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de_bello_gallico_1 [2018/04/21 03:30] (current)
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 +====== The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar 1 ======
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​01 The Gallic Wars, I.mp3">​Book 1 In Audio (alt version not a transcription)</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​​player.js"></​script></​html>​
 +(58 B.C.)
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +All Gaul is divided into three parts, one of which the Belgae inhabit,
 +the Aquitani another, those who in their own language are called Celts,
 +in our Gauls, the third. All these differ from each other in language,
 +customs and laws. The river Garonne separates the Gauls from the Aquitani;
 +the Marne and the Seine separate them from the Belgae. Of all these,
 +the Belgae are the bravest, because they are furthest from the civilization
 +and refinement of [our] Province, and merchants least frequently resort
 +to them, and import those things which tend to effeminate the mind;
 +and they are the nearest to the Germans, who dwell beyond the Rhine,
 +with whom they are continually waging war; for which reason the Helvetii
 +also surpass the rest of the Gauls in valor, as they contend with
 +the Germans in almost daily battles, when they either repel them from
 +their own territories,​ or themselves wage war on their frontiers.
 +One part of these, which it has been said that the Gauls occupy, takes
 +its beginning at the river Rhone; it is bounded by the river Garonne,
 +the ocean, and the territories of the Belgae; it borders, too, on
 +the side of the Sequani and the Helvetii, upon the river Rhine, and
 +stretches toward the north. The Belgae rises from the extreme frontier
 +of Gaul, extend to the lower part of the river Rhine; and look toward
 +the north and the rising sun. Aquitania extends from the river Garonne
 +to the Pyrenaean mountains and to that part of the ocean which is
 +near Spain: it looks between the setting of the sun, and the north
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +Among the Helvetii, Orgetorix was by far the most distinguished and
 +wealthy. He, when Marcus Messala and Marcus Piso were consuls, incited
 +by lust of sovereignty,​ formed a conspiracy among the nobility, and
 +persuaded the people to go forth from their territories with all their
 +possessions,​ [saying] that it would be very easy, since they excelled
 +all in valor, to acquire the supremacy of the whole of Gaul. To this
 +he the more easily persuaded them, because the Helvetii, are confined
 +on every side by the nature of their situation; on one side by the
 +Rhine, a very broad and deep river, which separates the Helvetian
 +territory from the Germans; on a second side by the Jura, a very high
 +mountain, which is [situated] between the Sequani and the Helvetii;
 +on a third by the Lake of Geneva, and by the river Rhone, which separates
 +our Province from the Helvetii. From these circumstances it resulted,
 +that they could range less widely, and could less easily make war
 +upon their neighbors; for which reason men fond of war [as they were]
 +were affected with great regret. They thought, that considering the
 +extent of their population, and their renown for warfare and bravery,
 +they had but narrow limits, although they extended in length 240,
 +and in breadth 180 [Roman] miles. ​
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +Induced by these considerations,​ and influenced by the authority of
 +Orgetorix, they determined to provide such things as were necessary
 +for their expedition - to buy up as great a number as possible of
 +beasts of burden and wagons - to make their sowings as large as possible,
 +so that on their march plenty of corn might be in store - and to establish
 +peace and friendship with the neighboring states. They reckoned that
 +a term of two years would be sufficient for them to execute their
 +designs; they fix by decree their departure for the third year. Orgetorix
 +is chosen to complete these arrangements. He took upon himself the
 +office of embassador to the states: on this journey he persuades Casticus,
 +the son of Catamantaledes (one of the Sequani, whose father had possessed
 +the sovereignty among the people for many years, and had been styled
 +"​friend"​ by the senate of the Roman people), to seize upon the sovereignty
 +in his own state, which his father had held before him, and he likewise
 +persuades Dumnorix, an Aeduan, the brother of Divitiacus, who at that
 +time possessed the chief authority in the state, and was exceedingly
 +beloved by the people, to attempt the same, and gives him his daughter
 +in marriage. He proves to them that to accomplish their attempts was
 +a thing very easy to be done, because he himself would obtain the
 +government of his own state; that there was no doubt that the Helvetii
 +were the most powerful of the whole of Gaul; he assures them that
 +he will, with his own forces and his own army, acquire the sovereignty
 +for them. Incited by this speech, they give a pledge and oath to one
 +another, and hope that, when they have seized the sovereignty,​ they
 +will, by means of the three most powerful and valiant nations, be
 +enabled to obtain possession of the whole of Gaul. 
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +When this scheme was disclosed to the Helvetii by informers, they,
 +according to their custom, compelled Orgetorix to plead his cause
 +in chains; it was the law that the penalty of being burned by fire
 +should await him if condemned. On the day appointed for the pleading
 +of his cause, Orgetorix drew together from all quarters to the court,
 +all his vassals to the number of ten thousand persons; and led together
 +to the same place all his dependents and debtor-bondsmen,​ of whom
 +he had a great number; by means of those he rescued himself from [the
 +necessity of] pleading his cause. While the state, incensed at this
 +act, was endeavoring to assert its right by arms, and the magistrates
 +were mustering a large body of men from the country, Orgetorix died;
 +and there is not wanting a suspicion, as the Helvetii think, of his
 +having committed suicide. ​
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +After his death, the Helvetii nevertheless attempt to do that which
 +they had resolved on, namely, to go forth from their territories.
 +When they thought that they were at length prepared for this undertaking,​
 +they set fire to all their towns, in number about twelve - to their
 +villages about four hundred - and to the private dwellings that remained;
 +they burn up all the corn, except what they intend to carry with them;
 +that after destroying the hope of a return home, they might be the
 +more ready for undergoing all dangers. They order every one to carry
 +forth from home for himself provisions for three months, ready ground.
 +They persuade the Rauraci, and the Tulingi, and the Latobrigi, their
 +neighbors, to adopt the same plan, and after burning down their towns
 +and villages, to set out with them: and they admit to their party
 +and unite to themselves as confederates the Boii, who had dwelt on
 +the other side of the Rhine, and had crossed over into the Norican
 +territory, and assaulted Noreia. ​
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +There were in all two routes, by which they could go forth from their
 +country one through the Sequani narrow and difficult, between Mount
 +Jura and the river Rhone (by which scarcely one wagon at a time could
 +be led; there was, moreover, a very high mountain overhanging,​ so
 +that a very few might easily intercept them; the other, through our
 +Province, much easier and freer from obstacles, because the Rhone
 +flows between the boundaries of the Helvetii and those of the Allobroges,
 +who had lately been subdued, and is in some places crossed by a ford.
 +The furthest town of the Allobroges, and the nearest to the territories
 +of the Helvetii, is Geneva. From this town a bridge extends to the
 +Helvetii. They thought that they should either persuade the Allobroges,
 +because they did not seem as yet well-affected toward the Roman people,
 +or compel them by force to allow them to pass through their territories.
 +Having provided every thing for the expedition, they appoint a day,
 +on which they should all meet on the bank of the Rhone. This day was
 +the fifth before the kalends of April [i.e. the 28th of March], in
 +the consulship of Lucius Piso and Aulus Gabinius [B.C. 58.]
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +When it was reported to Caesar that they were attempting to make their
 +route through our Province he hastens to set out from the city, and,
 +by as great marches as he can, proceeds to Further Gaul, and arrives
 +at Geneva. He orders the whole Province [to furnish] as great a number
 +of soldiers as possible, as there was in all only one legion in Further
 +Gaul: he orders the bridge at Geneva to be broken down. When the Helvetii
 +are apprized of his arrival they send to him, as embassadors,​ the
 +most illustrious men of their state (in which embassy Numeius and
 +Verudoctius held the chief place), to say "that it was their intention
 +to march through the Province without doing any harm, because they
 +had" [according to their own representations,​] "no other route: that
 +they requested, they might be allowed to do so with his consent."​
 +Caesar, inasmuch as he kept in remembrance that Lucius Cassius, the
 +consul, had been slain, and his army routed and made to pass under
 +the yoke by the Helvetii, did not think that [their request] ought
 +to be granted: nor was he of opinion that men of hostile disposition,​
 +if an opportunity of marching through the Province were given them,
 +would abstain from outrage and mischief. Yet, in order that a period
 +might intervene, until the soldiers whom he had ordered [to be furnished]
 +should assemble, he replied to the ambassadors,​ that he would take
 +time to deliberate; if they wanted any thing, they might return on
 +the day before the ides of April [on April 12th]. ​
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +Meanwhile, with the legion which he had with him and the soldiers
 +which had assembled from the Province, he carries along for nineteen
 +[Roman, not quite eighteen English] miles a wall, to the height of
 +sixteen feet, and a trench, from the Lake of Geneva, which flows into
 +the river Rhone, to Mount Jura, which separates the territories of
 +the Sequani from those of the Helvetii. When that work was finished,
 +he distributes garrisons, and closely fortifies redoubts, in order
 +that he may the more easily intercept them, if they should attempt
 +to cross over against his will. When the day which he had appointed
 +with the embassadors came, and they returned to him; he says, that
 +he can not, consistently with the custom and precedent of the Roman
 +people, grant any one a passage through the Province; and he gives
 +them to understand, that, if they should attempt to use violence he
 +would oppose them. The Helvetii, disappointed in this hope, tried
 +if they could force a passage (some by means of a bridge of boats
 +and numerous rafts constructed for the purpose; others, by the fords
 +of the Rhone, where the depth of the river was least, sometimes by
 +day, but more frequently by night), but being kept at bay by the strength
 +of our works, and by the concourse of the soldiers, and by the missiles,
 +they desisted from this attempt. ​
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +There was left one way, [namely] through the Sequani, by which, on
 +account of its narrowness, they could not pass without the consent
 +of the Sequani. As they could not of themselves prevail on them, they
 +send embassadors to Dumnorix the Aeduan, that through his intercession,​
 +they might obtain their request from the Sequani. Dumnorix, by his
 +popularity and liberality, had great influence among the Sequani,
 +and was friendly to the Helvetii, because out of that state he had
 +married the daughter of Orgetorix; and, incited by lust of sovereignty,​
 +was anxious for a revolution, and wished to have as many states as
 +possible attached to him by his kindness toward them. He, therefore,
 +undertakes the affair, and prevails upon the Sequani to allow the
 +Helvetii to march through their territories,​ and arranges that they
 +should give hostages to each other - the Sequani not to obstruct the
 +Helvetii in their march - the Helvetii, to pass without mischief and
 +outrage. ​
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +It is again told Caesar, that the Helvetii intended to march through
 +the country of the Sequani and the Aedui into the territories of the
 +Santones, which are not far distant from those boundaries of the Tolosates,
 +which [viz. Tolosa, Toulouse] is a state in the Province. If this
 +took place, he saw that it would be attended with great danger to
 +the Province to have warlike men, enemies of the Roman people, bordering
 +upon an open and very fertile tract of country. For these reasons
 +he appointed Titus Labienus, his lieutenant, to the command of the
 +fortification which he had made. He himself proceeds to Italy by forced
 +marches, and there levies two legions, and leads out from winter-quarters
 +three which were wintering around Aquileia, and with these five legions
 +marches rapidly by the nearest route across the Alps into Further
 +Gaul. Here the Centrones and the Graioceli and the Caturiges, having
 +taken possession of the higher parts, attempt to obstruct the army
 +in their march. After having routed these in several battles, he arrives
 +in the territories of the Vocontii in the Further Province on the
 +seventh day from Ocelum, which is the most remote town of the Hither
 +Province; thence he leads his army into the country of the Allobroges,
 +and from the Allobroges to the Segusiani. These people are the first
 +beyond the Province on the opposite side of the Rhone. ​
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +The Helvetii had by this time led their forces over through the narrow
 +defile and the territories of the Sequani, and had arrived at the
 +territories of the Aedui, and were ravaging their lands. The Aedui,
 +as they could not defend themselves and their possessions against
 +them, send embassadors to Caesar to ask assistance, [pleading] that
 +they had at all times so well deserved of the Roman people, that their
 +fields ought not to have been laid waste - their children carried
 +off into slavery - their towns stormed, almost within sight of our
 +army. At the same time the Ambarri, the friends and kinsmen of the
 +Aedui, apprize Caesar, that it was not easy for them, now that their
 +fields had been devastated, to ward off the violence of the enemy
 +from their towns: the Allobroges likewise, who had villages and possessions
 +on the other side of the Rhone, betake themselves in flight to Caesar,
 +and assure him that they had nothing remaining, except the soil of
 +their land. Caesar, induced by these circumstances,​ decides, that
 +he ought not to wait until the Helvetii, after destroying all the
 +property of his allies, should arrive among the Santones.
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +There is a river [called] the Saone, which flows through the territories
 +of the Aedui and Sequani into the Rhone with such incredible slowness,
 +that it can not be determined by the eye in which direction it flows.
 +This the Helvetii were crossing by rafts and boats joined together.
 +When Caesar was informed by spies that the Helvetii had already conveyed
 +three parts of their forces across that river, but that the fourth
 +part was left behind on this side of the Saone, he set out from the
 +camp with three legions during the third watch, and came up with that
 +division which had not yet crossed the river. Attacking them encumbered
 +with baggage, and not expecting him, he cut to pieces a great part
 +of them; the rest betook themselves to flight, and concealed themselves
 +in the nearest woods. That canton [which was cut down] was called
 +the Tigurine; for the whole Helvetian state is divided into four cantons.
 +This single canton having left their country, within the recollection
 +of our fathers, had slain Lucius Cassius the consul, and had made
 +his army pass under the yoke. Thus, whether by chance, or by the design
 +of the immortal gods, that part of the Helvetian state which had brought
 +a signal calamity upon the Roman people, was the first to pay the
 +penalty. In this Caesar avenged not only the public but also his own
 +personal wrongs, because the Tigurini had slain Lucius Piso the lieutenant
 +[of Cassius], the grandfather of Lucius Calpurnius Piso, his [Caesar'​s]
 +father-in-law,​ in the same battle as Cassius himself. ​
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +This battle ended, that he might be able to come up with the remaining
 +forces of the Helvetii, he procures a bridge to be made across the
 +Saone, and thus leads his army over. The Helvetii, confused by his
 +sudden arrival, when they found that he had effected in one day, what
 +they, themselves had with the utmost difficulty accomplished in twenty
 +namely, the crossing of the river, send embassadors to him; at the
 +head of which embassy was Divico, who had been commander of the Helvetii,
 +in the war against Cassius. He thus treats with Caesar: - that, "if
 +the Roman people would make peace with the Helvetii they would go
 +to that part and there remain, where Caesar might appoint and desire
 +them to be; but if he should persist in persecuting them with war
 +that he ought to remember both the ancient disgrace of the Roman people
 +and the characteristic valor of the Helvetii. As to his having attacked
 +one canton by surprise, [at a time] when those who had crossed the
 +river could not bring assistance to their friends, that he ought not
 +on that account to ascribe very much to his own valor, or despise
 +them; that they had so learned from their sires and ancestors, as
 +to rely more on valor than on artifice and stratagem. Wherefore let
 +him not bring it to pass that the place, where they were standing,
 +should acquire a name, from the disaster of the Roman people and the
 +destruction of their army or transmit the remembrance [of such an
 +event to posterity]." ​
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +To these words Caesar thus replied: - that "on that very account he
 +felt less hesitation, because he kept in remembrance those circumstances
 +which the Helvetian embassadors had mentioned, and that he felt the
 +more indignant at them, in proportion as they had happened undeservedly
 +to the Roman people: for if they had been conscious of having done
 +any wrong, it would not have been difficult to be on their guard,
 +but for that very reason had they been deceived, because neither were
 +they aware that any offense had been given by them, on account of
 +which they should be afraid, nor did they think that they ought to
 +be afraid without cause. But even if he were willing to forget their
 +former outrage, could he also lay aside the remembrance of the late
 +wrongs, in that they had against his will attempted a route through
 +the Province by force, in that they had molested the Aedui, the Ambarri,
 +and the Allobroges? That as to their so insolently boasting of their
 +victory, and as to their being astonished that they had so long committed
 +their outrages with impunity, [both these things] tended to the same
 +point; for the immortal gods are wont to allow those persons whom
 +they wish to punish for their guilt sometimes a greater prosperity
 +and longer impunity, in order that they may suffer the more severely
 +from a reverse of circumstances. Although these things are so, yet,
 +if hostages were to be given him by them in order that he may be assured
 +these will do what they promise, and provided they will give satisfaction
 +to the Aedui for the outrages which they had committed against them
 +and their allies, and likewise to the Allobroges, he [Caesar] will
 +make peace with them." Divico replied, that "the Helvetii had been
 +so trained by their ancestors, that they were accustomed to receive,
 +not to give hostages; of that fact the Roman people were witness."​
 +Having given this reply, he withdrew. ​
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +On the following day they move their camp from that place; Caesar
 +does the same, and sends forward all his cavalry, to the number of
 +four thousand (which he had drawn together from all parts of the Province
 +and from the Aedui and their allies), to observe toward what parts
 +the enemy are directing their march. These, having too eagerly pursued
 +the enemy'​s rear, come to a battle with the cavalry of the Helvetii
 +in a disadvantageous place, and a few of our men fall. The Helvetii,
 +elated with this battle, because they had with five hundred horse
 +repulsed so large a body of horse, began to face us more boldly, sometimes
 +too from their rear to provoke our men by an attack. Caesar [however]
 +restrained his men from battle, deeming it sufficient for the present
 +to prevent the enemy from rapine, forage, and depredation. They marched
 +for about fifteen days in such a manner that there was not more than
 +five or six miles between the enemy'​s rear and our van. 
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +Meanwhile, Caesar kept daily importuning the Aedui for the corn which
 +they had promised in the name of their state; for, in consequence
 +of the coldness (Gaul, being as before said, situated toward the north),
 +not only was the corn in the fields not ripe, but there was not in
 +store a sufficiently large quantity even of fodder: besides he was
 +unable to use the corn which he had conveyed in ships up the river
 +Saone, because the Helvetii, from whom he was unwilling to retire
 +had diverted their march from the Saone. The Aedui kept deferring
 +from day to day, and saying that it was being collected - brought
 +in - on the road." When he saw that he was put off too long, and that
 +the day was close at hand on which he ought to serve out the corn
 +to his soldiers; - having called together their chiefs, of whom he
 +had a great number in his camp, among them Divitiacus and Liscus who
 +was invested with the chief magistracy (whom the Aedui style the Vergobretus,​
 +and who is elected annually and has power of life or death over his
 +countrymen),​ he severely reprimands them, because he is not assisted
 +by them on so urgent an occasion, when the enemy were so close at
 +hand, and when [corn] could neither be bought nor taken from the fields,
 +particularly as, in a great measure urged by their prayers, he had
 +undertaken the war; much more bitterly, therefore does he complain
 +of his being forsaken. ​
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +Then at length Liscus, moved by Caesar'​s speech, discloses what he
 +had hitherto kept secret: - that there are some whose influences with
 +the people is very great, who, though private men, have more power
 +than the magistrates themselves: that these by seditions and violent
 +language are deterring the populace from contributing the corn which
 +they ought to supply; [by telling them] that, if they can not any
 +longer retain the supremacy of Gaul, it were better to submit to the
 +government of Gauls than of Romans, nor ought they to doubt that,
 +if the Romans should overpower the Helvetii, they would wrest their
 +freedom from the Aedui together with the remainder of Gaul. By these
 +very men, [said he], are our plans and whatever is done in the camp,
 +disclosed to the enemy; that they could not be restrained by him:
 +nay more, he was well aware, that though compelled by necessity, he
 +had disclosed the matter to Caesar, at how great a risk he had done
 +it; and for that reason, he had been silent as long as he could."​
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +Caesar perceived that by this speech of Liscus, Dumnorix, the brother
 +of Divitiacus, was indicated; but, as he was unwilling that these
 +matters should be discussed while so many were present, he speedily
 +dismisses: the council, but detains Liscus: he inquires from him when
 +alone, about those things which he had said in the meeting. He [Liscus]
 +speaks more unreservedly and boldly. He [Caesar] makes inquiries on
 +the same points privately of others, and discovered that it is all
 +true; that "​Dumnorix is the person, a man of the highest daring, in
 +great favor with the people on account of his liberality, a man eager
 +for a revolution: that for a great many years he has been in the habit
 +of contracting for the customs and all the other taxes of the Aedui
 +at a small cost, because when he bids, no one dares to bid against
 +him. By these means he has both increased his own private property,
 +and amassed great means for giving largesses; that he maintains constantly
 +at his own expense and keeps about his own person a great number of
 +cavalry, and that not only at home, but even among the neighboring
 +states, he has great influence, and for the sake of strengthening
 +this influence has given his mother in marriage among the Bituriges
 +to a man the most noble and most influential there; that he has himself
 +taken a wife from among the Helvetii, and has given his sister by
 +the mother'​s side and his female relations in marriage into other
 +states; that he favors and wishes well to the Helvetii on account
 +of this connection; and that he hates Caesar and the Romans, on his
 +own account, because by their arrival his power was weakened, and
 +his brother, Divitiacus, restored to his former position of influence
 +and dignity: that, if any thing should happen to the Romans, he entertains
 +the highest hope of gaining the sovereignty by means of the Helvetii,
 +but that under the government of the Roman people he despairs not
 +only of royalty, but even of that influence which he already has."
 +Caesar discovered too, on inquiring into the unsuccessful cavalry
 +engagement which had taken place a few days before, that the commencement
 +of that flight had been made by Dumnorix and his cavalry (for Dumnorix
 +was in command of the cavalry which the Aedui had sent for aid to
 +Caesar); that by their flight the rest of the cavalry were dismayed.
 +===== Chapter 19 =====
 +After learning these circumstances,​ since to these suspicions the
 +most unequivocal facts were added, viz., that he had led the Helvetii
 +through the territories of the Sequani; that he had provided that
 +hostages should be mutually given; that he had done all these things,
 +not only without any orders of his [Caesar'​s] and of his own state'​s,​
 +but even without their [the Aedui] knowing any thing of it themselves;
 +that he [Dumnorix] was reprimanded:​ by the [chief] magistrate of the
 +Aedui; he [Caesar] considered that there was sufficient reason, why
 +he should either punish him himself, or order the state to do so.
 +One thing [however] stood in the way of all this - that he had learned
 +by experience his brother Divitiacus'​s very high regard for the Roman
 +people, his great affection toward him, his distinguished faithfulness,​
 +justice, and moderation; for he was afraid lest by the punishment
 +of this man, he should hurt the feelings of Divitiacus. Therefore,
 +before he attempted any thing, he orders Divitiacus to be summoned
 +to him, and, when the ordinary interpreters had been withdrawn, converses
 +with him through Caius Valerius Procillus, chief of the province of
 +Gaul, an intimate friend of his, in whom he reposed the highest confidence
 +in every thing; at the same time he reminds him of what was said about
 +Dumnorix in the council of the Gauls, when he himself was present,
 +and shows what each had said of him privately in his [Caesar'​s] own
 +presence; he begs and exhorts him, that, without offense to his feelings,
 +he may either himself pass judgment on him [Dumnorix] after trying
 +the case, or else order the [Aeduan] state to do so. 
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +Divitiacus, embracing Caesar, begins to implore him, with many tears,
 +that "he would not pass any very severe sentence upon his brother;
 +saying, that he knows that those charges are true, and that nobody
 +suffered more pain on that account than he himself did; for when he
 +himself could effect a very great deal by his influence at home and
 +in the rest of Gaul, and he [Dumnorix] very little on account of his
 +youth, the latter had become powerful through his means, which power
 +and strength he used not only to the lessening of his [Divitiacus]
 +popularity, but almost to his ruin; that he, however, was influenced
 +both by fraternal affection and by public opinion. But if any thing
 +very severe from Caesar should befall him [Dumnorix], no one would
 +think that it had been done without his consent, since he himself
 +held such a place in Caesar'​s friendship: from which circumstance
 +it would arise, that the affections of the whole of Gaul would be
 +estranged from him." As he was with tears begging these things of
 +Caesar in many words, Caesar takes his right hand, and, comforting
 +him, begs him to make an end of entreating, and assures him that his
 +regard for him is so great, that he forgives both the injuries of
 +the republic and his private wrongs, at his desire and prayers. He
 +summons Dumnorix to him; he brings in his brother; he points out what
 +he censures in him; he lays before him what he of himself perceives,
 +and what the state complains of; he warns him for the future to avoid
 +all grounds of suspicion; he says that he pardons the past, for the
 +sake of his brother, Divitiacus. He sets spies over Dumnorix that
 +he may be able to know what he does, and with whom he communicates.
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +Being on the same day informed by his scouts, that the enemy had encamped
 +at the foot of a mountain eight miles from his own camp; he sent persons
 +to ascertain what the nature of the mountain was, and of what kind
 +the ascent on every side. Word was brought back, that it was easy.
 +During the third watch he orders Titus Labienus, his lieutenant with
 +praetorian powers, to ascend to the highest ridge of the mountain
 +with two legions, and with those as guides who had examined the road;
 +he explains what his plan is. He himself during the fourth watch,
 +hastens to them by the same route by which the enemy had gone, and
 +sends on all the cavalry before him. Publius Considius, who was reputed
 +to be very experienced in military affairs, and had been in the army
 +of Lucius Sulla, and afterward in that of Marcus Crassus, is sent
 +forward with the scouts. ​
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +At day-break, when the summit of the mountain was in the possession
 +of Titus Labienus, and he himself was not further off than a mile
 +and half from the enemy'​s camp, nor, as he afterward ascertained from
 +the captives, had either his arrival or that of Labienus been discovered;
 +Considius, with his horse at full gallop, comes up to him says that
 +the mountain which he [Caesar] wished should be seized by Labienus,
 +is in possession of the enemy; that he has discovered this by the
 +Gallic arms and ensigns. Caesar leads off his forces to the next hill:
 +[and] draws them up in battle-order. Labienus, as he had been ordered
 +by Caesar not to come to an engagement unless [Caesar'​s] own forces
 +were seen near the enemy'​s camp, that the attack upon the enemy might
 +be made on every side at the same time, was, after having taken possession
 +of the mountain, waiting for our men, and refraining from battle.
 +When, at length, the day was far advanced, Caesar learned through
 +spies, that the mountain was in possession of his own men, and that
 +the Helvetii had moved their camp, and that Considius, struck with
 +fear, had reported to him, as seen, that which he had not seen. On
 +that day he follows the enemy at his usual distance, and pitches his
 +camp three miles from theirs. ​
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +The next day (as there remained in all only two day's space [to the
 +time] when he must serve out the corn to his army, and as he was not
 +more than eighteen miles from Bibracte, by far the largest and best-stored
 +town of the Aedui), he thought that he ought to provide for a supply
 +of corn; and diverted his march from the Helvetii, and advanced rapidly
 +to Bibracte. This circumstance is reported to the enemy by some deserters
 +from Lucius Aemilius, a captain, of the Gallic horse. The Helvetii,
 +either because they thought that the Romans, struck with terror, were
 +retreating from them, the more so, as the day before, though they
 +had seized on the higher grounds, they had not joined battle or because
 +they flattered themselves that they might be cut of from the provisions,
 +altering their plan and changing their route, began to pursue, and
 +to annoy our men in the rear. 
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +Caesar, when he observes this, draws off his forces to the next hill,
 +and sent the cavalry to sustain the attack of the enemy. He himself,
 +meanwhile, drew up on the middle of the hill a triple line of his
 +four veteran legions in such a manner, that he placed above him on
 +the very summit the two legions, which he had lately levied in Hither
 +Gaul, and all the auxiliaries;​ and he ordered that the whole mountain
 +should be covered with men, and that meanwhile the baggage should
 +be brought together into one place, and the position be protected
 +by those who were posted in the upper line. The Helvetii having followed
 +with all their wagons, collected their baggage into one place: they
 +themselves, after having repulsed our cavalry and formed a phalanx,
 +advanced up to our front line in very close order. ​
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +Caesar, having removed out of sight first his own horse, then those
 +of all, that he might make the danger of a11 equal, and do away with
 +the hope of flight, after encouraging his men, joined battle. His
 +soldiers hurling their javelins from the higher ground, easily broke
 +the enemy'​s phalanx. That being dispersed, they made a charge on them
 +with drawn swords. It was a great hinderance to the Gauls in fighting,
 +that, when several of their bucklers had been by one stroke of the
 +(Roman) javelins pierced through and pinned fast together, as the
 +point of the iron had bent itself, they could neither pluck it out,
 +nor, with their left hand entangled, fight with sufficient ease; so
 +that many, after having long tossed their arm about, chose rather
 +to cast away the buckler from their hand, and to fight with their
 +person unprotected. At length, worn out with wounds, they began to
 +give way, and, as there was in the neighborhood a mountain about a
 +mile off, to betake themselves thither. When the mountain had been
 +gained, and our men were advancing up, the Boii and Tulingi, who with
 +about 15,000 men closed the enemy'​s line of march and served as a
 +guard to their rear, having assailed our men on the exposed flank
 +as they advanced [prepared] to surround them; upon seeing which, the
 +Helvetii who had betaken themselves to the mountain, began to press
 +on again and renew the battle. The Romans having faced about, advanced
 +to the attack in two divisions; the first and second line, to withstand
 +those who had been defeated and driven off the field; the third to
 +receive those who were just arriving. ​
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +Thus, was the contest long and vigorously carried on with doubtful
 +success. When they could no longer withstand the attacks of our men,
 +the one division, as they had begun to do, betook themselves to the
 +mountain; the other repaired to their baggage and wagons. For during
 +the whole of this battle, although the fight lasted from the seventh
 +hour [i.e. 12 (noon) 1 P. M.] to eventide, no one could see an enemy
 +with his back turned. The fight was carried on also at the baggage
 +till late in the night, for they had set wagons in the way as a rampart,
 +and from the higher ground kept throwing weapons upon our men, as
 +they came on, and some from between the wagons and the wheels kept
 +darting their lances and javelins from beneath, and wounding our men.
 +After the fight had lasted some time, our men gained possession of
 +their baggage and camp. There the daughter and one of the sons of
 +Orgetorix was taken. After the battle about 130,000 men [of the enemy]
 +remained alive, who marched incessantly during the whole of that night;
 +and after a march discontinued for no part of the night, arrived in
 +the territories of the Lingones on the fourth day, while our men,
 +having stopped for three days, both on account of the wounds of the
 +soldiers and the burial of the slain, had not been able to follow
 +them. Caesar sent letters and messengers to the Lingones [with orders]
 +that they should not assist them with corn or with any thing else;
 +for that if they should assist them, he would regard them in the same
 +light as the Helvetii. After the three days' interval he began to
 +follow them himself with all his forces. ​
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +The Helvetii, compelled by the want of every thing, sent embassadors
 +to him about a surrender. When these had met him on the way and had
 +thrown themselves at his feet, and speaking in suppliant tone had
 +with tears sued for peace, and [when] he had ordered them to await
 +his arrival, in the place, where they then were, they obeyed his commands.
 +When Caesar arrived at that place, he demanded hostages, their arms,
 +and the slaves who had deserted to them. While those things are being
 +sought for and got together, after a night'​s interval, about 6000
 +men of that canton which is called the Verbigene, whether terrified
 +by fear, lest after delivering up their arms, they should suffer punishment,
 +or else induced by the hope of safety, because they supposed that,
 +amid so vast a multitude of those who had surrendered themselves,
 +their flight might either be concealed or entirely overlooked, having
 +at night-fall departed out of the camp of the Helvetii, hastened to
 +the Rhine and the territories of the Germans. ​
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +But when Caesar discovered this, he commanded those through whose
 +territory they had gone, to seek them out and to bring them back again,
 +if they meant to be acquitted before him; and considered them, when
 +brought back, in the light of enemies; he admitted all the rest to
 +a surrender, upon their delivering up the hostages, arms, and deserters.
 +He ordered the Helvetii, the Tulingi, and the Latobrigi, to return
 +to their territories from which they had come, and as there was at
 +home nothing whereby they might support their hunger, all the productions
 +of the earth having been destroyed, he commanded the Allobroges to
 +let them have a plentiful supply of corn; and ordered them to rebuild
 +the towns and villages which they had burned. This he did, chiefly,
 +on this account, because he was unwilling that the country, from which
 +the Helvetii had departed, should be untenanted, lest the Germans,
 +who dwell on the other side of the Rhine, should, on account of the
 +excellence of the lands, cross over from their own territories into
 +those of the Helvetii, and become borderers upon the province of Gaul
 +and the Allobroges. He granted the petition of the Aedui, that they
 +might settle the Boii, in their own (i. e. in the Aeduan) territories,​
 +as these were known to be of distinguished valor, to whom they gave
 +lands, and whom they afterward admitted to the same state of rights
 +and freedom as themselves. ​
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +In the camp of the Helvetii, lists were found, drawn up in Greek characters,
 +and were brought to Caesar, in which an estimate had been drawn up,
 +name by name, of the number which had gone forth from their country
 +of those who were able to bear arms; and likewise the boys, the old
 +men, and the women, separately. ​
 +  * Of all which items the total was:
 +    * Of the Helvetii [lit. of the heads of the Helvetii] 263,000
 +    * Of the Tulingi . . . . . . . . . . . 36,​000 ​
 +    * Of the Latobrigi .- . . . . . . . . . . 14,000
 +    * Of the Rauraci . . . . . . . . . . . 23,000
 +    * Of the Boii . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32,000
 +  * The sum of all amounted to . . . 368,​000. ​
 +Out of these, such as could bear arms, [amounted] to about 92,000. When the census of those who returned home was taken, as Caesar had commanded, the number was found to be 110,000.
 +===== Chapter 30 =====
 +When the war with the Helvetii was concluded, embassadors from almost
 +all parts of Gaul, the chiefs of states, assembled to congratulate
 +Caesar, [saying] that they were well aware, that, although he had
 +taken vengeance on the Helvetii in war, for the old wrong done by
 +them to the Roman people, yet that circumstance had happened no less
 +to the benefit of the land of Gaul than of the Roman people, because
 +the Helvetii, while their affairs were most flourishing,​ had quitted
 +their country with the design of making war upon the whole of Gaul,
 +and seizing the government of it, and selecting, out of a great abundance,
 +that spot for an abode, which they should judge to be the most convenient
 +and most productive of all Gaul, and hold the rest of the states as
 +tributaries. They requested that they might be allowed to proclaim
 +an assembly of the whole of Gaul for a particular day, and to do that
 +with Caesar'​s permission, [stating] that they had some things which,
 +with the general consent, they wished to ask of him. This request
 +having been granted, they appointed a day for the assembly, and ordained
 +by an oath with each other, that no one should disclose [their deliberations]
 +except those to whom this [office] should be assigned by the general
 +assembly. ​
 +===== Chapter 31 =====
 +When that assembly was dismissed, the same chiefs of states, who had
 +before been to Caesar, returned, and asked that they might be allowed
 +to treat with him privately (in secret) concerning the safety of themselves
 +and of all. That request having been obtained, they all threw themselves
 +in tears at Caesar'​s feet, [saying] that they no less begged and earnestly
 +desired that what they might say should not be disclosed, than that
 +they might obtain those things which they wished for; inasmuch as
 +they saw, that, if a disclosure was made, they should be put to the
 +greatest tortures. For these Divitiacus the Aeduan spoke and told
 +him: "That there were two parties in the whole of Gaul: that the Aedui
 +stood at the head of one of these, the Arverni of the other. After
 +these had been violently struggling with one another for the superiority
 +for many years, it came to pass that the Germans were called in for
 +hire by the Arverni and the Sequani. That about 15,000 of them [i.e.
 +of the Germans] had at first crossed the Rhine: but after that these
 +wild and savage men had become enamored of the lands and the refinement
 +and the abundance of the Gauls, more were brought over, that there
 +were now as many as 120,000 of them in Gaul: that with these the Aedui
 +and their dependents had repeatedly struggled in arms - that they
 +had been routed, and had sustained a great calamity - had lost all
 +their nobility, all their senate, all their cavalry. And that broken
 +by such engagements and calamities, although they had formerly been
 +very powerful in Gaul, both from their own valor and from the Roman
 +people'​s hospitality and friendship, they were now compelled to give
 +the chief nobles of their state, as hostages to the Sequani, and to
 +bind their state by an oath, that they would neither demand hostages
 +in return, nor supplicate aid from the Roman people, nor refuse to
 +be forever under their sway and empire. That he was the only one out
 +of all the state of the Aedui, who could not be prevailed upon to
 +take the oath or to give his children as hostages. On that account
 +he had fled from his state and had gone to the senate at Rome to beseech
 +aid, as he alone was bound neither by oath nor hostages. But a worse
 +thing had befallen the victorious Sequani than the vanquished Aedui,
 +for Ariovistus the king of the Germans, had settled in their territories,​
 +and had seized upon a third of their land, which was the best in the
 +whole of Gaul, and was now ordering them to depart from another third
 +part, because a few months previously 24,000 men of the Harudes had
 +come to him, for whom room and settlements must be provided. The consequence
 +would be, that in a few years they would all be driven from the territories
 +of Gaul, and all the Germans would cross the Rhine; for neither must
 +the land of Gaul be compared with the land of the Germans, nor must
 +the habit of living of the latter be put on a level with that of the
 +former. Moreover, [as for] Ariovistus, no sooner did he defeat the
 +forces of the Gauls in a battle which took place at Magetobria, than
 +[he began] to lord it haughtily and cruelly, to demand as hostages
 +the children of all the principal nobles, and wreak on them every
 +kind of cruelty, if every thing was not done at his nod or pleasure;
 +that he was a savage, passionate, and reckless man, and that his commands
 +could no longer be borne. Unless there was some aid in Caesar and
 +the Roman people, the Gauls must all do the same thing that the Helvetii
 +have done, [viz.] emigrate from their country, and seek another dwelling
 +place, other settlements remote from the Germans, and try whatever
 +fortune may fall to their lot. If these things were to be disclosed
 +to Ariovistus, [Divitiacus adds] that he doubts not that he would
 +inflict the most severe punishment on all the hostages who are in
 +his possession, [and says] that Caesar could, either by his own influence
 +and by that of his army, or by his late victory, or by name of the
 +Roman people, intimidate him, so as to prevent a greater number of
 +Germans being brought over the Rhine, and could protect all Gaul from
 +the outrages of Ariovistus. ​
 +===== Chapter 32 =====
 +When this speech had been delivered by Divitiacus, all who were present
 +began with loud lamentation to entreat assistance of Caesar. Caesar
 +noticed that the Sequani were the only people of all who did none
 +of those things which the others did, but, with their heads bowed
 +down, gazed on the earth in sadness. Wondering what was the reason
 +of this conduct, he inquired of themselves. No reply did the Sequani
 +make, but silently continued in the same sadness. When he had repeatedly
 +inquired of them and could not elicit any answer at all, the same
 +Divitiacus the Aeduan answered, that - "the lot of the Sequani was
 +more wretched and grievous than that of the rest, on this account,
 +because they alone durst not even in secret complain or supplicate
 +aid; and shuddered at the cruelty of Ariovistus [even when] absent,
 +just as if he were present; for, to the rest, despite of every thing
 +there was an opportunity of flight given; but all tortures must be
 +endured by the Sequani, who had admitted Ariovistus within their territories,​
 +and whose towns were all in his power." ​
 +===== Chapter 33 =====
 +Caesar, on being informed of these things, cheered the minds of the
 +Gauls with his words, and promised that this affair should be an object
 +of his concern, [saying] that he had great hopes that Ariovistus,
 +induced both by his kindness and his power, would put an end to his
 +oppression. After delivering this speech, he dismissed the assembly;
 +and, besides those statements, many circumstances induced him to think
 +that this affair ought to be considered and taken up by him; especially
 +as he saw that the Aedui, styled [as they had been] repeatedly by
 +the senate "​brethren"​ and "​kinsmen,"​ were held in the thraldom and
 +dominion of the Germans, and understood that their hostages were with
 +Ariovistus and the Sequani, which in so mighty an empire [as that]
 +of the Roman people he considered very disgraceful to himself and
 +the republic. That, moreover, the Germans should by degrees become
 +accustomed to cross the Rhine, and that a great body of them should
 +come into Gaul, he saw [would be] dangerous to the Roman people, and
 +judged, that wild and savage men would not be likely to restrain themselves,
 +after they had possessed themselves of all Gaul, from going forth
 +into the province and thence marching into Italy (as the Cimbri and
 +Teutones had done before them), particularly as the Rhone [was the
 +sole barrier that] separated the Sequani from our province. Against
 +which events he thought he ought to provide as speedily as possible.
 +Moreover, Ariovistus, for his part, had assumed to himself such pride
 +and arrogance, that he was felt to be quite insufferable.
 +===== Chapter 34 =====
 +He therefore determined to send embassadors to Ariovistus to demand
 +of him to name some intermediate spot for a conference between the
 +two, [saying] that he wished to treat him on state-business and matters
 +of the highest importance to both of them. To this embassy Ariovistus
 +replied, that if he himself had had need of any thing from Caesar,
 +he would have gone to him; and that if Caesar wanted any thing from
 +him he ought to come to him. That, besides, neither dare he go without
 +an army into those parts of Gaul which Caesar had possession of, nor
 +could he, without great expense and trouble, draw his army together
 +to one place; that to him, moreover, it appeared strange, what business
 +either Caesar or the Roman people at all had in his own Gaul, which
 +he had conquered in war. 
 +===== Chapter 35 =====
 +When these answers were reported to Caesar, he sends embassadors to
 +him a second time with this message. "​Since,​ after having been treated
 +with so much kindness by himself and the Roman people (as he had in
 +his consulship been styled 'king and friend'​ by the senate), he makes
 +this recompense to [Caesar] himself and the Roman people, [viz.] that
 +when invited to a conference he demurs, and does not think that it
 +concerns him to advise and inform himself about an object of mutual
 +interest, these are the things which he requires of him; first, that
 +he do not any more bring over any body of men across the Rhine into
 +Gaul; in the next place, that he restore the hostages, which he has
 +from the Aedui, and grant the Sequani permission to restore to them
 +with his consent those hostages which they have, and that he neither
 +provoke the Aedui by outrage nor make war upon them or their allies;
 +if he would accordingly do this," [Caesar says] that "he himself and
 +the Roman people will entertain a perpetual feeling of favor and friendship
 +toward him; but that if he [Caesar] does not obtain [his desires]
 +that he (forasmuch as in the consulship of Marcus Messala and Marcus
 +Piso the senate had decreed that, whoever should have the administration
 +of the province of Gaul should, as far as he could do so consistently
 +with the interests of the republic, protect the Aedui and the other
 +friends of the Roman people), will not overlook the wrongs of the
 +Aedui." ​
 +===== Chapter 36 =====
 +To this Ariovistus replied, that "the right of war was, that they
 +who had conquered should govern those whom they had conquered, in
 +what manner they pleased; that in that way the Roman people were wont
 +to govern the nations which they had conquered, not according to the
 +dictation of any other, but according to their own discretion. If
 +he for his part did not dictate to the Roman people as to the manner
 +in which they were to exercise their right, he ought not to be obstructed
 +by the Roman people in his right; that the Aedui, inasmuch as they
 +had tried the fortune of war and had engaged in arms and been conquered,
 +had become tributaries to him; that Caesar was doing a great injustice,
 +in that by his arrival he was making his revenues less valuable to
 +him; that he should not restore their hostages to the Aedui, but should
 +not make war wrongfully either upon them or their allies, if they
 +abided by that which had been agreed on, and paid their tribute annually:
 +if they did not continue to do that, the Roman people'​s name of '​brothers'​
 +would avail them naught. As to Caesar'​s threatening him, that he would
 +not overlook the wrongs of the Aedui, [he said] that no one had ever
 +entered into a contest with him [Ariovistus] without utter ruin to
 +himself. That Caesar might enter the lists when he chose; he would
 +feel what the invincible Germans, well-trained [as they were] beyond
 +all others to arms, who for fourteen years had not been beneath a
 +roof, could achieve by their valor." ​
 +===== Chapter 37 =====
 +At the same time that this message was delivered to Caesar, embassadors
 +came from the Aedui and the Treviri; from the Aedui to complain that
 +the Harudes, who had lately been brought over into Gaul, were ravaging
 +their territories;​ that they had not been able to purchase peace from
 +Ariovistus, even by giving hostages: and from the Treviri, [to state]
 +that a hundred cantons of the Suevi had encamped on the banks of the
 +Rhine, and were attempting to cross it; that the brothers, Nasuas
 +and Cimberius, headed them. Being greatly alarmed at these things,
 +Caesar thought that he ought to use all dispatch, lest, if this new
 +band of Suevi should unite with the old troops of Ariovistus, he [Ariovistus]
 +might be less easily withstood. Having therefore, as quickly as he
 +could, provided a supply of corn, he hastened to Ariovistus by forced
 +marches. ​
 +===== Chapter 38 =====
 +When he had proceeded three days' journey, word was brought to him
 +that Ariovistus was hastening with all his forces to seize on Vesontio,
 +which is the largest town of the Sequani, and had advanced three days'
 +journey from its territories. Caesar thought that he ought to take
 +the greatest precautions lest this should happen, for there was in
 +that town a most ample supply of every thing which was serviceable
 +for war; and so fortified was it by the nature of the ground, as to
 +afford a great facility for protracting the war, inasmuch as the river
 +Doubs almost surrounds the whole town, as though it were traced round
 +it with a pair of compasses. A mountain of great height shuts in the
 +remaining space, which is not more than 600 feet, where the river
 +leaves a gap, in such a manner that the roots of that mountain extend
 +to the river'​s bank on either side. A wall thrown around it makes
 +a citadel of this [mountain], and connects it with the town. Hither
 +Caesar hastens by forced marches by night and day, and, after having
 +seized the town, stations a garrison there. ​
 +===== Chapter 39 =====
 +While he is tarrying a few days at Vesontio, on account of corn and
 +provisions; from the inquiries of our men and the reports of the Gauls
 +and traders (who asserted that the Germans were men of huge stature,
 +of incredible valor and practice in arms - that oftentimes they, on
 +encountering them, could not bear even their countenance,​ and the
 +fierceness of their eyes) - so great a panic on a sudden seized the
 +whole army, as to discompose the minds and spirits of all in no slight
 +degree. This first arose from the tribunes of the soldiers, the prefects
 +and the rest, who, having followed Caesar from the city [Rome] from
 +motives of friendship, had no great experience in military affairs.
 +And alleging, some of them one reason, some another, which they said
 +made it necessary for them to depart, they requested that by his consent
 +they might be allowed to withdraw; some, influenced by shame, stayed
 +behind in order that they might avoid the suspicion of cowardice.
 +These could neither compose their countenance,​ nor even sometimes
 +check their tears: but hidden in their tents, either bewailed their
 +fate, or deplored with their comrades the general danger. Wills were
 +sealed universally throughout the whole camp. By the expressions and
 +cowardice of these men, even those who possessed great experience
 +in the camp, both soldiers and centurions, and those [the decurions]
 +who were in command of the cavalry, were gradually disconcerted. Such
 +of them as wished to be considered less alarmed, said that they did
 +not dread the enemy, but feared the narrowness of the roads and the
 +vastness of the forests which lay between them and Ariovistus, or
 +else that the supplies could not be brought up readily enough. Some
 +even declared to Caesar, that when he gave orders for the camp to
 +be moved and the troops to advance, the soldiers would not be obedient
 +to the command, nor advance in consequence of their fear.
 +===== Chapter 40 =====
 +When Caesar observed these things, having called a council, and summoned
 +to it the centurions of all the companies, he severely reprimanded
 +them, "​particularly,​ for supposing that it belonged to them to inquire
 +or conjecture, either in what direction they were marching, or with
 +what object. That Ariovistus, during his [Caesar'​s] consulship, had
 +most anxiously sought after the friendship of the Roman people; why
 +should any one judge that he would so rashly depart from his duty?
 +He for his part was persuaded, that, when his demands were known and
 +the fairness of the terms considered, he would reject neither his
 +nor the Roman people'​s favor. But even if, driven on by rage and madness,
 +he should make war upon them, what after all were they afraid of?
 +- or why should they despair either of their own valor or of his zeal?
 +Of that enemy a trial had been made within our fathers'​ recollection,​
 +when, on the defeat of the Cimbri and Teutones by Caius Marius, the
 +army was regarded as having deserved no less praise than their commander
 +himself. It had been made lately, too, in Italy, during the rebellion
 +of the slaves, whom, however, the experience and training which they
 +had received from us, assisted in some respect. From which a judgment
 +might be formed of the advantages which resolution carries with it
 +inasmuch as those whom for some time they had groundlessly dreaded
 +when unarmed, they had afterward vanquished, when well armed and flushed
 +with success. In short, that these were the same men whom the Helvetii,
 +in frequent encounters, not only in their own territories,​ but also
 +in theirs [the German], have generally vanquished, and yet can not
 +have been a match for our army. If the unsuccessful battle and flight
 +of the Gauls disquieted any, these, if they made inquiries, might
 +discover that, when the Gauls had been tired out by the long duration
 +of the war, Ariovistus, after he had many months kept himself in his
 +camp and in the marshes, and had given no opportunity for an engagement,
 +fell suddenly upon them, by this time despairing of a battle and scattered
 +in all directions, and was victorious more through stratagem and cunning
 +than valor. But though there had been room for such stratagem against
 +savage and unskilled men, not even [Ariovistus] himself expected that
 +thereby our armies could be entrapped. That those who ascribed their
 +fear to a pretense about the [deficiency of] supplies and the narrowness
 +of the roads, acted presumptuously,​ as they seemed either to distrust
 +their general'​s discharge of his duty, or to dictate to him. That
 +these things were his concern; that the Sequani, the Leuci, and the
 +Lingones were to furnish the corn; and that it was already ripe in
 +the fields; that as to the road they would soon be able to judge for
 +themselves. As to its being reported that the soldiers would not be
 +obedient to command, or advance, he was not at all disturbed at that;
 +for he knew, that in the case of all those whose army had not been
 +obedient to command, either upon some mismanagement of an affair,
 +fortune had deserted them, or, that upon some crime being discovered,
 +covetousness had been clearly proved [against them]. His integrity
 +had been seen throughout his whole life, his good fortune in the war
 +with the Helvetii. That he would therefore instantly set about what
 +he had intended to put off till a more distant day, and would break
 +up his camp the next night, in the fourth watch, that he might ascertain,
 +as soon as possible, whether a sense of honor and duty, or whether
 +fear had more influence with them. But that, if no one else should
 +follow, yet he would go with only the tenth legion, of which he had
 +no misgivings, and it should be his praetorian cohort."​ This legion
 +Caesar had both greatly favored, and in it, on account of its valor,
 +placed the greatest confidence. ​
 +===== Chapter 41 =====
 +Upon the delivery of this speech, the minds of all were changed in
 +a surprising manner, and the highest ardor and eagerness for prosecuting
 +the war were engendered; and the tenth legion was the first to return
 +thanks to him, through their military tribunes, for his having expressed
 +this most favorable opinion of them; and assured him that they were
 +quite ready to prosecute the war. Then, the other legions endeavored,
 +through their military tribunes and the centurions of the principal
 +companies, to excuse themselves to Caesar, [saying] that they had
 +never either doubted or feared, or supposed that the determination
 +of the conduct of the war was theirs and not their general'​s. Having
 +accepted their excuse, and having had the road carefully reconnoitered
 +by Divitiacus, because in him of all others he had the greatest faith
 +[he found] that by a circuitous route of more than fifty miles he
 +might lead his army through open parts; he then set out in the fourth
 +watch, as he had said [he would]. On the seventh day, as he did not
 +discontinue his march, he was informed by scouts that the forces of
 +Ariovistus were only four and twenty miles distant from ours.
 +===== Chapter 42 =====
 +Upon being apprized of Caesar'​s arrival, Ariovistus sends embassadors
 +to him, [saying] that what he had before requested as to a conference,
 +might now, as far as his permission went, take place, since he [Caesar]
 +had approached nearer, and he considered that he might now do it without
 +danger. Caesar did not reject the proposal and began to think that
 +he was now returning to a rational state of mind as he spontaneously
 +proffered that which he had previously refused to him when requesting
 +it; and was in great hopes that, in consideration of his own and the
 +Roman people'​s great favors toward him, the issue would be that he
 +would desist from his obstinacy upon his demands being made known.
 +The fifth day after that was appointed as the day of conference. Meanwhile,
 +as ambassadors were being often sent to and fro between them, Ariovistus
 +demanded that Caesar should not bring any foot-soldier with him to
 +the conference, [saying] that "he was afraid of being ensnared by
 +him through treachery; that both should come accompanied by cavalry;
 +that he would not come on any other condition."​ Caesar, as he neither
 +wished that the conference should, by an excuse thrown in the way,
 +be set aside, nor durst trust his life to the cavalry of the Gauls,
 +decided that it would be most expedient to take away from the Gallic
 +cavalry all their horses, and thereon to mount the legionary soldiers
 +of the tenth legion, in which he placed the greatest confidence, in
 +order that he might have a body-guard as trustworthy as possible,
 +should there be any need for action. And when this was done, one of
 +the soldiers of the tenth legion said, not without a touch of humor,
 +"that Caesar did more for them than he had promised; he had promised
 +to have the tenth legion in place of his praetorian cohort; but he
 +now converted them into horse." ​
 +===== Chapter 43 =====
 +There was a large plain, and in it a mound of earth of considerable
 +size. This spot was at nearly an equal distance from both camps. Thither,
 +as had been appointed, they came for the conference. Caesar stationed
 +the legion, which he had brought [with him] on horseback, 200 paces
 +from this mound. The cavalry of Ariovistus also took their stand at
 +an equal distance. Ariovistus then demanded that they should confer
 +on horseback, and that, besides themselves, they should bring with
 +them ten men each to the conference. When they were come to the place,
 +Caesar, in the opening of his speech, detailed his own and the senate'​s
 +favors toward him [Ariovistus],​ in that he had been styled king, in
 +that [he had been styled] friend, by the senate - in that very considerable
 +presents had been sent him; which circumstance he informed him had
 +both fallen to the lot of few, and had usually been bestowed in consideration
 +of important personal services; that he, although he had neither an
 +introduction,​ nor a just ground for the request, had obtained these
 +honors through the kindness and munificence of himself [Caesar] and
 +the senate. He informed him too, how old and how just were the grounds
 +of connection that existed between themselves [the Romans] and the
 +Aedui, what decrees of the senate had been passed in their favor,
 +and how frequent and how honorable; how from time immemorial the Aedui
 +had held the supremacy of the whole of Gaul; even [said Caesar] before
 +they had sought our friendship; that it was the custom of the Roman
 +people to desire not only that its allies and friends should lose
 +none of their property, but be advanced in influence, dignity, and
 +honor: who then could endure that what they had brought with them
 +to the friendship of the Roman people should be torn from them?" He
 +then made the same demands which he had commissioned the embassadors
 +to make, that [Ariovistus] should not make war either upon the Aedui
 +or their allies, that he should restore the hostages; that if he could
 +not send back to their country any part of the Germans, he should
 +at all events suffer none of them any more to cross the Rhine.
 +===== Chapter 44 =====
 +Ariovistus briefly replied to the demands of Caesar; but expatiated
 +largely on his own virtues, "that he had crossed the Rhine not of
 +his own accord, but on being invited and sent for by the Gauls; that
 +he had not left home and kindred without great expectations and great
 +rewards; that he had settlements in Gaul, granted by the Gauls themselves;
 +that the hostages had been given by their good-will; that he took
 +by right of war the tribute which conquerors are accustomed to impose
 +on the conquered; that he had not made war upon the Gauls, but the
 +Gauls upon him; that all the states of Gaul came to attack him, and
 +had encamped against him; that all their forces had been routed and
 +beaten by him in a single battle; that if they chose to make a second
 +trial, he was ready to encounter them again; but if they chose to
 +enjoy peace, it was unfair to refuse the tribute, which of their own
 +free-will they had paid up to that time. That the friendship of the
 +Roman people ought to prove to him an ornament and a safeguard, not
 +a detriment; and that he sought it with that expectation. But if through
 +the Roman people the tribute was to be discontinued,​ and those who
 +surrendered to be seduced from him, he would renounce the friendship
 +of the Roman people no less heartily than he had sought it. As to
 +his leading over a host of Germans into Gaul, that he was doing this
 +with a view of securing himself, not of assaulting Gaul: that there
 +was evidence of this, in that he did not come without being invited,
 +and in that he did not make war, but merely warded it off. That he
 +had come into Gaul before the Roman people. That never before this
 +time did a Roman army go beyond the frontiers of the province of Gaul.
 +What [said he] does [Caesar] desire? - why come into his [Ariovistus]
 +domains? - that this was his province of Gaul, just as that is ours.
 +As it ought not to be pardoned in him, if he were to make an attack
 +upon our territories;​ so, likewise, that we were unjust, to obstruct
 +him in his prerogative. As for Caesar'​s saying that the Aedui had
 +been styled '​brethren'​ by the senate, he was not so uncivilized nor
 +so ignorant of affairs, as not to know that the Aedui in the very
 +last war with the Allobroges had neither rendered assistance to the
 +Romans, nor received any from the Roman people in the struggles which
 +the Aedui had been maintaining with him and with the Sequani. He must
 +feel suspicious, that Caesar, though feigning friendship as the reason
 +for his keeping an army in Gaul, was keeping it with the view of crushing
 +him. And that unless he depart and withdraw his army from these parts,
 +he shall regard him not as a friend, but as a foe; and that, even
 +if he should put him to death, he should do what would please many
 +of the nobles and leading men of the Roman people; he had assurance
 +of that from themselves through their messengers, and could purchase
 +the favor and the friendship of them all by his [Caesar'​s] death.
 +But if he would depart and resign to him the free possession of Gaul,
 +he would recompense him with a great reward, and would bring to a
 +close whatever wars he wished to be carried on, without any trouble
 +or risk to him." ​
 +===== Chapter 45 =====
 +Many things were stated by Caesar to the effect [to show]; "why he
 +could not waive the business, and that neither his nor the Roman people'​s
 +practice would suffer him to abandon most meritorious allies, nor
 +did he deem that Gaul belonged to Ariovistus rather than to the Roman
 +people; that the Arverni and the Ruteni had been subdued in war by
 +Quintus Fabius Maximus, and that the Roman people had pardoned them
 +and had not reduced them into a province or imposed a tribute upon
 +them. And if the most ancient period was to be regarded - then was
 +the sovereignty of the Roman people in Gaul most just: if the decree
 +of the Senate was to be observed, then ought Gaul to be free, which
 +they [the Romans] had conquered in war, and had permitted to enjoy
 +its own laws." ​
 +===== Chapter 46 =====
 +While these things are being transacted in the conference it was announced
 +to Caesar that the cavalry of Ariovistus were approaching nearer the
 +mound, and were riding up to our men, and casting stones and weapons
 +at them. Caesar made an end of his speech and betook himself to his
 +men; and commanded them that they should by no means return a weapon
 +upon the enemy. For though he saw that an engagement with the cavalry
 +would be without any danger to his chosen legion, yet he did not think
 +proper to engage, lest, after the enemy were routed, it might be said
 +that they had been insnared by him under the sanction of a conference.
 +When it was spread abroad among the common soldiery with what haughtiness
 +Ariovistus had behaved at the conference, and how he had ordered the
 +Romans to quit Gaul, and how his cavalry had made an attack upon our
 +men, and how this had broken off the conference, a much greater alacrity
 +and eagerness for battle was infused into our army. 
 +===== Chapter 47 =====
 +Two days after, Ariovistus sends embassadors to Caesar, to state "that
 +he wished to treat with him about those things which had been begun
 +to be treated of between them, but had not been concluded;"​ [and to
 +beg] that "he would either again appoint a day for a conference; or,
 +if he were not willing to do that, that he would send one of his [officers]
 +as an embassador to him." There did not appear to Caesar any good
 +reason for holding a conference; and the more so as the day before
 +the Germans could not be restrained from casting weapons at our men.
 +He thought he should not without great danger send to him as embassador
 +one of his [Roman] officers, and should expose him to savage men.
 +It seemed [therefore] most proper to send to him C. Valerius Procillus,
 +the son of C. Valerius Caburus, a young man of the highest courage
 +and accomplishments (whose father had been presented with the freedom
 +of the city by C. Valerius Flaccus), both on account of his fidelity
 +and on account of his knowledge of the Gallic language, which Ariovistus,
 +by long practice, now spoke fluently; and because in his case the
 +Germans would have no motive for committing violence; and [as his
 +colleague] M. Mettius, who had shared the hospitality of Ariovistus.
 +He commissioned them to learn what Ariovistus had to say, and to report
 +to him. But when Ariovistus saw them before him in his camp, he cried
 +out in the presence of his army, "Why were they come to him? Was it
 +for the purpose of acting as spies?"​ He stopped them when attempting
 +to speak, and cast them into chains. ​
 +===== Chapter 48 =====
 +The same day he moved his camp forward and pitched under a hill six
 +miles from Caesar'​s camp. The day following he led his forces past
 +Caesar'​s camp, and encamped two miles beyond him; with this design
 +that he might cut off Caesar from the corn and provisions, which might
 +be conveyed to him from the Sequani and the Aedui. For five successive
 +days from that day, Caesar drew out his forces before the camp, and
 +put them in battle order, that, if Ariovistus should be willing to
 +engage in battle, an opportunity might not be wanting to him. Ariovistus
 +all this time kept his army in camp: but engaged daily in cavalry
 +skirmishes. The method of battle in which the Germans had practiced
 +themselves was this. There were 6,000 horse, and as many very active
 +and courageous foot, one of whom each of the horse selected out of
 +the whole army for his own protection. By these [foot] they were constantly
 +accompanied in their engagements;​ to these the horse retired; these
 +on any emergency rushed forward; if any one, upon receiving a very
 +severe wound, had fallen from his horse, they stood around him: if
 +it was necessary to advance further than usual, or to retreat more
 +rapidly, so great, from practice, was their swiftness, that, supported
 +by the manes of the horses, they could keep pace with their speed.
 +===== Chapter 49 =====
 +Perceiving that Ariovistus kept himself in camp, Caesar, that he might
 +not any longer be cut off from provisions, chose a convenient position
 +for a camp beyond that place in which the Germans had encamped, at
 +about 600 paces from them, and having drawn up his army in three lines,
 +marched to that place. He ordered the first and second lines to be
 +under arms; the third to fortify the camp. This place was distant
 +from the enemy about 600 paces, as has been stated. Thither Ariovistus
 +sent light troops, about 16,000 men in number, with all his cavalry;
 +which forces were to intimidate our men, and hinder them in their
 +fortification. Caesar nevertheless,​ as he had before arranged, ordered
 +two lines to drive off the enemy: the third to execute the work. The
 +camp being fortified, he left there two legions and a portion of the
 +auxiliaries;​ and led back the other four legions into the larger camp.
 +===== Chapter 50 =====
 +The next day, according to his custom, Caesar led out his forces from
 +both camps, and having advanced a little from the larger one, drew
 +up his line of battle, and gave the enemy an opportunity of fighting.
 +When he found that they did not even then come out [from their intrenchments,​]
 +he led back his army into camp about noon. Then at last Ariovistus
 +sent part of his forces to attack the lesser camp. The battle was
 +vigorously maintained on both sides till the evening. At sunset, after
 +many wounds had been inflicted and received, Ariovistus led back his
 +forces into camp. When Caesar inquired of his prisoners, wherefore
 +Ariovistus did not come to an engagement, he discovered this to be
 +the reason - that among the Germans it was the custom for their matrons
 +to pronounce from lots and divination, whether it were expedient that
 +the battle should be engaged in or not; that they had said, "that
 +it was not the will of heaven that the Germans should conquer, if
 +they engaged in battle before the new moon." ​
 +===== Chapter 51 =====
 +The day following, Caesar left what seemed sufficient as a guard for
 +both camps; [and then] drew up all the auxiliaries in sight of the
 +enemy, before the lesser camp, because he was not very powerful in
 +the number of legionary soldiers, considering the number of the enemy;
 +that [thereby] he might make use of his auxiliaries for appearance.
 +He himself, having drawn up his army in three lines, advanced to the
 +camp of the enemy. Then at last of necessity the Germans drew their
 +forces out of camp, and disposed them canton by canton, at equal distances,
 +the Harudes, Marcomanni, Tribocci, Vangiones, Nemetes, Sedusii, Suevi;
 +and surrounded their whole army with their chariots and wagons, that
 +no hope might be left in flight. On these they placed their women,
 +who, with disheveled hair and in tears, entreated the soldiers, as
 +they went forward to battle, not to deliver them into slavery to the
 +Romans. ​
 +===== Chapter 52 =====
 +Caesar appointed over each legion a lieutenant and a questor, that
 +every one might have them as witnesses of his valor. He himself began
 +the battle at the head of the right wing, because he had observed
 +that part of the enemy to be the least strong. Accordingly our men,
 +upon the signal being given, vigorously made an attack upon the enemy,
 +and the enemy so suddenly and rapidly rushed forward, that there was
 +no time for casting the javelins at them. Throwing aside [therefore]
 +their javelins, they fought with swords hand to hand. But the Germans,
 +according to their custom, rapidly forming a phalanx, sustained the
 +attack of our swords. There were found very many of our soldiers who
 +leaped upon the phalanx, and with their hands tore away the shields,
 +and wounded the enemy from above. Although the army of the enemy was
 +routed on the left wing and put to flight, they [still] pressed heavily
 +on our men from the right wing, by the great number of their troops.
 +On observing which, P. Crassus, a young man, who commanded the cavalry
 +- as he was more disengaged than those who were employed in the fight
 +- sent the third line as a relief to our men who were in distress.
 +===== Chapter 53 =====
 +Thereupon the engagement was renewed, and all the enemy turned their
 +backs, nor did they cease to flee until they arrived at the river
 +Rhine, about fifty miles from that place. There some few, either relying
 +on their strength, endeavored to swim over, or, finding boats, procured
 +their safety. Among the latter was Ariovistus, who meeting with a
 +small vessel tied to the bank, escaped in it; our horse pursued and
 +slew all the rest of them. Ariovistus had two wives, one a Suevan
 +by nation, whom he brought with him from home; the other a Norican,
 +the sister of king Vocion, whom he had married in Gaul, she having
 +been sent [thither for that purpose] by her brother. Both perished
 +in that flight. Of their two daughters, one was slain, the other captured.
 +C. Valerius Procillus, as he was being dragged by his guards in the
 +fight, bound with a triple chain, fell into the hands of Caesar himself,
 +as he was pursuing the enemy with his cavalry. This circumstance indeed
 +afforded Caesar no less pleasure than the victory itself; because
 +he saw a man of the first rank in the province of Gaul, his intimate
 +acquaintance and friend, rescued from the hand of the enemy, and restored
 +to him, and that fortune had not diminished aught of the joy and exultation
 +[of that day] by his destruction. He [Procillus] said that, in his
 +own presence, the lots had been thrice consulted respecting him, whether
 +he should immediately be put to death by fire, or be reserved for
 +another time: that by the favor of the lots he was uninjured. M. Mettius,
 +also, was found and brought back to him [Caesar.] ​
 +===== Chapter 54 =====
 +This battle having been reported beyond the Rhine, the Suevi, who
 +had come to the banks of that river, began to return home, when the
 +Ubii, who dwelt nearest to the Rhine, pursuing them, while much alarmed,
 +slew a great number of them. Caesar having concluded two very important
 +wars in one campaign, conducted his army into winter quarters among
 +the Sequani, a little earlier than the season of the year required.
 +He appointed Labienus over the winter-quarters,​ and set out in person
 +for Hither Gaul to hold the assizes. ​
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