great military experience sent to command them, for no other purpose
 +than to oppose him: that none of these measures were adopted to keep
 +the Spains in peace, or for the use of the province, which, from the
 +length of the peace, stood in need of no such aid; that all these
 +things were long since designed against him; that against him a new
 +sort of government was established,​ that the same person should be at
 +the gates of Rome, to direct the affairs of the city; and though
 +absent, have the government of two most warlike provinces for so many
 +years: that against him the laws of the magistrates had been altered;
 +that the late praetors and consuls should not be sent to govern the
 +provinces as had been the constant custom, but persons approved of and
 +chosen by a faction. That against him the excuse of age was not
 +admitted; but persons of tried experience in former wars were called
 +up to take the command of the armies: that with respect to him only,
 +the routine was not observed which had been allowed to all generals,
 +that, after a successful war, they should return home and disband
 +their armies, if not with some mark of honor, at least without
 +disgrace; that he had submitted to all these things patiently, and
 +would still submit to them; nor did he now desire to take their army
 +from them and keep it to himself (which, however, would not be a
 +difficult matter), but only that they should not have it to employ
 +against him: and therefore, as he said before, let them quit the
 +provinces, and disband their army. If this was complied with, he would
 +injure no person; that these were the last and only conditions of
 +peace."​
 +
 +===== Chapter 86 =====
 +
 +It was very acceptable and agreeable to Afranius'​s soldiers, as might
 +be easily known from their signs of joy, that they who expected some
 +injury after this defeat, should obtain without solicitation the
 +reward of a dismissal. For when a debate was introduced about the
 +place and time of their dismissal, they all began to express, both by
 +words and signs, from the rampart where they stood, that they should
 +be discharged immediately;​ for although every security might be given,
 +that they would be disbanded, still the matter would be uncertain, if
 +it was deferred to a future day. After a short debate on either side,
 +it was brought to this issue: that those who had any settlement or
 +possession in Spain, should be immediately discharged: the rest at the
 +river Var. Caesar gave security that they should receive no damage,
 +and that no person should be obliged against his inclination to take
 +the military oath under him.
 +
 +===== Chapter 87 =====
 +
 +Caesar promised to supply them with corn from the present time till
 +they arrived at the river Var. He further adds, that whatever any of
 +them lost in the war, which was in the possession of his soldiers,
 +should be restored to those that lost them. To his soldiers he made a
 +recompense in money for those things, a just valuation being
 +made. Whatever disputes Afranius'​s soldiers had afterward among
 +themselves, they voluntarily submitted to Caesar'​s decision. Afranius
 +and Petreius, when pay was demanded by the legions, a sedition almost
 +breaking out, asserted that the time had not yet come, and required
 +that Caesar should take cognizance of it; and both parties were
 +content with his decision. About a third part of their army being
 +dismissed in two days, Caesar ordered two of his legions, to go
 +before, the rest to follow the vanquished enemy; that they should
 +encamp at a small distance from each other. The execution of this
 +business he gave in charge to Quintus Fufius Kalenus, one of his
 +lieutenants. According to his directions, they marched from Spain to
 +the river Var, and there the rest of the army was disbanded.
 +
 +<​html><​center><​font size="​6"></​html>​ [[de_bello_gallico|โ˜š]] [[de_bello_gallico|โ˜…]] [[de_bello_civili_2|โ˜›]]<​html></​font></​center></​html>​
de_bello_civili_1.txt ยท Last modified: 2018/04/21 03:30 (external edit)