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 +====== The Civil Wars By Julius Caesar 3 ======
  
 +C. IULI CAESARIS DE BELLO CIVILS COMMENTARIUS
 +
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​12 The Civil Wars, III [IofII].mp3">​Book III Part I of II In Audio</​a><​br />
 +<a href="/​music/​13 The Civil Wars, III [IIofII].mp3">​Book III Part II of II In Audio</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​www.ganino.com/​player.js"></​script><​br />
 +alt version not a transcription and starts at Chapter 1, second part of audio starts from Chapter 55
 +</​html>​
 +
 +(49-48 B.C.)
 +
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +
 +Julius Caesar, holding the election as dictator, was himself appointed
 +consul with Publius Servilius; for this was the year in which it was
 +permitted by the laws that he should be chosen consul. This business
 +being ended, as credit was beginning to fail in Italy, and the debts
 +could not be paid, he determined that arbitrators should be appointed:
 +and that they should make an estimate of the possessions and
 +properties [of the debtors], how much they were worth before the war,
 +and that they should be handed over in payment to the creditors. This
 +he thought the most likely method to remove and abate the apprehension
 +of an abolition of debt, the usual consequence of civil wars and
 +dissensions,​ and to support the credit of the debtors. He likewise
 +restored to their former condition (the praetors and tribunes, first
 +submitting the question to the people) some persons condemned for
 +bribery at the elections, by virtue of Pompey'​s law, at the time when
 +Pompey kept his legions quartered in the city (these trials were
 +finished in a single day, one judge hearing the merits, and another
 +pronouncing the sentences), because they had offered their service to
 +him in the beginning of the civil war, if he chose to accept them;
 +setting the same value on them as if he had accepted them, because
 +they had put themselves in his power. For he had determined that they
 +ought to be restored rather by the judgment of the people than appear
 +admitted to it by his bounty: that he might neither appear ungrateful
 +in repaying an obligation, nor arrogant in depriving the people of
 +their prerogative of exercising this bounty.
 +
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +
 +In accomplishing these things, and celebrating the Latin festival, and
 +holding all the elections, he spent eleven days; and having resigned
 +the dictatorship,​ set out from the city, and went to Brundusium, where
 +he had ordered twelve legions and all his cavalry to meet him. But he
 +scarcely found as many ships as would be sufficient to transport
 +fifteen thousand legionary soldiers and five hundred horse. This [the
 +scarcity of shipping] was the only thing that prevented Caesar from
 +putting a speedy conclusion to the war. And even these troops embarked
 +very short of their number, because several had fallen in so many wars
 +in Gaul, and the long march from Spain had lessened their number very
 +much, and a severe autumn in Apulia and the district about Brundusium,
 +after the very wholesome countries of Spain and Gaul, had impaired the
 +health of the whole army.
 +
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +
 +Pompey having got a year's respite to provide forces, during which he
 +was not engaged in war, nor employed by an enemy, had collected a
 +numerous fleet from Asia, and the Cyclades, from Corcyra, Athens,
 +Pontus, Bithynia, Syria, Cilicia, Phoenicia, and Egypt, and had given
 +directions that a great number should be built in every other
 +place. He had exacted a large sum of money from Asia, Syria, and all
 +the kings, dynasts, tetrarchs, and free states of Achaia; and had
 +obliged the corporations of those provinces, of which he himself had
 +the government, to count down to him a large sum.
 +
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +
 +He had made up nine legions of Roman citizens; five from Italy, which
 +he had brought with him; one veteran legion from Sicily, which being
 +composed of two he called the Gemella; one from Crete and Macedonia,
 +of veterans who had been discharged by their former generals and had
 +settled in those provinces; two from Asia, which had been levied by
 +the activity of Lentulus. Besides, he had distributed among his
 +legions a considerable number, by way of recruits, from Thessaly,
 +Boeotia, Achaia, and Epirus: with his legions he also intermixed the
 +soldiers taken from Caius Antonius. Besides these, he expected two
 +legions from Syria, with Scipio; from Crete, Lacedaemon, Pontus,
 +Syria, and other states, he got about three thousand archers, six
 +cohorts of slingers, two thousand mercenary soldiers, and seven
 +thousand horse; six hundred of which, Deiotarus had brought from Gaul;
 +Ariobarzanes,​ five hundred from Cappadocia. Cotus had given him about
 +the same number from Thrace, and had sent his son Sadalis with
 +them. From Macedonia there were two hundred, of extraordinary valor,
 +commanded by Rascipolis; five hundred Gauls and Germans; Gabinius'​s
 +troops from Alexandria, whom Aulus Gabinius had left with king
 +Ptolemy, to guard his person. Pompey, the son, had brought in his
 +fleet eight hundred, whom he had raised among his own and his
 +shepherds'​ slaves. Tarcundarius,​ Castor and Donilaus, had given three
 +hundred from Gallograecia:​ one of these came himself, the other sent
 +his son. Two hundred were sent from Syria by Comagenus Antiochus, whom
 +Pompey rewarded amply. The most of them were archers. To these were
 +added Dardanians and Bessians, some of them mercenaries;​ others
 +procured by power and influence: also, Macedonians,​ Thessalians,​ and
 +troops from other nations and states, which completed the number which
 +we mentioned before.
 +
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +
 +He had laid in vast quantities of corn from Thessaly, Asia, Egypt,
 +Crete, Cyrene, and other countries. He had resolved to fix his winter
 +quarters at Dyrrachium, Apollonia, and the other seaports, to hinder
 +Caesar from passing the sea: and for this purpose had stationed his
 +fleet along the sea-coast. The Egyptian fleet was commanded by Pompey,
 +the son: the Asiatic, by Decimus Laelius, and Caius Triarius: the
 +Syrian, by Caius Cassius: the Rhodian, by Caius Marcellus, in
 +conjunction with Caius Coponius: and the Liburnian and Achaian, by
 +Scribonius Libo, and Marcus Octavius. But Marcus Bibulus was appointed
 +commander-in-chief of the whole maritime department, and regulated
 +every matter. The chief direction rested upon him.
 +
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +
 +When Caesar came to Brundusium, he made a speech to the soldiers:
 +"That since they were now almost arrived at the termination of their
 +toils and dangers, they should patiently submit to leave their slaves
 +and baggage in Italy, and to embark without luggage, that a greater
 +number of men might be put on board: that they might expect every
 +thing from victory and his liberality."​ They cried out with one voice,
 +"he might give what orders he pleased, that they would cheerfully
 +fulfill them." He accordingly set sail the fourth day of January, with
 +seven legions on board, as already remarked. The next day he reached
 +land, between the Ceraunian rocks and other dangerous places; meeting
 +with a safe road for his shipping to ride in, and dreading all other
 +ports which he imagined were in possession of the enemy, he landed his
 +men at a place called Pharsalus, without the loss of a single vessel.
 +
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +
 +Lucretius Vespillo and Minutius Rufus were at Oricum, with eighteen
 +Asiatic ships, which were given into their charge by the orders of
 +Decimus Laelius: Marcus Bibulus at Corcyra, with a hundred and ten
 +ships. But they had not the confidence to dare to move out of the
 +harbor; though Caesar had brought only twelve ships as a convoy, only
 +four of which had decks; nor did Bibulus, his fleet being disordered
 +and his seamen dispersed, come up in time: for Caesar was seen at the
 +continent, before any account whatsoever of his approach had reached
 +those regions.
 +
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +
 +Caesar, having landed his soldiers, sent back his ships the same night
 +to Brundusium, to transport the rest of his legions and cavalry. The
 +charge of this business was committed to lieutenant Fufius Kalenus,
 +with orders to be expeditious in transporting the legions. But the
 +ships having put to sea too late, and not having taken advantage of
 +the night breeze, fell a sacrifice on their return. For Bibulus at
 +Corcyra, being informed of Caesar'​s approach, hoped to fall in with
 +some part of our ships, with their cargoes, but found them empty; and
 +having taken about thirty, vented on them his rage at his own
 +remissness, and set them all on fire: and, with the same flames, he
 +destroyed the mariners and masters of the vessels, hoping by the
 +severity of the punishment to deter the rest. Having accomplished this
 +affair, he filled all the harbors and shores from Salona to Oricum
 +with his fleets. Having disposed his guard with great care, he lay on
 +board himself in the depth of winter, declining no fatigue or duty,
 +and not waiting for reinforcements,​ in hopes that he might come within
 +Caesar'​s reach.
 +
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +
 +But after the departure Of the Liburnian fleet, Marcus Octavius sailed
 +from Illyricum with what ships he had to Salona, and having spirited
 +up the Dalmatians, and other barbarous nations, he drew Issa off from
 +its connection with Caesar; but not being able to prevail with the
 +council of Salona, either by promises or menaces, he resolved to storm
 +the town. But it was well fortified by its natural situation and a
 +hill. The Roman citizens built wooden towers, the better to secure it;
 +but when they were unable to resist, on account of the smallness of
 +their numbers, being weakened by several wounds, they stooped to the
 +last resource, and set at liberty all the slaves old enough to bear
 +arms; and cutting the hair off the women'​s heads, made ropes for their
 +engines. Octavius, being informed of their determination,​ surrounded
 +the town with five encampments,​ and began to press them at once with a
 +siege and storm. They were determined to endure every hardship, and
 +their greatest distress was the want of corn. They, therefore, sent
 +deputies to Caesar, and begged a supply from him; all other
 +inconveniences they bore by their own resources, as well as they
 +could: and after a long interval, when the length of the siege had
 +made Octavius'​s troops more remiss than usual, having got an
 +opportunity at noon, when the enemy were dispersed, they disposed
 +their wives and children on the walls, to keep up the appearance of
 +their usual attention; and forming themselves into one body, with the
 +slaves whom they had lately enfranchised,​ they made an attack on
 +Octavius'​s nearest camp, and having forced that, attacked the second
 +with the same fury; and then the third and the fourth, and then the
 +other, and beat them from them all: and having killed a great number,
 +obliged the rest and Octavius himself to fly for refuge to their
 +ships. This put an end to the blockade. Winter was now approaching,​
 +and Octavius, despairing of capturing the town, after sustaining such
 +considerable losses, withdrew to Pompey, to Dyrrachium.
 +
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +
 +We have mentioned, that Vibullius Rufus, an officer of Pompey'​s had
 +fallen twice into Caesar'​s power; first at Corfinium, and afterward in
 +Spain. Caesar thought him a proper person, on account of his favors
 +conferred on him, to send with proposals to Pompey: and he knew that
 +he had an influence over Pompey. This was the substance of his
 +proposals: "That it was the duty of both, to put an end to their
 +obstinacy, and forbear hostilities,​ and not tempt fortune any further;
 +that sufficient loss had been suffered on both sides, to serve as a
 +lesson and instruction to them, to render them apprehensive of future
 +calamities, by Pompey, in having been driven out of Italy, and having
 +lost Sicily, Cardinia, and the two Spains, and one hundred and thirty
 +cohorts of Roman citizens, in Italy and Spain: by himself, in the
 +death of Curio, and the loss of so great an army in Africa, and the
 +surrender of his soldiers in Corcyra. Wherefore, they should have pity
 +on themselves, and the republic: for, from their own misfortunes,​ they
 +had sufficient experience of what fortune can effect in war. That this
 +was the only time to treat for peace; when each had confidence in his
 +own strength, and both seemed on an equal footing. Since, if fortune
 +showed ever so little favor to either, he who thought himself
 +superior, would not submit to terms of accommodation;​ nor would be
 +content with an equal division, when he might expect to obtain the
 +whole. That as they could not agree before, the terms of peace ought
 +to be submitted to the senate and people in Rome. That in the mean
 +time, it ought to content the republic and themselves, if they both
 +immediately took oath in a public assembly that they would disband
 +their forces within the three following days. That having divested
 +themselves of the arms and auxiliaries,​ on which they placed their
 +present confidence, they must both of necessity acquiesce in the
 +decision of the people and senate. To give Pompey the fuller assurance
 +of his intentions, he would dismiss all his forces on the land, even
 +his garrisons.
 +
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +
 +Vibullius, having received this commission from Caesar, thought it no
 +less necessary to give Pompey notice of Caesar'​s sudden approach, that
 +he might adopt such plans as the circumstance required, than to inform
 +him of Caesar'​s message; and therefore continuing his journey by night
 +as well as by day, and taking fresh horses for dispatch, he posted
 +away to Pompey, to inform him that Caesar was marching toward him with
 +all his forces. Pompey was at this time in Candavia, and was on his
 +march from Macedonia to his winter quarters in Apollonia and
 +Dyrrachium; but surprised at the unexpected news, he determined to go
 +to Apollonia by speedy marches, to prevent Caesar from becoming master
 +of all the maritime states. But as soon as Caesar had landed his
 +troops, he set off the same day for Oricum: when he arrived there,
 +Lucius Torquatus, who was governor of the town by Pompey'​s
 +appointment,​ and had a garrison of Parthinians in it, endeavored to
 +shut the gates and defend the town, and ordered the Greeks to man the
 +walls, and to take arms. But as they refused to fight against the
 +power of the Roman people, and as the citizens made a spontaneous
 +attempt to admit Caesar, despairing of any assistance, he threw open
 +the gates, and surrendered himself and the town to Caesar, and was
 +preserved safe from injury by him.
 +
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +
 +Having taken Oricum, Caesar marched without making any delay to
 +Apollonia. Staberius the governor, hearing of his approach, began to
 +bring water into the citadel, and to fortify it, and to demand
 +hostages of the town's people. But they refuse to give any, or to shut
 +their gates against the consul, or to take upon them to judge contrary
 +to what all Italy and the Roman people had judged. As soon as he knew
 +their inclinations,​ he made his escape privately. The inhabitants of
 +Apollonia sent embassadors to Caesar, and gave him admission into
 +their town. Their example was followed by the inhabitants of Bullis,
 +Amantia, and the other neighboring states, and all Epirus: and they
 +sent embassadors to Caesar, and promised to obey his commands.
 +
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +
 +But Pompey having received information of the transactions at Oricum
 +and Apollonia, began to be alarmed for Dyrrachium, and endeavored to
 +reach it, marching day and night. As soon as it was said that Caesar
 +was approaching,​ such a panic fell upon Pompey'​s army, because in his
 +haste he had made no distinction between night and day, and had
 +marched without intermission,​ that they almost every man deserted
 +their colors in Epirus and the neighboring countries; several threw
 +down their arms, and their march had the appearance of a flight. But
 +when Pompey had halted near Dyrrachium, and had given orders for
 +measuring out the ground for his camp, his army even yet continuing in
 +their fright, Labienus first stepped forward and swore that he would
 +never desert him, and would share whatever fate fortune should assign
 +to him. The other lieutenants took the same oath, and the tribunes and
 +centurions followed their example: and the whole army swore in like
 +manner. Caesar, finding the road to Dyrrachium already in the
 +possession of Pompey, was in no great haste, but encamped by the river
 +Apsus, in the territory of Apollonia, that the states which had
 +deserved his support might be certain of protection from his
 +out-guards and forts; and there he resolved to wait the arrival of his
 +other legions from Italy, and to winter in tents. Pompey did the same;
 +and pitching his camp on the other side of the river Apsus, collected
 +there all his troops and auxiliaries.
 +
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +
 +Kalenus, having put the legions and cavalry on board at Brundusium, as
 +Caesar had directed him, as far as the number of his ships allowed,
 +weighed anchor: and having sailed a little distance from port,
 +received a letter from Caesar, in which he was informed, that all the
 +ports and the whole shore was occupied by the enemy'​s fleet: on
 +receiving this information he returned into the harbor, and recalled
 +all the vessels. One of them, which continued the voyage and did not
 +obey Kalenus'​s command, because it carried no troops, but was private
 +property, bore away for Oricum, and was taken by Bibulus, who spared
 +neither slaves nor free men, nor even children; but put all to the
 +sword. Thus the safety of the whole army depended on a very short
 +space of time and a great casualty.
 +
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +
 +Bibulus, as has been observed before, lay with his fleet near Oricum,
 +and as he debarred Caesar of the liberty of the sea and harbors, so he
 +was deprived of all intercourse with the country by land; for the
 +whole shore was occupied by parties disposed in different places by
 +Caesar. And he was not allowed to get either wood or water, or even
 +anchor near the land. He was reduced to great difficulties,​ and
 +distressed with extreme scarcity of every necessary; insomuch that he
 +was obliged to bring, in transports from Corcyra, not only provisions,
 +but even wood and water; and it once happened that, meeting with
 +violent storms, they were forced to catch the dew by night which fell
 +on the hides that covered their decks; yet all these difficulties they
 +bore patiently and without repining, and thought they ought not to
 +leave the shores and harbors free from blockade. But when they were
 +suffering under the distress which I have mentioned, and Libo had
 +joined Bibulus, they both called from on ship-board, to Marcus Acilius
 +and Statius Marcus, the lieutenants,​ one of whom commanded the town,
 +the other the guards on the coast, that they wished to speak to Caesar
 +on affairs of importance, if permission should be granted them. They
 +add something further to strengthen the impression that they intended
 +to treat about an accommodation. In the mean time they requested a
 +truce, and obtained it from them; for what they proposed seemed to be
 +of importance, and it was well known that Caesar desired it above all
 +things, and it was imagined that some advantage would be derived from
 +Bibulus'​s proposals.
 +
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +
 +Caesar having set out with one legion to gain possession of the more
 +remote states, and to provide corn, of which he had but a small
 +quantity, was at this time at Buthrotum, opposite to Corcyra. There
 +receiving Acilius and Marcus'​s letters, informing him of Libo's and
 +Bibulus'​s demands, he left his legion behind him, and returned himself
 +to Oricum. When he arrived, they were invited to a conference. Libo
 +came and made an apology for Bibulus, "that he was a man of strong
 +passion, and had a private quarrel against Caesar, contracted when he
 +was aedile and praetor; that for this reason he had avoided the
 +conference, lest affairs of the utmost importance and advantage might
 +be impeded by the warmth of his temper. That it now was and ever had
 +been Pompey'​s most earnest wish, that they should be reconciled and
 +lay down their arms, but they were not authorized to treat on that
 +subject, because they resigned the whole management of the war, and
 +all other matters to Pompey, by order of the council. But when they
 +were acquainted with Caesar'​s demands, they would transmit them to
 +Pompey, who would conclude all of himself by their persuasions. In the
 +mean time, let the truce be continued till the messengers could return
 +from him; and let no injury be done on either side." To this he added
 +a few words of the cause for which they fought, and of his own forces
 +and resources.
 +
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +
 +To this, Caesar did not then think proper to make any reply, nor do we
 +now think it worth recording. But Caesar required "that he should be
 +allowed to send commissioners to Pompey, who should suffer no personal
 +injury; and that either they should grant it, or should take his
 +commissioners in charge, and convey them to Pompey. That as to the
 +truce, the war in its present state was so divided, that they by their
 +fleet deprived him of his shipping and auxiliaries;​ while he prevented
 +them from the use of the land and fresh water; and if they wished that
 +this restraint should be removed from them, they should relinquish
 +their blockade of the seas, but if they retained the one, he in like
 +manner would retain the other; that nevertheless,​ the treaty of
 +accommodation might still be carried on, though these points were not
 +conceded, and that they need not be an impediment to it." They would
 +neither receive Caesar'​s commissioners,​ nor guarantee their safety,
 +but referred the whole to Pompey. They urged and struggled eagerly to
 +gain the one point respecting a truce. But when Caesar perceived that
 +they had proposed the conference merely to avoid present danger and
 +distress, but that they offered no hopes or terms of peace, he applied
 +his thoughts to the prosecution of the war.
 +
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +
 +Bibulus, being prevented from landing for several days, and being
 +seized with a violent distemper from the cold and fatigue, as he could
 +neither be cured on board, nor was willing to desert the charge which
 +he had taken upon him, was unable to bear up against the violence of
 +the disease. On his death, the sole command devolved on no single
 +individual, but each admiral managed his own division separately, and
 +at his own discretion. Vibullius, as soon as the alarm, which Caesar'​s
 +unexpected arrival had raised, was over, began again to deliver
 +Caesar'​s message in the presence of Libo, Lucius Lucceius, and
 +Theophanes, to whom Pompey used to communicate his most confidential
 +secrets. He had scarcely entered on the subject when Pompey
 +interrupted him, and forbade him to proceed. "What need," says he,
 +"have I of life or Rome, if the world shall think I enjoy them by the
 +bounty of Caesar: an opinion which can never be removed while it shall
 +be thought that I have been brought back by him to Italy, from which I
 +set out." After the conclusion of the war, Caesar was informed of
 +these expressions by some persons who were present at the
 +conversation. He attempted, however, by other means to bring about a
 +negotiation of peace.
 +
 +===== Chapter 19 =====
 +
 +Between Pompey'​s and Caesar'​s camp there was only the river Apsus, and
 +the soldiers frequently conversed with each other; and by a private
 +arrangement among themselves, no weapons were thrown during their
 +conferences. Caesar sent Publius Vatinius, one of his lieutenants,​ to
 +the bank of the river, to make such proposals as should appear most
 +conducive to peace; and to cry out frequently with a loud voice
 +[asking], "Are citizens permitted to send deputies to citizens to
 +treat of peace? a concession which had been made even to fugitives on
 +the Pyrenean mountains, and to robbers, especially when by so doing
 +they would prevent citizens from fighting against citizens."​ Having
 +spoken much in humble language, as became a man pleading for his own
 +and the general safety and being listened to with silence by the
 +soldiers of both armies, he received an answer from the enemy'​s party
 +that Aulus Varro proposed coming the next day to a conference, and
 +that deputies from both sides might come without danger, and explain
 +their wishes, and accordingly a fixed time was appointed for the
 +interview. When the deputies met the next day, a great multitude from
 +both sides assembled, and the expectations of every person concerning
 +this subject were raised very high, and their minds seemed to be
 +eagerly disposed for peace. Titus Labienus walked forward from the
 +crowd, and in submissive terms began to speak of peace, and to argue
 +with Vatinius. But their conversation was suddenly interrupted by
 +darts thrown from all sides, from which Vatinius escaped by being
 +protected by the arms of the soldiers. However, several were wounded;
 +and among them Cornelius Balbus, Marcus Plotius, and Lucius Tiburtius,
 +centurions, and some privates; hereupon Labienus exclaimed, "​Forbear,​
 +then, to speak any more about an accommodation,​ for we can have no
 +peace unless we carry Caesar'​s head back with us."
 +
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +
 +At the same time in Rome, Marcus Caelius Rufus, one of the praetors,
 +having undertaken the cause of the debtors, on entering into his
 +office, fixed his tribunal near the bench of Caius Trebonius, the city
 +praetor, and promised if any person appealed to him in regard to the
 +valuation and payment of debts made by arbitration,​ as appointed by
 +Caesar when in Rome, that he would relieve them. But it happened, from
 +the justice of Trebonius'​s decrees and his humanity (for he thought
 +that in such dangerous times justice should be administered with
 +moderation and compassion),​ that not one could be found who would
 +offer himself the first to lodge an appeal. For to plead poverty, to
 +complain of his own private calamities, or the general distresses of
 +the times, or to assert the difficulty of setting the goods to sale,
 +is the behavior of a man even of a moderate temper; but to retain
 +their possessions entire, and at the same time acknowledge themselves
 +in debt, what sort of spirit, and what impudence would it not have
 +argued! Therefore nobody was found so unreasonable as to make such
 +demands. But Caelius proved more severe to those very persons for
 +whose advantage it had been designed; and starting from this
 +beginning, in order that he might not appear to have engaged in so
 +dishonorable an affair without effecting something, he promulgated a
 +law that all debts should be discharged in six equal payments, of six
 +months each, without interest.
 +
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +
 +When Servilius, the consul, and the other magistrates opposed him, and
 +he himself effected less than he expected, in order to raise the
 +passions of the people, he dropped it, and promulgated two others;
 +one, by which he remitted the annual rents of the houses to the
 +tenants, the other, an act of insolvency: upon which the mob made an
 +assault on Caius Trebonius, and having wounded several persons, drove
 +him from his tribunal. The consul Servilius informed the senate of his
 +proceedings,​ who passed a decree that Caelius should be removed from
 +the management of the republic. Upon this decree, the consul forbade
 +him the senate; and when he was attempting to harangue the people,
 +turned him out of the rostrum. Stung with the ignominy and with
 +resentment, he pretended in public that he would go to Caesar, but
 +privately sent messengers to Milo, who had murdered Clodius, and had
 +been condemned for it; and having invited him into Italy, because he
 +had engaged the remains of the gladiators to his interest, by making
 +them ample presents, he joined him, and sent him to Thurinum to tamper
 +with the shepherds. When he himself was on his road to Casilinum, at
 +the same time that his military standards and arms were seized at
 +Capua, his slaves seen at Naples, and the design of betraying the town
 +discovered: his plots being revealed, and Capua shut against him,
 +being apprehensive of danger, because the Roman citizens residing
 +there had armed themselves, and thought he ought to be treated as an
 +enemy to the state, he abandoned his first design, and changed his
 +route.
 +
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +
 +Milo in the mean time dispatched letters to the free towns, purporting
 +that he acted as he did by the orders and commands of Pompey, conveyed
 +to him by Bibulus: and he endeavored to engage in his interest all
 +persons whom he imagined were under difficulties by reason of their
 +debts. But not being able to prevail with them, he set at liberty some
 +slaves from the work-houses,​ and began to assault Cosa in the district
 +of Thurinum. There having received a blow of a stone thrown from the
 +wall of the town which was commanded by Quintus Pedius with one
 +legion, he died of it; and Caelius having set out, as he pretended for
 +Caesar, went to Thurii, where he was put to death as he was tampering
 +with some of the freemen of the town, and was offering money to
 +Caesar'​s Gallic and Spanish horse, which he had sent there to
 +strengthen the garrison. And thus these mighty beginnings, which had
 +embroiled Italy, and kept the magistrates employed, found a speedy and
 +happy issue.
 +
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +
 +Libo having sailed from Oricum, with a fleet of fifty ships, which he
 +commanded, came to Brundusium, and seized an island, which lies
 +opposite to the harbor; judging it better to guard that place, which
 +was our only pass to sea, than to keep all the shores and ports
 +blocked up by a fleet. By his sudden arrival, he fell in with some of
 +our transports, and set them on fire, and carried off one laden with
 +corn; he struck great terror into our men, and having in the night
 +landed a party of soldiers and archers, he beat our guard of horse
 +from their station, and gained so much by the advantage of situation,
 +that he dispatched letters to Pompey, and if he pleased he might order
 +the rest of the ships to be hauled upon shore and repaired; for that
 +with his own fleet he could prevent Caesar from receiving his
 +auxiliaries.
 +
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +
 +Antonius was at this time at Brundusium, and relying on the valor of
 +his troops, covered about sixty of the long-boats belonging to the
 +men-of-war with penthouses and bulwarks of hurdles, and put on board
 +them select soldiers; and disposed them separately along the shore:
 +and under the pretext of keeping the seamen in exercise, he ordered
 +two three-banked galleys, which he had built at Brundusium, to row to
 +the mouth of the port. When Libo saw them advancing boldly toward him,
 +he sent five four-banked galleys against them, in hopes of
 +intercepting them. When these came near our ships, our veteran
 +soldiers retreated within the harbor. The enemy, urged by their
 +eagerness to capture them, pursued them unguardedly:​ for instantly the
 +boats of Antonius, on a certain signal, rowed with great violence from
 +all parts against the enemy; and at the first charge took one of the
 +four-banked galleys, with the seamen and marines, and forced the rest
 +to flee disgracefully. In addition to this loss, they were prevented
 +from getting water by the horse which Antonius had disposed along the
 +sea-coast. Libo, vexed at the distress and disgrace, departed from
 +Brundusium, and abandoned the blockade.
 +
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +
 +Several months had now elapsed, and winter was almost gone, and
 +Caesar'​s legions and shipping were not coming to him from Brundusium,
 +and he imagined that some opportunities had been neglected, for the
 +winds had at least been often favorable, and he thought that he must
 +trust to them at last. And the longer it was deferred, the more eager
 +were those who commanded Pompey'​s fleet to guard the coast, and were
 +more confident of preventing our getting assistance: they received
 +frequent reproofs from Pompey by letter, that as they had not
 +prevented Caesar'​s arrival at the first, they should at least stop the
 +remainder of his army: and they were expecting that the season for
 +transporting troops, would become more unfavorable every day, as the
 +winds grew calmer. Caesar, feeling some trouble on this account, wrote
 +in severe terms to his officers at Brundusium, [and gave them orders]
 +that as soon as they found the wind to answer, they should not let the
 +opportunity of setting sail pass by, if they were even to steer their
 +course to the shore of Apollonia: because there they might run their
 +ships on ground. That these parts principally were left unguarded by
 +the enemy'​s fleet, because they dare not venture too far from the
 +harbor.
 +
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +
 +They [his officers], exerting boldness and courage, aided by the
 +instructions of Marcus Antonius, and Fusius Kalenus, and animated by
 +the soldiers strongly encouraging them, and declining no danger for
 +Caesar'​s safety, having got a southerly wind, weighed anchor, and the
 +next day were carried past Apollonia and Dyrrachium, and being seen
 +from the continent, Quintus Coponius, who commanded the Rhodian fleet
 +at Dyrrachium, put out of the port with his ships; and when they had
 +almost come up with us, in consequence of the breeze dying away, the
 +south wind sprang up afresh, and rescued us. However, he did not
 +desist from his attempt, but hoped by the labor and perseverance of
 +his seamen to be able to bear up against the violence of the storm;
 +and although we were carried beyond Dyrrachium, by the violence of the
 +wind, he nevertheless continued to chase us. Our men, taking advantage
 +of fortune'​s kindness, for they were still afraid of being attacked by
 +the enemy'​s fleet, if the wind abated, having come near a port, called
 +Nymphaeum, about three miles beyond Lissus, put into it (this port is
 +protected from a south-west wind, but is not secure against a south
 +wind); and thought less danger was to be apprehended from the storm
 +than from the enemy. But as soon as they were within the port, the
 +south wind, which had blown for two days, by extraordinary good luck
 +veered round to the south-west.
 +
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +
 +Here one might observe the sudden turns of fortune. We who, a moment
 +before, were alarmed for ourselves, were safely lodged in a very
 +secure harbor: and they who had threatened ruin to our fleet, were
 +forced to be uneasy on their own account: and thus, by a change of
 +circumstances,​ the storm protected our ships, and damaged the Rhodian
 +fleet to such a degree that all their decked ships, sixteen in number,
 +foundered, without exception, and were wrecked: and of the prodigious
 +number of seamen and soldiers, some lost their lives by being dashed
 +against the rocks, others were taken by our men: but Caesar sent them
 +all safe home.
 +
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +
 +Two of our ships, that had not kept up with the rest, being overtaken
 +by the night, and not knowing what port the rest had made to, came to
 +an anchor opposite Lissus. Otacilius Crassus, who commanded Pompey'​s
 +fleet, detached after them several barges and small craft, and
 +attempted to take them. At the same time, he treated with them about
 +capitulating,​ and promised them their lives if they would
 +surrender. One of them carried two hundred and twenty recruits, the
 +other was manned with somewhat less than two hundred veterans. Here it
 +might be seen what security men derive from a resolute spirit. For the
 +recruits, frightened at the number of vessels, and fatigued with the
 +rolling of the sea, and with sea-sickness,​ surrendered to Otacilius,
 +after having first received his oath, that the enemy would not injure
 +them; but as soon as they were brought before him, contrary to the
 +obligation of his oath, they were inhumanly put to death in his
 +presence. But the soldiers of the veteran legion, who had also
 +struggled, not only with the inclemency of the weather, but by
 +laboring at the pump, thought it their duty to remit nothing of their
 +former valor: and having protracted the beginning of the night in
 +settling the terms, under pretense of surrendering,​ they obliged the
 +pilot to run the ship aground: and having got a convenient place on
 +the shore, they spent the rest of the night there, and at day-break,
 +when Otacilius had sent against them a party of the horse, who guarded
 +that part of the coast, to the number of four hundred, beside some
 +armed men, who had followed them from the garrison, they made a brave
 +defense, and having killed some of them, retreated in safety to our
 +army.
 +
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +
 +After this action, the Roman citizens, who resided at Lissus, a town
 +which Caesar had before assigned them, and had carefully fortified,
 +received Antony into their town, and gave him every
 +assistance. Otacilius, apprehensive for his own safety, escaped out of
 +the town, and went to Pompey. All his forces, whose number amounted to
 +three veteran legions, and one of recruits, and about eight hundred
 +horse being landed, Antony sent most of his ships back to Italy, to
 +transport the remainder of the soldiers and horse. The pontons, which
 +are a sort of Gallic ships, he left at Lissus with this object, that
 +if Pompey, imagining Italy defenseless,​ should transport his army
 +thither (and this notion was spread among the common people), Caesar
 +might have some means of pursuing him; and he sent messengers to him
 +with great dispatch, to inform him in what part of the country he had
 +landed his army, and what number of troops he had brought over with
 +him.
 +
 +===== Chapter 30 =====
 +
 +Caesar and Pompey received this intelligence almost at the same time;
 +for they had seen the ships sail past Apollonia and Dyrrachium. They
 +directed their march after them by land; but at first they were
 +ignorant to what part they had been carried; but when they were
 +informed of it, they each adopted a different plan; Caesar, to form a
 +junction with Antonius as soon as possible; Pompey, to oppose
 +Antonius'​s forces on their march to Caesar, and, if possible, to fall
 +upon them unexpectedly from ambush. And the same day they both led out
 +their armies from their winter encampment along the river Apsus;
 +Pompey, privately by night; Caesar, openly by day. But Caesar had to
 +march a longer circuit up the river to find a ford. Pompey'​s route
 +being easy, because he was not obliged to cross the river, he advanced
 +rapidly and by forced marches against Antonius, and being informed of
 +his approach, chose a convenient situation, where he posted his
 +forces; and kept his men close within camp, and forbade fires to be
 +kindled, that his arrival might be the more secret. An account of this
 +was immediately carried to Antonius by the Greeks. He dispatched
 +messengers to Caesar, and confined himself in his camp for one
 +day. The next day Caesar, came up with him. On learning his arrival,
 +Pompey, to prevent his being hemmed in between two armies, quitted his
 +position, and went with all his forces to Asparagium, in the territory
 +of Dyrrachium, and there encamped in a convenient situation.
 +
 +===== Chapter 31 =====
 +
 +During these times, Scipio, though he had sustained some losses near
 +mount Amanus, had assumed to himself the title of imperator, after
 +which he demanded large sums of money from the states and princes. He
 +had also exacted from the tax-gatherers,​ two years' rents that they
 +owed; and enjoined them to lend him the amount of the next year, and
 +demanded a supply of horse from the whole province. When they were
 +collected, leaving behind him his neighboring enemies, the Parthians
 +(who shortly before had killed Marcus Crassus, the imperator, and had
 +kept Marcus Bibulus besieged), he drew his legions and cavalry out of
 +Syria; and when he came into the province, which was under great
 +anxiety and fear of the Parthian war, and heard some declarations of
 +the soldiers, "That they would march against an enemy, if he would
 +lead them on; but would never bear arms against a countryman and
 +consul;"​ he drew off his legions to winter quarters to Pergamus, and
 +the most wealthy cities, and made them rich presents: and in order to
 +attach them more firmly to his interest, permitted them to plunder the
 +cities.
 +
 +===== Chapter 32 =====
 +
 +In the mean time, the money which had been demanded from the province
 +at large, was most vigorously exacted. Besides, many new imposts of
 +different kinds were devised to gratify his avarice. A tax of so much
 +a head was laid on every slave and child. Columns, doors, corn,
 +soldiers, sailors, arms, engines, and carriages, were made subject to
 +a duty. Wherever a name could be found for any thing, it was deemed a
 +sufficient reason for levying money on it. Officers were appointed to
 +collect it, not only in the cities, but in almost every village and
 +fort: and whosoever of them acted with the greatest rigor and
 +inhumanity, was esteemed the best man, and best citizen. The province
 +was overrun with bailiffs and officers, and crowded with overseers and
 +tax-gatherers;​ who, besides the duties imposed, exacted a gratuity for
 +themselves; for they asserted, that being expelled from their own
 +homes and countries, they stood in need of every necessary;
 +endeavoring by a plausible pretense, to color the most infamous
 +conduct. To this was added the most exorbitant interest, as usually
 +happens in times of war; the whole sums being called in, on which
 +occasion, they alleged that the delay of a single day was a
 +donation. Therefore, in those two years, the debt of the province was
 +doubled: but notwithstanding,​ taxes were exacted, not only from the
 +Roman citizens, but from every corporation and every state. And they
 +said that these were loans, exacted by the senate'​s decree. The taxes
 +of the ensuing year were demanded beforehand as a loan from the
 +collectors, as on their first appointment.
 +
 +===== Chapter 33 =====
 +
 +Moreover, Scipio ordered the money formerly lodged in the temple of
 +Diana at Ephesus, to be taken out with the statues of that goddess,
 +which remained there. When Scipio came to the temple, letters were
 +delivered to him from Pompey, in the presence of several senators,
 +whom he had called upon to attend him; [informing him] that Caesar had
 +crossed the sea with his legions; that Scipio should hasten to him
 +with his army, and postpone all other business. As soon as he received
 +the letter, he dismissed his attendants, and began to prepare for his
 +journey to Macedonia; and a few days after set out. This circumstance
 +saved the money at Ephesus.
 +
 +===== Chapter 34 =====
 +
 +Caesar, having effected a junction with Antonius'​s army, and having
 +drawn his legion out of Oricum, which he had left there to guard the
 +coast, thought he ought to sound the inclination of the provinces, and
 +march further into the country; and when embassadors came to him from
 +Thessaly and Aetolia, to engage that the states in those countries
 +would obey his orders, if he sent a garrison to protect them, he
 +dispatched Lucius Cassius Longinus, with the twenty-seventh,​ a legion
 +composed of young soldiers, and two hundred horse, to Thessaly: and
 +Caius Calvisius Sabinus, with five cohorts, and a small party of
 +horse, into Aetolia. He recommended them to be especially careful to
 +provide corn, because those regions were nearest to him. He ordered
 +Cneius Domitius Calvinus to march into Macedonia with two legions, the
 +eleventh and twelfth, and five hundred horse; from which province,
 +Menedemus, the principal man of those regions, on that side which is
 +called the Free, having come as embassador, assured him of the most
 +devoted affection of all his subjects.
 +
 +===== Chapter 35 =====
 +
 +Of these Calvisius, on his first arrival in Aetolia, being very kindly
 +received, dislodged the enemy'​s garrisons in Calydon and Naupactus,
 +and made himself master of the whole country. Cassius went to Thessaly
 +with his legion. As there were two factions there, he, found the
 +citizens divided in their inclinations. Hegasaretus,​ a man of
 +established power, favored Pompey'​s interest. Petreius, a young man of
 +a most noble family, warmly supported Caesar with his own and his
 +friends'​ influence.
 +
 +===== Chapter 36 =====
 +
 +At the same time, Domitius arrived in Macedonia: and when numerous
 +embassies had begun to wait on him from many of the states, news was
 +brought that Scipio was approaching with his legions, which occasioned
 +various opinions and reports; for in strange events, rumor generally
 +goes before. Without making any delay in any part of Macedonia, he
 +marched with great haste against Domitius; and when he was come within
 +about twenty miles of him, wheeled on a sudden toward Cassius Longinus
 +in Thessaly. He effected this with such celerity, that news of his
 +march and arrival came together; for to render his march expeditious,​
 +he left the baggage of his legions behind him at the river Haliacmon,
 +which divides Macedonia from Thessaly, under the care of Marcus
 +Favonius, with a guard of eight cohorts, and ordered him to build a
 +strong fort there. At the same time, Cotus'​s cavalry, which used to
 +infest the neighborhood of Macedonia, flew to attack Cassius'​s camp,
 +at which Cassius being alarmed, and having received information of
 +Scipio'​s approach, and seen the horse, which he imagined to be
 +Scipio'​s,​ he betook himself to the mountains that environ Thessaly,
 +and thence began to make his route toward Ambracia. But when Scipio
 +was hastening to pursue him, dispatches overtook him from Favonius,
 +that Domitius was marching against him with his legions, and that he
 +could not maintain the garrison over which he was appointed, without
 +Scipio'​s assistance. On receipt of these dispatches, Scipio changed
 +his designs and his route, desisted from his pursuit of Cassius, and
 +hastened to relieve Favonius. Accordingly,​ continuing his march day
 +and night, he came to him so opportunely,​ that the dust raised by
 +Domitius'​s army, and Scipio'​s advanced guard, were observed at the
 +same instant. Thus, the vigilance of Domitius saved Cassius, and the
 +expedition of Scipio, Favonius.
 +
 +===== Chapter 37 =====
 +
 +Scipio, having staid for two days in his camp, along the river
 +Haliacmon, which ran between him and Domitius'​s camp, on the third
 +day, at dawn, led his army across a ford, and having made a regular
 +encampment the day following, drew up his forces in front of his
 +camp. Domitius thought he ought not to show any reluctance, but should
 +draw out his forces and hazard a battle. But as there was a plain six
 +miles in breadth between the two camps, he posted his army before
 +Scipio'​s camp; while the latter persevered in not quitting his
 +intrenchment. However, Domitius with difficulty restrained his men,
 +and prevented their beginning a battle; the more so as a rivulet with
 +steep banks, joining Scipio'​s camp, retarded the progress of our
 +men. When Scipio perceived the eagerness and alacrity of our troops to
 +engage, suspecting that he should be obliged the next day, either to
 +fight, against his inclination,​ or to incur great disgrace by keeping
 +within his camp, though he had come with high expectation,​ yet by
 +advancing rashly, made a shameful end; and at night crossed the river,
 +without even giving the signal for breaking up the camp, and returned
 +to the ground from which he came, and there encamped near the river,
 +on an elevated situation. After a few days, he placed a party of horse
 +in ambush in the night, where our men had usually gone to forage for
 +several days before. And when Quintus Varus, commander of Domitius'​s
 +horse, came there as usual, they suddenly rushed from their
 +ambush. But our men bravely supported their charge, and returned
 +quickly every man to his own rank, and in their turn, made a general
 +charge on the enemy; and having killed about eighty of them, and put
 +the rest to flight, retreated to their camp with the loss of only two
 +men.
 +
 +===== Chapter 38 =====
 +
 +After these transactions,​ Domitius, hoping to allure Scipio to a
 +battle, pretended to be obliged to change his position through want of
 +corn, and having given the signal for decamping, advanced about three
 +miles, and posted his army and cavalry in a convenient place,
 +concealed from the enemy'​s view. Scipio being in readiness to pursue
 +him, detached his cavalry and a considerable number of light infantry
 +to explore Domitius'​s route. When they had marched a short way, and
 +their foremost troops were within reach of our ambush, their
 +suspicions being raised by the neighing of the horses, they began to
 +retreat: and the rest who followed them, observing with what speed
 +they retreated, made a halt. Our men, perceiving that the enemy had
 +discovered their plot, and thinking it in vain to wait for any more,
 +having got two troops in their power, intercepted them. Among them was
 +Marcus Opimius, general of the horse, but he made his escape: they
 +either killed or took prisoners all the rest of these two troops, and
 +brought them to Domitius.
 +
 +===== Chapter 39 =====
 +
 +Caesar, having drawn his garrisons out of the sea-ports, as before
 +mentioned, left three cohorts at Oricum to protect the town, and
 +committed to them the charge of his ships of war, which he had
 +transported from Italy. Acilius, as lieutenant-general,​ had the charge
 +of this duty and the command of the town; he drew the ships into the
 +inner part of the harbor, behind the town, and fastened them to the
 +shore, and sank a merchant-ship in the mouth of the harbor to block it
 +up; and near it he fixed another at anchor, on which he raised a
 +turret, and faced it to the entrance of the port, and filled it with
 +soldiers, and ordered them to keep guard against any sudden attack.
 +
 +===== Chapter 40 =====
 +
 +Cneius, Pompey'​s son, who commanded the Egyptian fleet, having got
 +intelligence of these things, came to Oricum, and weighed up the ship,
 +that had been sunk, with a windlass, and by straining at it with
 +several ropes, and attacked the other which had been placed by Acilius
 +to watch the port with several ships, on which he had raised very high
 +turrets, so that fighting as it were from an eminence, and sending
 +fresh men constantly to relieve the fatigued, and at the same time
 +attempting the town on all sides by land, with ladders and his fleet,
 +in order to divide the force of his enemies, he overpowered our men by
 +fatigue, and the immense number of darts, and took the ship, having
 +beat off the men that were put on board to defend it, who, however,
 +made their escape in small boats; and at the, same time he seized a
 +natural mole on the opposite side, which almost formed an island over
 +against the town. He carried over land, into the inner part of the
 +harbor, four galleys, by putting rollers under them, and driving them
 +on with levers. Then attacking on both sides the ships of war which
 +were moored to the shore, and were not manned, he carried off four of
 +them, and set the rest on fire. After dispatching this business, he
 +left Decimus Laelius, whom he had taken away from the command of the
 +Asiatic fleet, to hinder provisions from being brought into the town
 +from Biblis and Amantia, and went himself to Lissus, where he attacked
 +thirty merchantmen,​ left within the port by Antonius, and set them on
 +fire. He attempted to storm Lissus, but being delayed three days by
 +the vigorous defense of the Roman citizens who belonged to that
 +district, and of the soldiers which Caesar had sent to keep garrison
 +there, and having lost a few men in the assault, he returned without
 +effecting his object.
 +
 +===== Chapter 41 =====
 +
 +As soon as Caesar heard that Pompey was at Asparagium, he set out for
 +that place with his army, and having taken the capital of the
 +Parthinians on his march, where there was a garrison of Pompey'​s,​ he
 +reached Pompey in Macedonia, on the third day, and encamped beside
 +him; and the day following having drawn out all his forces before his
 +camp, he offered Pompey battle. But perceiving that he kept within his
 +trenches, he led his army back to his camp, and thought of pursuing
 +some other plan. Accordingly,​ the day following, he set out with all
 +his forces by a long circuit, through a difficult and narrow road to
 +Dyrrachium; hoping, either that Pompey would be compelled to follow
 +him to Dyrrachium, or that his communication with it might be cut off,
 +because he had deposited there all his provisions and material of
 +war. And so it happened; for Pompey, at first not knowing his design,
 +because he imagined he had taken a route in a different direction from
 +that country, thought that the scarcity of provisions had obliged him
 +to shift his quarters; but having afterward got true intelligence from
 +his scouts, he decamped the day following, hoping to prevent him by
 +taking a shorter road; which Caesar suspecting might happen,
 +encouraged his troops to submit cheerfully to the fatigue, and having
 +halted a very small part of the night, he arrived early in the morning
 +at Dyrrachium, when the van of Pompey'​s army was visible at a
 +distance, and there he encamped.
 +
 +===== Chapter 42 =====
 +
 +Pompey, being cut off from Dyrrachium, as he was unable to effect his
 +purpose, took a new resolution, and intrenched himself strongly on a
 +rising ground, which is called Petra, where ships of a small size can
 +come in, and be sheltered from some winds. Here he ordered a part of
 +his men of war to attend him, and corn and provisions to be brought
 +from Asia, and from all the countries of which he kept
 +possession. Caesar, imagining that the war would be protracted to too
 +great a length, and despairing of his convoys from Italy, because all
 +the coasts were guarded with great diligence by Pompey'​s adherents;
 +and because his own fleets, which he had built during the winter, in
 +Sicily, Gaul, and Italy, were detained; sent Lucius Canuleius into
 +Epirus to procure corn; and because these countries were too remote,
 +he fixed granaries in certain places, and regulated the carriage of
 +the corn for the neighboring states. He likewise gave directions that
 +search should be made for whatever corn was in Lissus, the country of
 +the Parthini, and all the places of strength. The quantity was very
 +small, both from the nature of the land (for the country is rough and
 +mountainous,​ and the people commonly import what grain they use); and
 +because Pompey had foreseen what would happen, and some days before
 +had plundered the Parthini, and having ravaged and dug up their
 +houses, carried off all the corn, which he collected by means of his
 +horse.
 +
 +===== Chapter 43 =====
 +
 +Caesar, on being informed of these transactions,​ pursued measures
 +suggested by the nature of the country. For round Pompey'​s camps there
 +were several high and rough hills. These he first of all occupied with
 +guards, and raised strong forts on them. Then drawing a fortification
 +from one fort to another, as the nature of each position allowed, he
 +began to draw a line of circumvallation round Pompey, with these
 +views; as he had but a small quantity of corn, and Pompey was strong
 +in cavalry, that he might furnish his army with corn and other
 +necessaries from all sides with less danger; secondly, to prevent
 +Pompey from foraging, and thereby render his horse ineffectual in the
 +operations of the war; and thirdly, to lessen his reputation, on which
 +he saw he depended greatly, among foreign nations, when a report
 +should have spread throughout the world that he was blockaded by
 +Caesar, and dare not hazard a battle.
 +
 +===== Chapter 44 =====
 +
 +Neither was Pompey willing to leave the sea and Dyrrachium, because he
 +had lodged his material there, his weapons, arms, and engines; and
 +supplied his army with corn from it by his ships; nor was he able to
 +put a stop to Caesar'​s works without hazarding a battle, which at that
 +time he had determined not to do. Nothing was left but to adopt the
 +last resource, namely, to possess himself of as many hills as he
 +could, and cover as great an extent of country as possible with his
 +troops, and divide Caesar'​s forces as much as possible; and so it
 +happened: for having raised twenty-four forts, and taken in a compass
 +of fifteen miles, he got forage in this space, and within this circuit
 +there were several fields lately sown, in which the cattle might feed
 +in the mean time. And as our men, who had completed their works by
 +drawing lines of communication from one fort to another, were afraid
 +that Pompey'​s men would sally out from some part, and attack us in the
 +rear; so the enemy were making a continued fortification in a circuit
 +within ours to prevent us from breaking in on any side, or surrounding
 +them on the rear. But they completed their works first; both because
 +they had a greater number of men, and because they had a smaller
 +compass to inclose. When Caesar attempted to gain any place, though
 +Pompey had resolved not to oppose him with his whole force, or to come
 +to a general engagement, yet he detached to particular places slingers
 +and archers, with which his army abounded, and several of our men were
 +wounded, and filled with great dread of the arrows; and almost all the
 +soldiers made coats or coverings for themselves of hair cloths,
 +tarpaulins, or raw hides to defend them against the weapons.
 +
 +===== Chapter 45 =====
 +
 +In seizing the posts, each exerted his utmost power. Caesar, to
 +confine Pompey within as narrow a compass as possible; Pompey, to
 +occupy as many hills as he could in as large a circuit as possible,
 +and several skirmishes were fought in consequence of it. In one of
 +these, when Caesar'​s ninth legion had gained a certain post, and had
 +begun to fortify it, Pompey possessed himself of a hill near to and
 +opposite the same place, and endeavored to annoy the men while at
 +work; and as the approach on one side was almost level, he first
 +surrounded it with archers and slingers, and afterward by detaching a
 +strong party of light infantry, and using his engines, he stopped our
 +works; and it was no easy matter for our men at once to defend
 +themselves, and to proceed with their fortifications. When Caesar
 +perceived that his troops were wounded from all sides, he determined
 +to retreat and give up the post; his retreat was down a precipice, on
 +which account they pushed on with more spirit, and would not allow us
 +to retire, because they imagined that we resigned the place through
 +fear. It is reported that Pompey said that day in triumph to his
 +friends about him, "That he would consent to be accounted a general of
 +no experience, if Caesar'​s legions effected a retreat without
 +considerable loss from that ground into which they had rashly
 +advanced."​
 +
 +===== Chapter 46 =====
 +
 +Caesar, being uneasy about the retreat of his soldiers, ordered
 +hurdles to be carried to the further side of the hill, and to be
 +placed opposite to the enemy, and behind them a trench of a moderate
 +breadth to be sunk by his soldiers under shelter of the hurdles; and
 +the ground to be made as difficult as possible. He himself disposed
 +slingers in convenient places to cover our men in their retreat. These
 +things being completed, he ordered his legions to file off: Pompey'​s
 +men insultingly and boldly pursued and chased us, leveling the hurdles
 +that were thrown up in the front of our works, in order to pass over
 +the trench. Which as soon as Caesar perceived, being afraid that his
 +men would appear not to retreat, but to be repulsed, and that greater
 +loss might be sustained, when his men were almost half way down the
 +hill, he encouraged them by Antonius, who commanded that legion,
 +ordered the signal of battle to be sounded, and a charge to be made on
 +the enemy. The soldiers of the ninth legion suddenly closing their
 +files, threw their javelins, and advancing impetuously from the low
 +ground up the steep, drove Pompey'​s men precipitately before them, and
 +obliged them to turn their backs; but their retreat was greatly
 +impeded by the hurdles that lay in a long line before them, and the
 +palisadoes which were in their way, and the trenches that were
 +sunk. But our men being contented to retreat without injury, having
 +killed several of the enemy, and lost but five of their own, very
 +quietly retired, and having seized some other hills somewhat on this
 +side of that place, completed their fortifications.
 +
 +===== Chapter 47 =====
 +
 +This method of conducting a war was new and unusual, as well on
 +account of the number of forts, the extent and greatness of the works,
 +and the manner of attack and defense, as on account of other
 +circumstances. For all who have attempted to besiege any person, have
 +attacked the enemy when they were frightened or weak, or after a
 +defeat; or have been kept in fear of some attack, when they themselves
 +have had a superior force both of foot and horse. Besides, the usual
 +design of a siege is to cut off the enemy'​s supplies. On the contrary,
 +Caesar, with an inferior force, was inclosing troops sound and unhurt,
 +and who had abundance of all things. For there arrived every day a
 +prodigious number of ships, which brought them provisions: nor could
 +the wind blow from any point, that would not be favorable to some of
 +them. Whereas, Caesar, having consumed all the corn far and near, was
 +in very great distress, but his soldiers bore all with uncommon
 +patience. For they remembered that they lay under the same
 +difficulties last year in Spain, and yet by labor and patience had
 +concluded a dangerous war. They recollected too that they had suffered
 +an alarming scarcity at Alesia, and a much greater at Avaricum, and
 +yet had returned victorious over mighty nations. They refused neither
 +barley nor pulse when offered them, and they held in great esteem
 +cattle, of which they got great quantities from Epirus.
 +
 +===== Chapter 48 =====
 +
 +There was a sort of root called chara, discovered by the troops which
 +served under Valerius. This they mixed up with milk, and it greatly
 +contributed to relieve their want. They made it into a sort of
 +bread. They had great plenty of it; loaves made of this, when Pompey'​s
 +men upbraided ours with want, they frequently threw among them to damp
 +their hopes.
 +
 +===== Chapter 49 =====
 +
 +The corn was now beginning to ripen, and their hope supported their
 +want, as they were confident of having abundance in a short time. And
 +there were frequently heard declarations of the soldiers on guard, in
 +discourse with each other, that they would rather live on the bark of
 +the trees, than let Pompey escape from their hands. For they were
 +often told by deserters, that they could scarcely maintain their
 +horses, and that their other cattle was dead: that they themselves
 +were not in good health from their confinement within so narrow a
 +compass, from the noisome smell, the number of carcasses, and the
 +constant fatigue to them, being men unaccustomed to work, and laboring
 +under a great want of water. For Caesar had either turned the course
 +of all the rivers and streams which ran to the sea, or had dammed them
 +up with strong works. And as the country was mountainous,​ and the
 +valleys narrow at the bottom, he inclosed them with piles sunk in the
 +ground, and heaped up mold against them to keep in the water. They
 +were therefore obliged to search for low and marshy grounds, and to
 +sink wells, and they had this labor in addition to their daily
 +works. And even these springs were at a considerable distance from
 +some of their posts, and soon dried up with the heat. But Caesar'​s
 +army enjoyed perfect health and abundance of water, and had plenty of
 +all sorts of provisions except corn; and they had a prospect of better
 +times approaching,​ and saw greater hopes laid before them by the
 +ripening of the grain.
 +
 +===== Chapter 50 =====
 +
 +In this new kind of war, new methods of managing it were invented by
 +both generals. Pompey'​s men, perceiving by our fires at night, at what
 +part of the works our cohorts were on guard, coming silently upon them
 +discharged their arrows at random among the whole multitude, and
 +instantly retired to their camp; as a remedy against which our men
 +were taught by experience to light their fires in one place, and keep
 +guard in another. Note: The translator felt that some of the original
 +text was missing at this point.
 +
 +===== Chapter 51 =====
 +
 +In the mean time, Publius Sylla, whom Caesar at his departure had left
 +governor of his camp, came up with two legions to assist the cohort;
 +upon whose arrival Pompey'​s forces were easily repulsed. Nor did they
 +stand the sight and charge of our men, and the foremost falling, the
 +rest turned their backs and quitted the field. But Sylla called our
 +men in from the pursuit, lest their ardor should carry them too far,
 +but most people imagine that if he had consented to a vigorous
 +pursuit, the war might have been ended that day. His conduct however
 +does not appear to deserve censure; for the duties of a
 +lieutenant-general,​ and of a commander-in-chief,​ are very different;
 +the one is bound to act entirely according to his instructions,​ the
 +other to regulate his conduct without control, as occasion
 +requires. Sylla, being deputed by Caesar to take care of the camp, and
 +having rescued his men, was satisfied with that, and did not desire to
 +hazard a battle (although this circumstance might probably have had a
 +successful issue), that he might not be thought to have assumed the
 +part of the general. One circumstance laid the Pompeians under great
 +difficulty in making good a retreat: for they had advanced from
 +disadvantageous ground, and were posted on the top of a hill. If they
 +attempted to retire down the steep, they dreaded the pursuit of our
 +men from the rising ground, and there was but a short time till
 +sunset: for in hopes of completing the business, they had protracted
 +the battle almost till night. Taking therefore measures suited to
 +their exigency, and to the shortness of the time, Pompey possessed
 +himself of an eminence, at such a distance from our fort that no
 +weapon discharged from an engine could reach him. Here he took up a
 +position, and fortified it, and kept all his forces there.
 +
 +===== Chapter 52 =====
 +
 +At the same time, there were engagements in two other places; for
 +Pompey had attacked several forts at once, in order to divide our
 +forces; that no relief might be sent from the neighboring posts. In
 +one place, Volcatius Tullus sustained the charge of a legion with
 +three cohorts, and beat them off the field. In another, the Germans,
 +having sallied over our fortifications,​ slew several of the enemy, and
 +retreated safe to our camp.
 +
 +===== Chapter 53 =====
 +
 +Thus six engagements having happened in one day, three at Dyrrachium,
 +and three at the fortifications,​ when a computation was made of the
 +number of slain, we found that about two thousand fell on Pompey'​s
 +side, several of them volunteer veterans and centurions. Among them
 +was Valerius, the son of Lucius Flaccus, who as praetor had formerly
 +had the government of Asia, and six military standards were taken. Of
 +our men, not more than twenty were missing in all the action. But in
 +the fort, not a single soldier escaped without a wound; and in one
 +cohort, four centurions lost their eyes. And being desirous to produce
 +testimony of the fatigue they under went, and the danger they
 +sustained, they counted to Caesar about thirty thousand arrows which
 +had been thrown into the fort; and in the shield of the centurion
 +Scaeva, which was brought to him, were found two hundred and thirty
 +holes. In reward for this man's services, both to himself and the
 +public, Caesar presented to him two hundred thousand pieces of copper
 +money, and declared him promoted from the eighth to the first
 +centurion. For it appeared that the fort had been in a great measure
 +saved by his exertions; and he afterward very amply rewarded the
 +cohorts with double pay, corn, clothing, and other military honors.
 +
 +===== Chapter 54 =====
 +
 +Pompey, having made great additions to his works in the night, the
 +following days built turrets, and having carried his works fifteen
 +feet high, faced that part of his camp with mantelets; and after an
 +interval of five days, taking advantage of a second cloudy night, he
 +barricaded all the gates of his camp to hinder a pursuit, and about
 +midnight, quietly marched off his army, and retreated to his old
 +fortifications.
 +
 +===== Chapter 55 =====
 +
 +First part of audio ends and second beings here onwards
 +
 +Aetolia, Acarnania, and Amphilochis,​ being reduced, as we have
 +related, by Cassius Longinus, and Calvisius Sabinus, Caesar thought he
 +ought to attempt the conquest of Achaia, and to advance further into
 +the country. Accordingly,​ he detached Fufius thither, and ordered
 +Quintus Sabinus and Cassius to join him with their cohorts. Upon
 +notice of their approach, Rutilius Lupus, who commanded in Achaia,
 +under Pompey, began to fortify the Isthmus, to prevent Fufius from
 +coming into Achaia. Kalenus recovered Delphi, Thebes, and Orchomenus,
 +by a voluntary submission of those states. Some he subdued by force,
 +the rest he endeavored to win over to Caesar'​s interest, by sending
 +deputies round to them. In these things, principally,​ Fusius was
 +employed.
 +
 +===== Chapter 56 =====
 +
 +Every day afterward, Caesar drew up his army on a level ground, and
 +offered Pompey battle, and led his legions almost close to Pompey'​s
 +camp; and his front line was at no greater distance from the rampart
 +than that no weapon from their engines could reach it. But Pompey, to
 +save his credit and reputation with the world, drew out his legions,
 +but so close to his camp, that his rear line might touch the rampart,
 +and that his whole army, when drawn up, might be protected by the
 +darts discharged from it.
 +
 +===== Chapter 57 =====
 +
 +While these things were going forward in Achaia and at Dyrrachium, and
 +when it was certainly known that Scipio was arrived in Macedonia,
 +Caesar, never losing sight of his first intention, sends Clodius to
 +him, an intimate friend to both, whom Caesar, on the introduction and
 +recommendation of Pompey, had admitted into the number of his
 +acquaintance. To this man he gave letters and instructions to Pompey,
 +the substance of which was as follows: "That he had made every effort
 +toward peace, and imputed the ill success of those efforts to the
 +fault of those whom he had employed to conduct those negotiations;​
 +because they were afraid to carry his proposals to Pompey at an
 +improper time. That Scipio had such authority, that he could not only
 +freely explain what conduct met his approbation,​ but even in some
 +degree enforce his advice, and govern him [Pompey] if he persisted in
 +error; that he commanded an army independent of Pompey, so that
 +besides his authority, he had strength to compel; and if he did so,
 +all men would be indebted to him for the quiet of Italy, the peace of
 +the provinces, and the preservation of the empire."​ These proposals
 +Clodius made to him, and for some days at the first appeared to have
 +met with a favorable reception, but afterward was not admitted to an
 +audience; for Scipio being reprimanded by Favonius, as we found
 +afterward when the war was ended, and the negotiation having
 +miscarried, Clodius returned to Caesar.
 +
 +===== Chapter 58 =====
 +
 +Caesar, that he might the more easily keep Pompey'​s horse inclosed
 +within Dyrrachium, and prevent them from foraging, fortified the two
 +narrow passes already mentioned with strong works, and erected forts
 +at them. Pompey perceiving that he derived no advantage from his
 +cavalry, after a few days had them conveyed back to his camp by
 +sea. Fodder was so exceedingly scarce that he was obliged to feed his
 +horses upon leaves stripped off the trees, or the tender roots of
 +reeds pounded. For the corn which had been sown within the lines was
 +already consumed, and they would be obliged to supply themselves with
 +fodder from Corcyra and Acarnania, over a long tract of sea; and as
 +the quantity of that fell short, to increase it by mixing barley with
 +it, and by these methods support their cavalry. But when not only the
 +barley and fodder in these parts were consumed, and the herbs cut
 +away, when the leaves too were not to be found on the trees, the
 +horses being almost starved, Pompey thought he ought to make some
 +attempt by a sally.
 +
 +===== Chapter 59 =====
 +
 +In the number of Caesar'​s cavalry were two Allobrogians,​ brothers,
 +named Roscillus and Aegus, the sons of Abducillus, who for several
 +years possessed the chief power in his own state; men of singular
 +valor, whose gallant services Caesar had found very useful in all his
 +wars in Gaul. To them, for these reasons, he had committed the offices
 +of greatest honor in their own country, and took care to have them
 +chosen into the senate at an unusual age, and had bestowed on them
 +lands taken from the enemy, and large pecuniary rewards, and from
 +being needy had made them affluent. Their valor had not only procured
 +them Caesar'​s esteem, but they were beloved by the whole army. But
 +presuming on Caesar'​s friendship, and elated with the arrogance
 +natural to a foolish and barbarous people, they despised their
 +countrymen, defrauded their cavalry of their pay, and applied all the
 +plunder to their own use. Displeased at this conduct, their soldiers
 +went in a body to Caesar, and openly complained of their ill usage;
 +and to their other charges added, that false musters were given in to
 +Caesar, and the surcharged pay applied to their own use.
 +
 +===== Chapter 60 =====
 +
 +Caesar, not thinking it a proper time to call them to account, and
 +willing to pardon many faults, on account of their valor, deferred the
 +whole matter, and gave them a private rebuke, for having made a
 +traffic of their troops, and advised them to expect every thing from
 +his friendship, and by his past favors to measure their future
 +hopes. This however, gave them great offense, and made them
 +contemptible in the eyes of the whole army. Of this they became
 +sensible, as well from the reproaches of others, as from the judgment
 +of their own minds, and a consciousness of guilt. Prompted then by
 +shame, and perhaps imagining that they were not liberated from trial,
 +but reserved to a future day, they resolved to break off from us, to
 +put their fortune to a new hazard, and to make trial of new
 +connections. And having conferred with a few of their clients, to whom
 +they could venture to intrust so base an action, they first attempted
 +to assassinate Caius Volusenus, general of the horse (as was
 +discovered at the end of the war), that they might appear to have fled
 +to Pompey after conferring an important service on him. But when that
 +appeared too difficult to put in execution, and no opportunity offered
 +to accomplish it, they borrowed all the money they could, as if they
 +designed to make satisfaction and restitution for what they had
 +defrauded: and having purchased a great number of horses, they
 +deserted to Pompey along with those whom they had engaged in their
 +plot.
 +
 +===== Chapter 61 =====
 +
 +As they were persons nobly descended and of liberal education, and had
 +come with a great retinue, and several cattle, and were reckoned men
 +of courage, and had been in great esteem with Caesar, and as it was a
 +new and uncommon event, Pompey carried them round all his works, and
 +made an ostentatious show of them, for till that day, not a soldier,
 +either horse or foot had deserted from Caesar to Pompey, though there
 +were desertions almost every day from Pompey to Caesar: but more
 +commonly among the soldiers levied in Epirus and Aetolia, and in those
 +countries, which were in Caesar'​s possession. But the brothers, having
 +been acquainted with all things, either what was incomplete in our
 +works, or what appeared to the best judges of military matters to be
 +deficient, the particular times, the distance of places, and the
 +various attention of the guards, according to the different temper and
 +character of the officer who commanded the different posts, gave an
 +exact account of all to Pompey.
 +
 +===== Chapter 62 =====
 +
 +Upon receiving this intelligence,​ Pompey, who had already formed the
 +design of attempting a sally, as before mentioned, ordered the
 +soldiers to make ozier coverings for their helmets, and to provide
 +fascines. These things being prepared, he embarked on board small
 +boats and row galleys by night, a considerable number of light
 +infantry and archers, with all their fascines, and immediately after
 +midnight, he marched sixty cohorts drafted from the greater camp and
 +the outposts, to that part of our works which extended toward the sea,
 +and were at the furthest distance from Caesar'​s greater camp. To the
 +same place he sent the ships, which he had freighted with the fascines
 +and light-armed troops; and all the ships of war that lay at
 +Dyrrachium; and to each he gave particular instructions:​ at this part
 +of the lines Caesar had posted Lentulus Marcellinus,​ the quaestor,
 +with the ninth legion, and as he was not in a good state of health,
 +Fulvius Costhumus was sent to assist him in the command.
 +
 +===== Chapter 63 =====
 +
 +At this place, fronting the enemy, there was a ditch fifteen feet
 +wide, and a rampart ten feet high, and the top of the rampart was ten
 +feet in breadth. At an interval of six hundred feet from that there
 +was another rampart turned the contrary way, with the works lower. For
 +some days before, Caesar, apprehending that our men might be
 +surrounded by sea, had made a double rampart there, that if he should
 +be attacked on both sides, he might have the means of defending
 +himself. But the extent of the lines, and the incessant labor for so
 +many days, because he had inclosed a circuit of seventeen miles with
 +his works, did not allow time to finish them. Therefore the transverse
 +rampart which should make a communication between the other two, was
 +not yet completed. This circumstance was known to Pompey, being told
 +to him by the Allobrogian deserters, and proved of great disadvantage
 +to us. For when our cohorts of the ninth legion were on guard by the
 +sea-side, Pompey'​s army arrived suddenly by break of day, and their
 +approach was a surprise to our men, and at the same time, the soldiers
 +that came by sea, cast their darts on the front rampart; and the
 +ditches were filled with fascines: and the legionary soldiers
 +terrified those that defended the inner rampart, by applying the
 +scaling ladders, and by engines and weapons of all sorts, and a vast
 +multitude of archers poured round upon them from every side. Besides,
 +the coverings of oziers, which they had laid over their helmets, were
 +a great security to them against the blows of stones which were the
 +only weapons that our soldiers had. And therefore, when our men were
 +oppressed in every manner, and were scarcely able to make resistance,
 +the defect in our works was observed, and Pompey'​s soldiers, landing
 +between the two ramparts, where the work was unfinished, attacked our
 +men in the rear, and having beat them from both sides of the
 +fortification,​ obliged them to flee.
 +
 +===== Chapter 64 =====
 +
 +Marcellinus,​ being informed of this disorder, detached some cohorts to
 +the relief of our men, who seeing them flee from the camp, were
 +neither able to persuade them to rally at their approach, nor
 +themselves to sustain the enemy'​s charge. And in like manner, whatever
 +additional assistance was sent, was infected by the fears of the
 +defeated, and increased the terror and danger. For retreat was
 +prevented by the multitude of the fugitives. In that battle, when the
 +eagle-bearer was dangerously wounded, and began to grow weak, having
 +got sight of our horse, he said to them, "This eagle have I defended
 +with the greatest care for many years, at the hazard of my life, and
 +now in my last moments restore it to Caesar with the same fidelity. Do
 +not, I conjure you, suffer a dishonor to be sustained in the field,
 +which never before happened to Caesar'​s army, but deliver it safe into
 +his hands."​ By this accident the eagle was preserved, but all the
 +centurions of the first cohorts were killed, except the principal.
 +
 +===== Chapter 65 =====
 +
 +And now the Pompeians, after great havoc of our troops, were
 +approaching Marcellinus'​s camp, and had struck no small terror into
 +the rest of the cohorts, when Marcus Antonius, who commanded the
 +nearest fort, being informed of what had happened, was observed
 +descending from the rising ground with twelve cohorts. His arrival
 +checked the Pompeians, and encouraged our men to recover from their
 +extreme affright. And shortly after, Caesar having got notice by the
 +smoke of all the forts, which was the usual signal on such occasions,
 +drafted off some cohorts from the outposts, and went to the scene of
 +action. And having there learned the loss he had sustained, and
 +perceiving that Pompey had forced our works, and had encamped along
 +the coast, so that he was at liberty to forage, and had a
 +communication with his shipping, he altered his plan for conducting
 +the war, as his design had not succeeded, and ordered a strong
 +encampment to be made near Pompey.
 +
 +===== Chapter 66 =====
 +
 +When this work was finished, Caesar'​s scouts observed that some
 +cohorts, which to them appeared like a legion, were retired behind the
 +wood, and were on their march to the old camp. The situation of the
 +two camps was as follows: a few days before, when Caesar'​s ninth
 +legion had opposed a party of Pompey'​s troops, and were endeavoring to
 +inclose them, Caesar'​s troops formed a camp in that place. This camp
 +joined a certain wood, and was not above four hundred paces distant
 +from the sea. Afterward, changing his design for certain reasons,
 +Caesar removed his camp to a small distance beyond that place; and
 +after a few days, Pompey took possession of it, and added more
 +extensive works, leaving the inner rampart standing, as he intended to
 +keep several legions there. By this means, the lesser camp, included
 +within the greater, answered the purpose of a fort and citadel. He had
 +also carried an intrenchment from the left angle of the camp to the
 +river, about four hundred paces, that his soldiers might have more
 +liberty and less danger in fetching water. But he too, changing his
 +design for reasons not necessary to be mentioned, abandoned the
 +place. In this condition the camp remained for several days, the works
 +being all entire.
 +
 +===== Chapter 67 =====
 +
 +Caesar'​s scouts brought him word that the standard of a legion was
 +carried to this place. That the same thing was seen he was assured by
 +those in the higher forts. This place was a half a mile distant from
 +Pompey'​s new camp. Caesar, hoping to surprise this legion, and anxious
 +to repair the loss sustained that day, left two cohorts employed in
 +the works to make an appearance of intrenching himself, and by a
 +different route, as privately as he could, with his other cohorts
 +amounting to thirty-three,​ among which was the ninth legion, which had
 +lost so many centurions, and whose privates were greatly reduced in
 +number, he marched in two lines against Pompey'​s legion and his lesser
 +camp. Nor did this first opinion deceive him. For he reached the place
 +before Pompey could have notice of it; and though the works were
 +strong, yet having made the attack with the left wing which he
 +commanded in person, he obliged the Pompeians to quit the rampart in
 +disorder. A barricade had been raised before the gates, at which a
 +short contest was maintained, our men endeavoring to force their way
 +in, and the enemy to defend the camp; Titus Pulcio, by whose means we
 +have related that Caius Antonius'​s army was betrayed, defending them
 +with singular courage. But the valor of our men prevailed, and having
 +cut down the barricade, they first forced the greater camp, and after
 +that the fort which was inclosed within it; and as the legion on its
 +repulse had retired to this, they slew several defending themselves
 +there.
 +
 +===== Chapter 68 =====
 +
 +But Fortune who exerts a powerful influence as well in other matters,
 +as especially in war, effects great changes from trifling causes, as
 +happened at this time. For the cohorts on Caesar'​s right wing, through
 +ignorance of the place, followed the direction of that rampart which
 +ran along from the camp to the river, while they were in search of a
 +gate, and imagined that it belonged to the camp. But when they found
 +that it led to the river, and that nobody opposed them, they
 +immediately climbed over the rampart, and were followed by all our
 +cavalry.
 +
 +===== Chapter 69 =====
 +
 +In the mean time Pompey, by the great delay which this occasioned,
 +being informed of what had happened, marched with the fifth legion,
 +which he called away from their work to support his party; and at the
 +same time his cavalry were advancing up to ours, and an army in order
 +of battle, was seen at a distance by our men who had taken possession
 +of the camp, and the face of affairs was suddenly changed. For
 +Pompey'​s legion, encouraged by the hope of speedy support, attempted
 +to make a stand at the Decuman gate, and made a bold charge on our
 +men. Caesar'​s cavalry, who had mounted the rampart by a narrow breach,
 +being apprehensive of their retreat, were the first to flee. The right
 +wing which had been separated from the left, observing the terror of
 +the cavalry, to prevent their being overpowered within the lines, were
 +endeavoring to retreat by the same way as they burst in; and most of
 +them, lest they should be engaged in the narrow passes, threw
 +themselves down a rampart ten feet high into the trenches; and the
 +first being trodden to death, the rest procured their safety, and
 +escaped over their bodies. The soldiers of the left wing, perceiving
 +from the rampart that Pompey was advancing, and their own friends
 +fleeing, being afraid that they should be inclosed between the two
 +ramparts, as they had an enemy both within and without, strove to
 +secure their retreat the same way they came. All was disorder,
 +consternation,​ and flight; insomuch that, when Caesar laid hold of the
 +colors of those who were running away, and desired them to stand, some
 +left their horses behind, and continued to run in the same manner;
 +others through fear even threw away their colors. Nor did a single man
 +face about.
 +
 +===== Chapter 70 =====
 +
 +In this calamity, the following favorable circumstance occurred to
 +prevent the ruin of our whole army, viz., that Pompey suspecting an
 +ambuscade (because, as I suppose, the success had far exceeded his
 +hopes, as he had seen his men a moment before fleeing from the camp),
 +durst not for some time approach the fortification;​ and that his horse
 +were retarded from pursuing, because the passes and gates were in
 +possession of Caesar'​s soldiers. Thus a trifling circumstance proved
 +of great importance to each party; for the rampart drawn from the camp
 +to the river, interrupted the progress and certainty of Caesar'​s
 +victory, after he had forged Pompey'​s camp. The same thing, by
 +retarding the rapidity of the enemy'​s pursuit, preserved our army.
 +
 +===== Chapter 71 =====
 +
 +In the two actions of this day, Caesar lost nine hundred and sixty
 +rank and file, several Roman knights of distinction,​ Felginas
 +Tuticanus Gallus, a senator'​s son; Caius Felginas from Placentia;
 +Aulus Gravius from Puteoli; Marcus Sacrativir from Capua; and
 +thirty-two military tribunes and centurions. But the greatest part of
 +all these perished without a wound, being trodden to death in the
 +trenches, on the ramparts and banks of the river by reason of the
 +terror and flight of their own men. Pompey, after this battle, was
 +saluted Imperator; this title he retained, and allowed himself to be
 +addressed by it afterward. But neither in his letters to the senate,
 +nor in the fasces, did he use the laurel as a mark of honor. But
 +Labienus, having obtained his consent that the prisoners should be
 +delivered up to him, had them all brought out, as it appeared, to make
 +a show of them, and that Pompey might place a greater confidence in
 +him who was a deserter; and calling them fellow soldiers, and asking
 +them in the most insulting manner whether it was usual with veterans
 +to flee, ordered them to be put to death in the sight of the whole
 +army.
 +
 +===== Chapter 72 =====
 +
 +Pompey'​s party were so elated with confidence and spirit at this
 +success, that they thought no more of the method of conducting the
 +war, but thought that they were already conquerors. They did not
 +consider that the smallness of our numbers, and the disadvantage of
 +the place and the confined nature of the ground occasioned by their
 +having first possessed themselves of the camp, and the double danger
 +both from within and without the fortifications,​ and the separation of
 +the army into two parts, so that the one could not give relief to the
 +other, were the causes of our defeat. They did not consider, in
 +addition, that the contest was not decided by a vigorous attack, nor a
 +regular battle; and that our men had suffered greater loss from their
 +numbers and want of room, than they had sustained from the enemy. In
 +fine, they did not reflect on the common casualties of war; how
 +trifling causes, either from groundless suspicions, sudden affright,
 +or religious scruples, have oftentimes been productive of considerable
 +losses; how often an army has been unsuccessful either by the
 +misconduct of the general, or the oversight of a tribune; but as if
 +they had proved victorious by their valor, and as if no change could
 +ever take place, they published the success of the day throughout the
 +world by reports and letters.
 +
 +===== Chapter 73 =====
 +
 +Caesar, disappointed in his first intentions, resolved to change the
 +whole plan of his operations. Accordingly,​ he at once called in all
 +outposts, gave over the siege, and collecting his army into one place,
 +addressed his soldiers and encouraged them "not to be troubled at what
 +had happened, nor to be dismayed at it, but to weigh their many
 +successful engagements against one disappointment,​ and that, too, a
 +trifling one. That they ought to be grateful to Fortune, through whose
 +favor they had recovered Italy without the effusion of blood; through
 +whose favor they had subdued the two Spains, though protected by a
 +most warlike people under the command of the most skillful and
 +experienced generals; through whose favor they had reduced to
 +submission the neighboring states that abounded with corn; in fine,
 +that they ought to remember with what success they had been all
 +transported safe through blockading fleets of the enemy, which
 +possessed not only the ports, but even the coasts; that if all their
 +attempts were not crowned with success, the defects of Fortune must be
 +supplied by industry; and whatever loss had been sustained, ought to
 +be attributed rather to her caprices than to any faults in him: that
 +he had chosen a safe ground for the engagement, that he had possessed
 +himself of the enemy'​s camp; that he had beaten them out, and overcome
 +them when they offered resistance; but whether their own terror or
 +some mistake, or whether Fortune herself had interrupted a victory
 +almost secured and certain, they ought all now to use their utmost
 +efforts to repair by their valor the loss which had been incurred; if
 +they did so, their misfortunes would turn to their advantage, as it
 +happened at Gergovia, and those who feared to face the enemy would be
 +the first to offer themselves to battle.
 +
 +===== Chapter 74 =====
 +
 +Having concluded his speech, he disgraced some standard-bearers,​ and
 +reduced them to the ranks; for the whole army was seized with such
 +grief at their loss and with such an ardent desire of repairing their
 +disgrace, that not a man required the command of his tribune or
 +centurion, but they imposed each on himself severer labors than usual
 +as a punishment, and at the same time were so inflamed with eagerness
 +to meet the enemy, that the officers of the first rank, sensibly
 +affected at their entreaties, were of opinion that they ought to
 +continue in their present posts, and commit their fate to the hazard
 +of a battle. But, on the other hand, Caesar could not place sufficient
 +confidence in men so lately thrown into consternation,​ and thought he
 +ought to allow them time to recover their dejected spirits; and having
 +abandoned his works, he was apprehensive of being distressed for want
 +of corn.
 +
 +===== Chapter 75 =====
 +
 +Accordingly,​ suffering no time to intervene but what was necessary for
 +a proper attention to be paid to the sick and wounded, he sent on all
 +his baggage privately in the beginning of the night from his camp to
 +Apollonia, and ordered them not to halt till they had performed their
 +journey; and he detached one legion with them as a convoy. This affair
 +being concluded, having retained only two legions in his camp, he
 +marched the rest of his army out at three o'​clock in the morning by
 +several gates, and sent them forward by the same route; and in a short
 +space after, that the military practice might be preserved, and his
 +march known as late as possible, he ordered the signal for decamping
 +to be given; and setting out immediately and following the rear of his
 +own army, he was soon out of sight of the camp. Nor did Pompey, as
 +soon as he had notice of his design, make any delay to pursue him; but
 +with a view to surprise them while encumbered with baggage on their
 +march, and not yet recovered from their fright, he led his army out of
 +his camp, and sent his cavalry on to retard our rear; but was not able
 +to come up with them, because Caesar had got far before him, and
 +marched without baggage. But when we reached the river Genusus, the
 +banks being steep, their horse overtook our rear, and detained them by
 +bringing them to action. To oppose whom, Caesar sent his horse, and
 +intermixed with them about four hundred of his advanced light troops,
 +who attacked their horse with such success, that having routed them
 +all, and killed several, they returned without any loss to the main
 +body.
 +
 +===== Chapter 76 =====
 +
 +Having performed the exact march which he had proposed that day, and
 +having led his army over the river Genusus, Caesar posted himself in
 +his old camp opposite Asparagium; and kept his soldiers close within
 +the intrenchments and ordered the horse, who had been sent out under
 +pretense of foraging, to retire immediately into the camp, through the
 +Decuman gate. Pompey, in like manner, having completed the same day's
 +march, took post in his old camp at Asparagium; and his soldiers, as
 +they had no work (the fortifications being entire), made long
 +excursions, some to collect wood and forage; others, invited by the
 +nearness of the former camp, laid up their arms in their tents, and
 +quitted the intrenchments in order to bring what they had left behind
 +them, because the design of marching being adopted in a hurry, they
 +had left a considerable part of their wagons and luggage behind. Being
 +thus incapable of pursuing, as Caesar had foreseen, about noon he gave
 +the signal for marching, led out his army, and doubling that day's
 +march, he advanced eight miles beyond Pompey'​s camp; who could not
 +pursue him, because his troops were dispersed.
 +
 +===== Chapter 77 =====
 +
 +The next day Caesar sent his baggage forward early in the night, and
 +marched off himself immediately after the fourth watch: that if he
 +should be under the necessity of risking an engagement, he might meet
 +a sudden attack with an army free from incumbrance. He did so for
 +several days successively,​ by which means he was enabled to effect his
 +march over the deepest rivers, and through the most intricate roads
 +without any loss. For Pompey, after the first day's delay, and the
 +fatigue which he endured for some days in vain, though he exerted
 +himself by forced marches, and was anxious to overtake us, who had got
 +the start of him, on the fourth day desisted from the pursuit, and
 +determined to follow other measures.
 +
 +===== Chapter 78 =====
 +
 +Caesar was obliged to go to Apollonia, to lodge his wounded, pay his
 +army, confirm his friends, and leave garrisons in the towns. But for
 +these matters, he allowed no more time than was necessary for a person
 +in haste. And being apprehensive for Domitius, lest he should be
 +surprised by Pompey'​s arrival, he hastened with all speed and
 +earnestness to join him; for he planned the operations of the whole
 +campaign on these principles: that if Pompey should march after him,
 +he would be drawn off from the sea, and from those forces which he had
 +provided in Dyrrachium, and separated from his corn and magazines, and
 +be obliged to carry on the war on equal terms; but if he crossed over
 +into Italy, Caesar, having effected a junction with Domitius, would
 +march through Illyricum to the relief of Italy; but if he endeavored
 +to storm Apollonia and Oricum, and exclude him from the whole coast,
 +he hoped, by besieging Scipio, to oblige him, of necessity, to come to
 +his assistance. Accordingly,​ Caesar dispatching couriers, writes to
 +Domitius, and acquaints him with his wishes on the subject: and having
 +stationed a garrison of four cohorts at Apollonia, one at Lissus, and
 +three at Oricum, besides those who were sick of their wounds, he set
 +forward on his march through Epirus and Acarnania. Pompey, also,
 +guessing at Caesar'​s design, determined to hasten to Scipio, that if
 +Caesar should march in that direction, he might be ready to relieve
 +him; but that if Caesar should be unwilling to quit the sea-coast and
 +Corcyra, because he expected legions and cavalry from Italy, he
 +himself might fall on Domitius with all his forces.
 +
 +===== Chapter 79 =====
 +
 +For these reasons, each of them studied dispatch, that he might succor
 +his friends, and not miss an opportunity of surprising his
 +enemies. But Caesar'​s engagements at Apollonia had carried him aside
 +from the direct road. Pompey had taken the short road to Macedonia,
 +through Candavia. To this was added another unexpected disadvantage,​
 +that Domitius, who for several days had been encamped opposite Scipio,
 +had quitted that post for the sake of provisions, and had marched to
 +Heraclea Sentica, a city subject to Candavia; so that fortune herself
 +seemed to throw him in Pompey'​s way. Of this, Caesar was ignorant up
 +to this time. Letters likewise being sent by Pompey through all the
 +provinces and states, with an account of the action at Dyrrachium,
 +very much enlarged and exaggerated beyond the real facts, a rumor had
 +been circulated, that Caesar had been defeated and forced to flee, and
 +had lost almost all his forces. These reports had made the roads
 +dangerous, and drawn off some states from his alliance: whence it
 +happened, that the messengers dispatched by Caesar, by several
 +different roads to Domitius, and by Domitius to Caesar, were not able
 +by any means to accomplish their journey. But the Allobroges, who were
 +in the retinue of Aegus and Roscillus, and who had deserted to Pompey,
 +having met on the road a scouting party of Domitius; either from old
 +acquaintance,​ because they had served together in Gaul, or elated with
 +vain glory, gave them an account of all that had happened, and
 +informed them of Caesar'​s departure, and Pompey'​s arrival. Domitius,
 +who was scarce four hours' march distant, having got intelligence from
 +these, by the courtesy of the enemy, avoided the danger, and met
 +Caesar coming to join him at Aeginium, a town on the confines of and
 +opposite to Thessaly.
 +
 +===== Chapter 80 =====
 +
 +The two armies being united, Caesar marched to Gomphi, which is the
 +first town of Thessaly on the road from Epirus. Now, the Thessalians,​
 +a few months before, had of themselves sent embassadors to Caesar,
 +offering him the free use of every thing in their power, and
 +requesting a garrison for their protection. But the report, already
 +spoken of, of the battle at Dyrrachium, which it had exaggerated in
 +many particulars,​ had arrived before him. In consequence of which,
 +Androsthenes,​ the praetor of Thessaly, as he preferred to be the
 +companion of Pompey'​s victory, rather than Caesar'​s associate in his
 +misfortunes,​ collected all the people, both slaves and freemen from
 +the country into the town and shut the gates, and dispatched
 +messengers to Scipio and Pompey "to come to his relief, that he could
 +depend on the strength of the town, if succor was speedily sent; but
 +that it could not withstand a long siege."​ Scipio, as soon as he
 +received advice of the departure of the armies from Dyrrachium, had
 +marched with his legions to Larissa: Pompey was not yet arrived near
 +Thessaly. Caesar having fortified his camp, ordered scaling-ladders
 +and pent-houses to be made for a sudden assault, and hurdles to be
 +provided. As soon as they were ready, he exhorted his soldiers, and
 +told them of what advantage it would be to assist them with all sorts
 +of necessaries,​ if they made themselves masters of a rich and
 +plentiful town: and, at the same time to strike terror into other
 +states by the example of this, and to effect this with speed, before
 +auxiliaries could arrive. Accordingly,​ taking advantage of the unusual
 +ardor of the soldiers, he began his assault on the town at a little
 +after three o'​clock on the very day on which he arrived, and took it,
 +though defended with very high walls, before sunset, and gave it up to
 +his army to plunder, and immediately decamped from before it, and
 +marched to Metropolis, with such rapidity as to outstrip any messenger
 +or rumor of the taking of Gomphi.
 +
 +===== Chapter 81 =====
 +
 +The inhabitants of Metropolis, at first influenced by the same rumors,
 +followed the same measures, shut the gates and manned their walls. But
 +when they were made acquainted with the fate of the city of Gomphi by
 +some prisoners, whom Caesar had ordered to be brought up to the walls,
 +they threw open their gates. As he preserved them with the greatest
 +care, there was not a state in Thessaly (except Larissa, which was
 +awed by a strong army of Scipio'​s),​ but on comparing the fate of the
 +inhabitants of Metropolis with the severe treatment of Gomphi, gave
 +admission to Caesar, and obeyed his orders. Having chosen a position
 +convenient for procuring corn, which was now almost ripe on the
 +ground, he determined there to wait Pompey'​s arrival, and to make it
 +the center of all his warlike operations.
 +
 +===== Chapter 82 =====
 +
 +Pompey arrived in Thessaly a few days after, and having harangued the
 +combined army, returned thanks to his own men, and exhorted Scipio'​s
 +soldiers, that as the victory was now secured, they should endeavor to
 +merit a part of the rewards and booty. And receiving all the legions
 +into one camp, he shared his honors with Scipio, ordered the trumpet
 +to be sounded at his tent, and a pavilion to be erected for him. The
 +forces of Pompey being thus augmented, and two such powerful armies
 +united, their former expectations were confirmed, and their hopes of
 +victory so much increased, that whatever time intervened was
 +considered as so much delay to their return into Italy; and whenever
 +Pompey acted with slowness and caution, they used to exclaim, that it
 +was the business only of a single day, but that he had a passion for
 +power, and was delighted in having persons of consular and praetorian
 +rank in the number of his slaves. And they now began to dispute openly
 +about rewards and priesthoods,​ and disposed of the consulate for
 +several years to come. Others put in their claims for the houses and
 +properties of all who were in Caesar'​s camp, and in that council there
 +was a warm debate, whether Lucius Hirtius, who had been sent by Pompey
 +against the Parthians, should be admitted a candidate for the
 +praetorship in his absence at the next election; his friends imploring
 +Pompey'​s honor to fulfill the engagements which he had made to him at
 +his departure, that he might not seem deceived through his authority:
 +while others, embarked in equal labor and danger, pleaded that no
 +individual ought to have a preference before all the rest.
 +
 +===== Chapter 83 =====
 +
 +Already Domitius, Scipio, and Lentulus Spinther, in their daily
 +quarrels about Caesar'​s priesthood, openly abused each other in the
 +most scurrilous language. Lentulus urging the respect due to his age,
 +Domitius boasting his interest in the city and his dignity, and Scipio
 +presuming on his alliance with Pompey. Attius Rufus charged Lucius
 +Afranius before Pompey with betraying the army in the action that
 +happened in Spain, and Lucius Domitius declared in the council that it
 +was his wish that, when the war should be ended, three billets should
 +be given to all the senators, who had taken part with them in the war,
 +and that they should pass sentence on every single person who had
 +staid behind at Rome, or who had been within Pompey'​s garrisons and
 +had not contributed their assistance in the military operations; that
 +by the first billet they should have power to acquit, by the second to
 +pass sentence of death, and by the third to impose a pecuniary
 +fine. In short, Pompey'​s whole army talked of nothing but the honors
 +or sums of money which were to be their rewards, or of vengeance on
 +their enemies; and never considered how they were to defeat their
 +enemies, but in what manner they should use their victory.
 +
 +===== Chapter 84 =====
 +
 +Corn being provided, and his soldiers refreshed, and a sufficient time
 +having elapsed since the engagement at Dyrrachium, when Caesar thought
 +he had sufficiently sounded the disposition of his troops, he thought
 +that he ought to try whether Pompey had any intention or inclination
 +to come to a battle. Accordingly he led his troops out of the camp,
 +and ranged them in order of battle, at first on their own ground, and
 +at a small distance from Pompey'​s camp: but afterward for several days
 +in succession, he advanced from his own camp, and led them up to the
 +hills on which Pompey'​s troops were posted, which conduct inspired his
 +army every day with fresh courage. However he adhered to his former
 +purpose respecting his cavalry, for as he was by many degrees inferior
 +in number, he selected the youngest and most active of the advanced
 +guard, and desired them to fight intermixed with the horse, and they
 +by constant practice acquired experience in this kind of battle. By
 +these means it was brought to pass that a thousand of his horse would
 +dare even on open ground, to stand against seven thousand of Pompey'​s,​
 +if occasion required, and would not be much terrified by their
 +number. For even on one of those days he was successful in a cavalry
 +action, and killed one of the two Allobrogians,​ who had deserted to
 +Pompey, as we before observed, and several others.
 +
 +===== Chapter 85 =====
 +
 +Pompey, because he was encamped on a hill, drew up his army at the
 +very foot of it, ever in expectation,​ as may be conjectured,​ that
 +Caesar would expose himself to this disadvantageous situation. Caesar,
 +seeing no likelihood of being able to bring Pompey to an action,
 +judged it the most expedient method of conducting the war, to decamp
 +from that post and to be always in motion: with this hope, that by
 +shifting his camp and removing from place to place, he might be more
 +conveniently supplied with corn, and also, that by being in motion he
 +might get some opportunity of forcing them to battle, and might by
 +constant marches harass Pompey'​s army, which was not accustomed to
 +fatigue. These matters being settled, when the signal for marching was
 +given, and the tents struck, it was observed that shortly before,
 +contrary to his daily practice, Pompey'​s army had advanced further
 +than usual from his intrenchments,​ so that it appeared possible to
 +come to an action on equal ground. Then Caesar addressed himself to
 +his soldiers, when they were at the gates of the camp, ready to march
 +out. " We must defer,"​ says he, "our march at present, and set our
 +thoughts on battle, which has been our constant wish; let us then meet
 +the foe with resolute souls. We shall not hereafter easily find such
 +an opportunity."​ He immediately marched out at the head of his troops.
 +
 +===== Chapter 86 =====
 +
 +Pompey also, as was afterward known, at the unanimous solicitation of
 +his friends, had determined to try the fate of a battle. For he had
 +even declared in council a few days before that, before the battalions
 +came to battle, Caesar'​s army would be put to the rout. When most
 +people expressed their surprise at it, "I know," says he, "that I
 +promise a thing almost incredible; but hear the plan on which I
 +proceed, that you may march to battle with more confidence and
 +resolution. I have persuaded our cavalry, and they have engaged to
 +execute it, as soon as the two armies have met, to attack Caesar'​s
 +right wing on the flank, and inclosing their army on the rear, throw
 +them into disorder, and put them to the rout, before we shall throw a
 +weapon against the enemy. By this means we shall put an end to the
 +war, without endangering the legions, and almost without a blow. Nor
 +is this a difficult matter, as we far outnumber them in cavalry."​ At
 +the same time he gave them notice to be ready for battle on the day
 +following, and since the opportunity which they had so often wished
 +for was now arrived, not to disappoint the opinion generally
 +entertained of their experience and valor.
 +
 +===== Chapter 87 =====
 +
 +After him Labienus spoke, as well to express his contempt of Caesar'​s
 +forces, as to extol Pompey'​s scheme with the highest encomiums. "Think
 +not, Pompey,"​ says he, "that this is the army which conquered Gaul and
 +Germany; I was present at all those battles, and do not speak at
 +random on a subject to which I am a stranger: a very small part of
 +that army now remains, great numbers lost their lives, as must
 +necessarily happen in so many battles, many fell victims to the
 +autumnal pestilence in Italy, many returned home, and many were left
 +behind on the continent. Have you not heard that the cohorts at
 +Brundusium are composed of invalids? The forces which you now behold,
 +have been recruited by levies lately made in Hither Spain, and the
 +greater part from the colonies beyond the Po; moreover, the flower of
 +the forces perished in the two engagements at Dyrrachium."​ Having so
 +said, he took an oath, never to return to his camp unless victorious;
 +and he encouraged the rest to do the like. Pompey applauded his
 +proposal, and took the same oath; nor did any person present hesitate
 +to take it. After this had passed in the council they broke up full of
 +hopes and joy, and in imagination anticipated victory; because they
 +thought that in a matter of such importance, no groundless assertion
 +could be made by a general of such experience.
 +
 +===== Chapter 88 =====
 +
 +When Caesar had approached near Pompey'​s camp, he observed that his
 +army was drawn up in the following manner: On the left wing were the
 +two legions, delivered over by Caesar at the beginning of the disputes
 +in compliance with the senate'​s decree, one of which was called the
 +first, the other the third. Here Pompey commanded in person. Scipio
 +with the Syrian legions commanded the center. The Cilician legion in
 +conjunction with the Spanish cohorts, which we said were brought over
 +by Afranius, were disposed on the right wing. These Pompey considered
 +his steadiest troops. The rest he had interspersed between the center
 +and the wing, and he had a hundred and ten complete cohorts; these
 +amounted to forty-five thousand men. He had besides two cohorts of
 +volunteers, who having received favors from him in former wars,
 +flocked to his standard: these were dispersed through his whole
 +army. The seven remaining cohorts he had disposed to protect his camp,
 +and the neighboring forts. His right wing was secured by a river with
 +steep banks; for which reason he placed all his cavalry, archers, and
 +slingers, on his left wing.
 +
 +===== Chapter 89 =====
 +
 +Caesar, observing his former custom, had placed the tenth legion on
 +the right, the ninth on the left, although it was very much weakened
 +by the battles at Dyrrachium. He placed the eighth legion so close to
 +the ninth, as to almost make one of the two, and ordered them to
 +support one another. He drew up on the field eighty cohorts, making a
 +total of twenty-two thousand men. He left two cohorts to guard the
 +camp. He gave the command of the left wing to Antonius, of the right
 +to P. Sulla, and of the center to Cn. Domitius: he himself took his
 +post opposite Pompey. At the same time, fearing, from the disposition
 +of the enemy which we have previously mentioned, lest his right wing
 +might be surrounded by their numerous cavalry, he rapidly drafted a
 +single cohort from each of the legions composing the third line,
 +formed of them a fourth line, and opposed them to Pompey'​s cavalry,
 +and, acquainting them with his wishes, admonished them that the
 +success of that day depended on their courage. At the same time he
 +ordered the third line, and the entire army not to charge without his
 +command: that he would give the signal whenever he wished them to do
 +so.
 +
 +===== Chapter 90 =====
 +
 +When he was exhorting his army to battle, according to the military
 +custom, and spoke to them of the favors that they had constantly
 +received from him, he took especial care to remind them "that he could
 +call his soldiers to witness the earnestness with which he had sought
 +peace, the efforts that he had made by Vatinius to gain a conference
 +[with Labienus], and likewise by Claudius to treat with Scipio, in
 +what manner he had exerted himself at Oricum, to gain permission from
 +Libo to send embassadors;​ that he had been always reluctant to shed
 +the blood of his soldiers, and did not wish to deprive the republic of
 +one or other of her armies."​ After delivering this speech, he gave by
 +a trumpet the signal to his soldiers, who were eagerly demanding it,
 +and were very impatient for the onset.
 +
 +===== Chapter 91 =====
 +
 +There was in Caesar'​s army, a volunteer of the name of Crastinus, who
 +the year before had been first centurion of the tenth legion, a man of
 +pre-eminent bravery. He, when the signal was given, says, "​Follow me,
 +my old comrades, and display such exertions in behalf of your general
 +as you have determined to do: this is our last battle, and when it
 +shall be won, he will recover his dignity, and we our liberty."​ At the
 +same time he looked back to Caesar, and said, "​General,​ I will act in
 +such a manner to-day, that you will feel grateful to me living or
 +dead." After uttering these words he charged first on the right wing,
 +and about one hundred and twenty chosen volunteers of the same century
 +followed.
 +
 +===== Chapter 92 =====
 +
 +There was so much space left between the two lines, as sufficed for
 +the onset of the hostile armies: but Pompey had ordered his soldiers
 +to await Caesar'​s attack, and not to advance from their position, or
 +suffer their line to be put into disorder. And he is said to have done
 +this by the advice of Caius Triarius, that the impetuosity of the
 +charge of Caesar'​s soldiers might be checked, and their line broken,
 +and that Pompey'​s troops remaining in their ranks, might attack them
 +while in disorder; and he thought that the javelins would fall with
 +less force if the soldiers were kept in their ground, than if they met
 +them in their course; at the same time he trusted that Caesar'​s
 +soldiers, after running over double the usual ground, would become
 +weary and exhausted by the fatigue. But to me Pompey seems to have
 +acted without sufficient reason: for there is a certain impetuosity of
 +spirit and an alacrity implanted by nature in the hearts of all men,
 +which is inflamed by a desire to meet the foe. This a general should
 +endeavor not to repress, but to increase; nor was it a vain
 +institution of our ancestors, that the trumpets should sound on all
 +sides, and a general shout be raised; by which they imagined that the
 +enemy were struck with terror, and their own army inspired with
 +courage.
 +
 +===== Chapter 93 =====
 +
 +But our men, when the signal was given, rushed forward with their
 +javelins ready to be launched, but perceiving that Pompey'​s men did
 +not run to meet their charge, having acquired experience by custom,
 +and being practiced in former battles, they of their own accord
 +repressed their speed, and halted almost midway; that they might not
 +come up with the enemy when their strength was exhausted, and after a
 +short respite they again renewed their course, and threw their
 +javelins, and instantly drew their swords, as Caesar had ordered
 +them. Nor did Pompey'​s men fail in this crisis, for they received our
 +javelins, stood our charge, and maintained their ranks; and having
 +launched their javelins, had recourse to their swords. At the same
 +time Pompey'​s horse, according to their orders, rushed out at once
 +from his left wing, and his whole host of archers poured after
 +them. Our cavalry did not withstand their charge: but gave ground a
 +little, upon which Pompey'​s horse pressed them more vigorously, and
 +began to file off in troops, and flank our army. When Caesar perceived
 +this, he gave the signal to his fourth line, which he had formed of
 +the six cohorts. They instantly rushed forward and charged Pompey'​s
 +horse with such fury, that not a man of them stood; but all wheeling
 +about, not only quitted their post, but galloped forward to seek a
 +refuge in the highest mountains. By their retreat the archers and
 +slingers, being left destitute and defenseless,​ were all cut to
 +pieces. The cohorts, pursuing their success, wheeled about upon
 +Pompey'​s left wing, while his infantry still continued to make battle,
 +and attacked them in the rear.
 +
 +===== Chapter 94 =====
 +
 +At the same time Caesar ordered his third line to advance, which till
 +then had not been engaged, but had kept their post. Thus, new and
 +fresh troops having come to the assistance of the fatigued, and others
 +having made an attack on their rear, Pompey'​s men were not able to
 +maintain their ground, but all fled, nor was Caesar deceived in his
 +opinion, that the victory, as he had declared in his speech to his
 +soldiers, must have its beginning from those six cohorts, which he had
 +placed as a fourth line to oppose the horse. For by them the cavalry
 +were routed; by them the archers and slingers were cut to pieces; by
 +them the left wing of Pompey'​s army was surrounded, and obliged to be
 +the first to flee. But when Pompey saw his cavalry routed, and that
 +part of his army on which he reposed his greatest hopes thrown into
 +confusion, despairing of the rest, he quitted the field, and retreated
 +straightway on horseback to his camp, and calling to the centurions,
 +whom he had placed to guard the praetorian gate, with a loud voice,
 +that the soldiers might hear: "​Secure the camp," says he, "​defend it
 +with diligence, if any danger should threaten it; I will visit the
 +other gates, and encourage the guards of the camp." Having thus said,
 +he retired into his tent in utter despair, yet anxiously waiting the
 +issue.
 +
 +===== Chapter 95 =====
 +
 +Caesar having forced the Pompeians to flee into their intrenchment,​
 +and thinking that he ought not to allow them any respite to recover
 +from their fright, exhorted his soldiers to take advantage of
 +fortune'​s kindness, and to attack the camp. Though they were fatigued
 +by the intense heat, for the battle had continued till mid-day, yet,
 +being prepared to undergo any labor, they cheerfully obeyed his
 +command. The camp was bravely defended by the cohorts which had been
 +left to guard it, but with much more spirit by the Thracians and
 +foreign auxiliaries. For the soldiers who had fled for refuge to it
 +from the field of battle, affrighted and exhausted by fatigue, having
 +thrown away their arms and military standards, had their thoughts more
 +engaged on their further escape than on the defense of the camp. Nor
 +could the troops who were posted on the battlements,​ long withstand
 +the immense number of our darts, but fainting under their wounds,
 +quitted the place, and under the conduct of their centurions and
 +tribunes, fled, without stopping, to the high mountains which joined
 +the camp.
 +
 +===== Chapter 96 =====
 +
 +In Pompey'​s camp you might see arbors in which tables were laid, a
 +large quantity of plate set out, the floors of the tents covered with
 +fresh sods, the tents of Lucius Lentulus and others shaded with ivy,
 +and many other things which were proofs of excessive luxury, and a
 +confidence of victory, so that it might readily be inferred that they
 +had no apprehensions of the issue of the day, as they indulged
 +themselves in unnecessary pleasures, and yet upbraided with luxury
 +Caesar'​s army, distressed and suffering troops, who had always been in
 +want of common necessaries. Pompey, as soon as our men had forced the
 +trenches, mounting his horse, and stripping off his general'​s habit,
 +went hastily out of the back gate of the camp, and galloped with all
 +speed to Larissa. Nor did he stop there, but with the same dispatch,
 +collecting a few of his flying troops, and halting neither day nor
 +night, he arrived at the seaside, attended by only thirty horse, and
 +went on board a victualing barque, often complaining,​ as we have been
 +told, that he had been so deceived in his expectation,​ that he was
 +almost persuaded that he had been betrayed by those from whom he had
 +expected victory, as they began the fight.
 +
 +===== Chapter 97 =====
 +
 +Caesar having possessed himself of Pompey'​s camp, urged his soldiers
 +not to be too intent on plunder, and lose the opportunity of
 +completing their conquest. Having obtained their consent, he began to
 +draw lines round the mountain. The Pompeians distrusting the position,
 +as there was no water on the mountain, abandoned it, and all began to
 +retreat toward Larissa; which Caesar perceiving, divided his troops,
 +and ordering part of his legions to remain in Pompey'​s camp, sent back
 +a part to his own camp, and taking four legions with him, went by a
 +shorter road to intercept the enemy: and having marched six miles,
 +drew up his army. But the Pompeians observing this, took post on a
 +mountain, whose foot was washed by a river. Caesar having encouraged
 +his troops, though they were greatly exhausted by incessant labor the
 +whole day, and night was now approaching,​ by throwing up works cut off
 +the communication between the river and the mountain, that the enemy
 +might not get water in the night. As soon as the work was finished,
 +they sent embassadors to treat about a capitulation. A few senators
 +who had espoused that party, made their escape by night.
 +
 +===== Chapter 98 =====
 +
 +At break of day, Caesar ordered all those who had taken post on the
 +mountain, to come down from the higher grounds into the plain, and
 +pile their arms. When they did this without refusal, and with
 +outstretched arms, prostrating themselves on the ground, with tears,
 +implored his mercy: he comforted them and bade them rise, and having
 +spoken a few words of his own clemency to alleviate their fears, he
 +pardoned them all, and gave orders to his soldiers, that no injury
 +should be done to them, and nothing taken from them. Having used this
 +diligence, he ordered the legions in his camp to come and meet him,
 +and those which were with him to take their turn of rest, and go back
 +to the camp: and the same day went to Larissa
 +
 +===== Chapter 99 =====
 +
 +In that battle, no more than two hundred privates were missing, but
 +Caesar lost about thirty centurions, valiant officers. Crastinus,
 +also, of whom mention was made before, fighting most courageously,​
 +lost his life by the wound of a sword in the mouth; nor was that false
 +which he declared when marching to battle: for Caesar entertained the
 +highest opinion of his behavior in that battle, and thought him highly
 +deserving of his approbation. Of Pompey'​s army, there fell about
 +fifteen thousand; but upwards of twenty-four thousand were made
 +prisoners: for even the cohorts which were stationed in the forts,
 +surrendered to Sylla. Several others took shelter in the neighboring
 +states. One hundred and eighty stands of colors, and nine eagles, were
 +brought to Caesar. Lucius Domitius, fleeing from the camp to the
 +mountains, his strength being exhausted by fatigue, was killed by the
 +horse.
 +
 +===== Chapter 100 =====
 +
 +About this time, Decimus Laelius arrived with his fleet at Brundusium
 +and in the same manner, as Libo had done before, possessed himself of
 +an island opposite the harbor of Brundusium. In like manner, Valinius,
 +who was then governor of Brundusium, with a few decked barks,
 +endeavored to entice Laelius'​s fleet, and took one five-banked galley
 +and two smaller vessels that had ventured further than the rest into a
 +narrow part of the harbor: and likewise disposing the horse along the
 +shore, strove to prevent the enemy from procuring fresh water. But
 +Laelius having chosen a more convenient season of the year for his
 +expedition, supplied himself with water brought in transports from
 +Corcyra and Dyrrachium, and was not deterred from his purpose; and
 +till he had received advice of the battle in Thessaly, he could not be
 +forced either by the disgrace of losing his ships, or by the want of
 +necessaries,​ to quit the port and islands.
 +
 +===== Chapter 101 =====
 +
 +Much about the same time, Cassius arrived in Sicily with a fleet of
 +Syrians, Phoenicians,​ and Cicilians: and as Caesar'​s fleet was divided
 +into two parts, Publius Sulpicius the praetor commanding one division
 +at Vibo near the straits, Pomponius the other at Messana, Cassius got
 +into Messana with his fleet, before Pomponius had notice of his
 +arrival, and having found him in disorder, without guards or
 +discipline, and the wind being high and favorable, he filled several
 +transports with fir, pitch, and tow, and other combustibles,​ and sent
 +them against Pomponius'​s fleet, and set fire to all his ships,
 +thirty-five in number, twenty of which were armed with beaks: and this
 +action struck such terror that though there was a legion in garrison
 +at Messana, the town with difficulty held out, and had not the news of
 +Caesar'​s victory been brought at that instant by the horse stationed-
 +along the coast, it was generally imagined that it would have been
 +lost, but the town was maintained till the news arrived very
 +opportunely:​ and Cassius set sail from thence to attack Sulpicius'​s
 +fleet at Vibo, and our ships being moored to the land, to strike the
 +same terror, he acted in the same manner as before. The wind being
 +favorable, he sent into the port about forty ships provided with
 +combustibles,​ and the flame catching on both sides, five ships were
 +burned to ashes. And when the fire began to spread wider by the
 +violence of the wind, the soldiers of the veteran legions, who had
 +been left to guard the fleet, being considered as invalids, could not
 +endure the disgrace, but of themselves went on board the ships and
 +weighed anchor, and having attacked Cassius'​s fleet, captured two
 +five-banked galleys, in one of which was Cassius himself; but he made
 +his escape by taking to a boat. Two three-banked galleys were taken
 +besides. Intelligence was shortly after received of the action in
 +Thessaly, so well authenticated,​ that the Pompeians themselves gave
 +credit to it; for they had hitherto believed it a fiction of Caesar'​s
 +lieutenants and friends. Upon which intelligence Cassius departed with
 +his fleet from that coast.
 +
 +===== Chapter 102 =====
 +
 +Caesar thought he ought to postpone all business and pursue Pompey,
 +whithersoever he should retreat; that he might not be able to provide
 +fresh forces, and renew the war; he therefore marched on every day, as
 +far as his cavalry were able to advance, and ordered one legion to
 +follow him by shorter journeys. A proclamation was issued by Pompey at
 +Amphipolis, that all the young men of that province, Grecians and
 +Roman citizens, should take the military oath; but whether he issued
 +it with an intention of preventing suspicion, and to conceal as long
 +as possible his design of fleeing further, or to endeavor to keep
 +possession of Macedonia by new levies, if nobody pursued him, it is
 +impossible to judge. He lay at anchor one night, and calling together
 +his friends in Amphipolis, and collecting a sum of money for his
 +necessary expenses, upon advice of Caesar'​s approach, set sail from
 +that place, and arrived in a few days at Mitylene. Here he was
 +detained two days, and having added a few galleys to his fleet he went
 +to Cilicia, and thence to Cyprus. There he is informed that, by the
 +consent of all the inhabitants of Antioch and Roman citizens who
 +traded there, the castle had been seized to shut him out of the town;
 +and that messengers had been dispatched to all those who were reported
 +to have taken refuge in the neighboring states, that they should not
 +come to Antioch; that if they did, that it would be attended with
 +imminent danger to their lives. The same thing had happened to Lucius
 +Lentulus, who had been consul the year before, and to Publius Lentulus
 +a consular senator, and to several others at Rhodes, who having
 +followed Pompey in his flight, and arrived at the island, were not
 +admitted into the town or port; and having received a message to leave
 +that neighborhood,​ set sail much against their will; for the rumor of
 +Caesar'​s approach had now reached those states.
 +
 +===== Chapter 103 =====
 +
 +Pompey, being informed of these proceedings,​ laid aside his design of
 +going to Syria, and having taken the public money from the farmers of
 +the revenue, and borrowed more from some private friends, and having
 +put on board his ships a large quantity of brass for military
 +purposes, and two thousand armed men, whom he partly selected from the
 +slaves of the tax farmers, and partly collected from the merchants,
 +and such persons as each of his friends thought fit on this occasion,
 +he sailed for Pelusium. It happened that king Ptolemy, a minor, was
 +there with a considerable army, engaged in war with his sister
 +Cleopatra, whom a few months before, by the assistance of his
 +relations and friends, he had expelled from the kingdom; and her camp
 +lay at a small distance from his. To him Pompey applied to be
 +permitted to take refuge in Alexandria, and to be protected in his
 +calamity by his powerful assistance, in consideration of the
 +friendship and amity which had subsisted between his father and
 +him. But Pompey'​s deputies having executed their commission, began to
 +converse with less restraint with the king's troops, and to advise
 +them to act with friendship to Pompey, and not to think meanly of his
 +bad fortune. In Ptolemy'​s army were several of Pompey'​s soldiers, of
 +whom Gabinius had received the command in Syria, and had brought them
 +over to Alexandria, and at the conclusion of the war had left with
 +Ptolemy the father of the young king.
 +
 +===== Chapter 104 =====
 +
 +The king's friends, who were regents of the kingdom during the
 +minority, being informed of these things, either induced by fear, as
 +they afterward declared, lest Pompey should corrupt the king's army,
 +and seize on Alexandria and Egypt; or despising his bad fortune, as in
 +adversity friends commonly change to enemies, in public gave a
 +favorable answer to his deputies, and desired him to come to the king;
 +but secretly laid a plot against him, and dispatched Achillas, captain
 +of the king's guards, a man of singular boldness, and Lucius Septimius
 +a military tribune to assassinate him. Being kindly addressed by them,
 +and deluded by an acquaintance with Septimius, because in the war with
 +the pirates the latter had commanded a company under him, he embarked
 +in a small boat with a few attendants, and was there murdered by
 +Achillas and Septimius. In like manner, Lucius Lentulus was seized by
 +the king's order, and put to death in prison.
 +
 +===== Chapter 105 =====
 +
 +When Caesar arrived in Asia, he found that Titus Ampius had attempted
 +to remove the money from the temple of Diana at Ephesus; and for this
 +purpose had convened all the senators in the province that he might
 +have them to attest the sum, but was interrupted by Caesar'​s arrival,
 +and had made his escape. Thus, on two occasions, Caesar saved the
 +money of Ephesus. It was also remarked at Elis, in the temple of
 +Minerva, upon calculating and enumerating the days, that on the very
 +day on which Caesar had gained his battle, the image of Victory which
 +was placed before Minerva, and faced her statue, turned about toward
 +the portal and entrance of the temple; and the same day, at Antioch in
 +Syria, such a shout of an army and sound of trumpets was twice heard
 +that the citizens ran in arms to the walls. The same thing happened at
 +Ptolemais; a sound of drums too was heard at Pergamus, in the private
 +and retired parts of the temple, into which none but the priests are
 +allowed admission, and which the Greeks call Adyta (the inaccessible),​
 +and likewise at Tralles, in the temple of Victory, in which there
 +stood a statue consecrated to Caesar; a palm-tree at that time was
 +shown that had sprouted up from the pavement, through the joints of
 +the stones, and shot up above the roof.
 +
 +===== Chapter 106 =====
 +
 +After a few days' delay in Asia, Caesar, having heard that Pompey had
 +been seen in Cyprus, and conjecturing that he had directed his course
 +into Egypt, on account of his connection with that kingdom, set out
 +for Alexandria with two legions (one of which he ordered to follow him
 +from Thessaly, the other he called in from Achaia, from Fufius, the
 +lieutenant general), and with eight hundred horse, ten ships of war
 +from Rhodes, and a few from Asia. These legions amounted but to three
 +thousand two hundred men; the rest, disabled by wounds received in
 +various battles, by fatigue and the length of their march, could not
 +follow him. But Caesar, relying on the fame of his exploits, did not
 +hesitate to set forward with a feeble force, and thought that he would
 +be secure in any place. At Alexandria he was informed of the death of
 +Pompey: and at his landing there, heard a cry among the soldiers whom
 +the king had left to garrison the town, and saw a crowd gathering
 +toward him, because the fasces were carried before him; for this the
 +whole multitude thought an infringement of the king's dignity. Though
 +this tumult was appeased, frequent disturbances were raised for
 +several days successively,​ by crowds of the populace, and a great many
 +of his soldiers were killed in all parts of the city.
 +
 +===== Chapter 107 =====
 +
 +Having observed this, he ordered other legions to be brought to him
 +from Asia, which he had made up out of Pompey'​s soldiers; for he was
 +himself detained against his will, by the etesian winds, which are
 +totally unfavorable to persons on a voyage from Alexandria. In the
 +mean time, considering that the disputes of the princes belonged to
 +the jurisdiction of the Roman people, and of him as consul, and that
 +it was a duty more incumbent on him, as in his former consulate a
 +league had been made with Ptolemy the late king, under sanction both
 +of a law and a decree of the senate, he signified that it was his
 +pleasure that king Ptolemy, and his sister Cleopatra, should disband
 +their armies, and decide their disputes in his presence by justice,
 +rather than by the sword.
 +
 +===== Chapter 108 =====
 +
 +A eunuch named Pothinus, the boy's tutor, was regent of the kingdom on
 +account of his youthfulness. He at first began to complain among his
 +friends, and to express his indignation,​ that the king should be
 +summoned to plead his cause: but afterward, having prevailed on some
 +of those whom he had made acquainted with his views to join him he
 +secretly called the army away from Pelusium to Alexandria, and
 +appointed Achillas, already spoken of, commander-in-chief of the
 +forces. Him he encouraged and animated by promises both in his own and
 +the king's name, and instructed him both by letters and messages how
 +he should act. By the will of Ptolemy the father, the elder of his two
 +sons and the more advanced in years of his two daughters were declared
 +his heirs, and for the more effectual performance of his intention, in
 +the same will he conjured the Roman people by all the gods, and by the
 +league which he had entered into at Rome, to see his will
 +executed. One of the copies of his will was conveyed to Rome by his
 +embassadors to be deposited in the treasury, but the public troubles
 +preventing it, it was lodged with Pompey: another was left sealed up,
 +and kept at Alexandria.
 +
 +===== Chapter 109 =====
 +
 +While these things were debated before Caesar, and he was very anxious
 +to settle the royal disputes as a common friend and arbitrator; news
 +was brought on a sudden that the king's army and all his cavalry, were
 +on their march to Alexandria. Caesar'​s forces were by no means so
 +strong that he could trust to them, if he had occasion to hazard a
 +battle without the town. His only resource was to keep within the town
 +in the most convenient places, and get information of Achillas'​s
 +designs. However he ordered his soldiers to repair to their arms; and
 +advised the king to send some of his friends, who had the greatest
 +influence, as deputies to Achillas, and to signify his royal
 +pleasure. Dioscorides and Serapion, the persons sent by him, who had
 +both been embassadors at Rome, and had been in great esteem with
 +Ptolemy the father, went to Achillas. But as soon as they appeared in
 +his presence, without hearing them, or learning the occasion of their
 +coming, he ordered them to be seized and put to death. One of them,
 +after receiving a wound, was taken up and carried off by his
 +attendants as dead: the other was killed on the spot. Upon this,
 +Caesar took care to secure the king's person, both supposing that the
 +king's name would have a great influence with his subjects, and to
 +give the war the appearance of the scheme of a few desperate men,
 +rather than of having been begun by the king's consent.
 +
 +===== Chapter 110 =====
 +
 +The forces under Achillas did not seem despicable, either for number,
 +spirit, or military experience; for he had twenty thousand men under
 +arms. They consisted partly of Gabinius'​s soldiers, who were now
 +become habituated to the licentious mode of living at Alexandria, and
 +had forgotten the name and discipline of the Roman people, and had
 +married wives there, by whom the greatest part of them had
 +children. To these was added a collection of highwaymen, and
 +freebooters,​ from Syria, and the province of Cilicia, and the adjacent
 +countries. Besides several convicts and transports had been collected:
 +for at Alexandria all our runaway slaves were sure of finding
 +protection for their persons on the condition that they should give in
 +their names, and enlist as soldiers: and if any of them was
 +apprehended by his master, he was rescued by a crowd of his fellow
 +soldiers, who being involved in the same guilt, repelled, at the
 +hazard of their lives, every violence offered to any of their
 +body. These by a prescriptive privilege of the Alexandrian army, used
 +to demand the king's favorites to be put to death, pillage the
 +properties of the rich to increase their pay, invest the king's
 +palace, banish some from the kingdom, and recall others from
 +exile. Besides these, there were two thousand horse, who had acquired
 +the skill of veterans by being in several wars in Alexandria. These
 +had restored Ptolemy the father to his kingdom, had killed Bibulus'​s
 +two sons; and had been engaged in war with the Egyptians; such was
 +their experience in military affairs.
 +
 +===== Chapter 111 =====
 +
 +Full of confidence in his troops, and despising the small number of
 +Caesar'​s soldiers, Achillas seized Alexandria, except that part of the
 +town which Caesar occupied with his troops. At first he attempted to
 +force the palace; but Caesar had disposed his cohorts through the
 +streets, and repelled his attack. At the same time there was an action
 +at the port: where the contest was maintained with the greatest
 +obstinacy. For the forces were divided, and the fight maintained in
 +several streets at once, and the enemy endeavored to seize with a
 +strong party the ships of war; of which fifty had been sent to
 +Pompey'​s assistance, but after the battle in Thessaly, had returned
 +home. They were all of either three or five banks of oars, well
 +equipped and appointed with every necessary for a voyage. Besides
 +these, there were twenty-two vessels with decks, which were usually
 +kept at Alexandria, to guard the port. If they made themselves masters
 +of these, Caesar being deprived of his fleet, they would have the
 +command of the port and whole sea, and could prevent him from
 +procuring provisions and auxiliaries. Accordingly that spirit was
 +displayed, which ought to be displayed when the one party saw that a
 +speedy victory depended on the issue, and the other their safety. But
 +Caesar gained the day, and set fire to all those ships, and to others
 +which were in the docks, because he could not guard so many places
 +with so small a force; and immediately he conveyed some troops to the
 +Pharos by his ships.
 +
 +===== Chapter 112 =====
 +
 +The Pharos is a tower on an island, of prodigious height, built with
 +amazing works, and takes its name from the island. This island lying
 +over against Alexandria, forms a harbor; but on the upper side it is
 +connected with the town by a narrow way eight hundred paces in length,
 +made by piles sunk in the sea, and by a bridge. In this island some of
 +the Egyptians have houses, and a village as large as a town; and
 +whatever ships from any quarter, either through mistaking the channel,
 +or by the storm, have been driven from their course upon the coast,
 +they constantly plunder like pirates. And without the consent of those
 +who are masters of the Pharos, no vessels can enter the harbor, on
 +account of its narrowness. Caesar being greatly alarmed on this
 +account, while the enemy were engaged in battle, landed his soldiers,
 +seized the Pharos, and placed a garrison in it. By this means he
 +gained this point, that he could be supplied without danger with corn,
 +and auxiliaries;​ for he sent to all the neighboring countries, to
 +demand supplies. In other parts of the town, they fought so
 +obstinately,​ that they quitted the field with equal advantage, and
 +neither were beaten (in consequence of the narrowness of the passes);
 +and a few being killed on both sides, Caesar secured the most
 +necessary posts, and fortified them in the night. In this quarter of
 +the town was a wing of the king's palace, in which Caesar was lodged
 +on his first arrival, and a theater adjoining the house which served
 +as for citadel, and commanded an avenue to the ports and other
 +docks. These fortifications he increased during the succeeding days,
 +that he might have them before him as a rampart, and not be obliged to
 +fight against his will. In the mean time Ptolemy'​s younger daughter,
 +hoping the throne would become vacant, made her escape from the palace
 +to Achillas, and assisted him in prosecuting the war. But they soon
 +quarreled about the command, which circumstance enlarged the presents
 +to the soldiers, for each endeavored by great sacrifices to secure
 +their affection. While the enemy was thus employed, Pothinus, tutor to
 +the young king, and regent of the kingdom, who was in Caesar'​s part of
 +the town, sent messengers to Achillas, and encouraged him not to
 +desist from his enterprise, nor to despair of success; but his
 +messengers being discovered and apprehended,​ he was put to death by
 +Caesar. Such was the commencement of the Alexandrian war.
 +
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