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de_bello_gallico_2 [2018/04/21 03:30] (current)
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 +====== The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar 2 ======
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​02 The Gallic Wars, II.mp3">​Book 2 In Audio (alt version not a transcription)</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​​player.js"></​script></​html>​
 +(57 B.C.)
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +While Caesar was in winter quarters in Hither Gaul, as we have shown
 +above, frequent reports were brought to him, and he was also informed
 +by letters from Labienus, that all the Belgae, who we have said are
 +a third part of Gaul, were entering into a confederacy against the
 +Roman people, and giving hostages to one another; that the reasons
 +of the confederacy were these - first, because they feared that, after
 +all [Celtic] Gaul was subdued, our army would be led against them;
 +secondly, because they were instigated by several of the Gauls; some
 +of whom as [on the one hand] they had been unwilling that the Germans
 +should remain any longer in Gaul, so [on the other] they were dissatisfied
 +that the army of the Roman people should pass the winter in it, and
 +settle there; and others of them, from a natural instability and fickleness
 +of disposition,​ were anxious for a revolution; [the Belgae were instigated]
 +by several, also, because the government in Gaul was generally seized
 +upon by the more powerful persons and by those who had the means of
 +hiring troops, and they could less easily effect this object under
 +our dominion. ​
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +Alarmed by these tidings and letters, Caesar levied two new legions
 +in Hither Gaul, and, at the beginning of summer, sent Q. Pedius, his
 +lieutenant, to conduct them further into Gaul. He, himself, as soon
 +as there began to be plenty of forage, came to the army. He gives
 +a commission to the Senones and the other Gauls who were neighbors
 +of the Belgae, to learn what is going on among them [i.e. the Belgae],
 +and inform him of these matters. These all uniformly reported that
 +troops were being raised, and that an army was being collected in
 +one place. Then, indeed, he thought that he ought not to hesitate
 +about proceeding toward them, and having provided supplies, moves
 +his camp, and in about fifteen days arrives at the territories of
 +the Belgae. ​
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +As he arrived there unexpectedly and sooner than any one anticipated,​
 +the Remi, who are the nearest of the Belgae to [Celtic] Gaul, sent
 +to him Iccius and Antebrogius,​ [two of] the principal persons of the
 +state, as their embassadors:​ to tell him that they surrendered themselves
 +and all their possessions to the protection and disposal of the Roman
 +people: and that they had neither combined with the rest of the Belgae,
 +nor entered into any confederacy against the Roman people: and were
 +prepared to give hostages, to obey his commands, to receive him into
 +their towns, and to aid him with corn and other things; that all the
 +rest of the Belgae were in arms; and that the Germans, who dwell on
 +this side of the Rhine, had joined themselves to them; and that so
 +great was the infatuation of them all, that they could not restrain
 +even the Suessiones, their own brethren and kinsmen, who enjoy the
 +same rights, and the, same laws, and who have one government and one
 +magistracy [in common] with themselves, from uniting with them.
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +When Caesar inquired of them what states were in arms, how powerful
 +they were, and what they could do, in war, he received the following
 +information:​ that the greater part of the Belgae were sprung, from
 +the Germans, and that having crossed the Rhine at an early period,
 +they had settled there, on account of the fertility of the country,
 +and had driven out the Gauls who inhabited those regions; and that
 +they were the only people who, in the memory of our fathers, when
 +all Gaul was overrun, had prevented the Teutones and the Cimbri from
 +entering their territories;​ the effect of which was, that, from the
 +recollection of those events, they assumed to themselves great authority
 +and haughtiness in military matters. The Remi said, that they had
 +known accurately every thing respecting their number, because being
 +united to them by neighborhood and by alliances, they had learned
 +what number each state had in the general council of the Belgae promised
 +for that war. That the Bellovaci were the most powerful among them
 +in valor, influence, and the number of men; that these could muster
 +100,000 armed men, [and had] promised 60,000 picked men out of that
 +number, and demanded for themselves the command of the whole war.
 +That the Suessiones were their nearest neighbors and possessed a very
 +extensive and fertile country; that among them, even in our own memory,
 +Divitiacus, the most powerful man of all Gaul, had been king; who
 +had held the government of a great part of these regions, as well
 +as of Britain; that their king at present was Galba; that the direction
 +of the whole war was conferred by the consent of all, upon him, on
 +account of his integrity and prudence; that they had twelve towns;
 +that they had promised 50,000 armed men; and that the Nervii, who
 +are reckoned the most warlike among them, and are situated at a very
 +great distance, [had promised] as many; the Atrebates 15,000; the
 +Ambiani, 10,000; the Morini, 25,000; the Menapii, 9,000; the Caleti,
 +10,000; the Velocasses and the Veromandui as many; the Aduatuci 19,000;
 +that the Condrusi, the Eburones, the Caeraesi, the Paemani, who are
 +called by the common name of Germans [had promised], they thought,
 +to the number of 40,​000. ​
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +Caesar, having encouraged the Remi, and addressed them courteously,​
 +ordered the whole senate to assemble before him, and the children
 +of their chief men to be brought to him as hostages; all which commands
 +they punctually performed by the day [appointed]. He, addressing himself
 +to Divitiacus, the Aeduan, with great earnestness,​ points out how
 +much it concerns the republic and their common security, that the
 +forces of the enemy should be divided, so that it might not be necessary
 +to engage with so large a number at one time. [He asserts] that this
 +might be affected if the Aedui would lead their forces into the territories
 +of the Bellovaci, and begin to lay waste their country. With these
 +instructions he dismissed him from his presence. After he perceived
 +that all the forces of the Belgae, which had been collected in one
 +place, were approaching toward him, and learned from the scouts whom
 +he had sent out, and [also] from the Remi, that they were then not
 +far distant, he hastened to lead his army over the Aisne, which is
 +on the borders of the Remi, and there pitched his camp. This position
 +fortified one side of his camp by the banks of the river, rendered
 +the country which lay in his rear secure from the enemy, and furthermore
 +insured that provisions might without danger be brought to him by
 +the Remi and the rest of the states. Over that river was a bridge:
 +there he places a guard; and on the other side of the river he leaves
 +Q. Titurius Sabinus, his lieutenant, with six cohorts. He orders him
 +to fortify a camp with a rampart twelve feet in height, and a trench
 +eighteen feet in breadth. ​
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +There was a town of the Remi, by name Bibrax, eight miles distant
 +from this camp. This the Belgae on their march began to attack with
 +great vigor. [The assault] was with difficulty sustained for that
 +day. The Gauls' mode of besieging is the same as that of the Belgae:
 +when after having drawn a large number of men around the whole of
 +the fortifications,​ stones have begun to be cast against the wall
 +on all sides, and the wall has been stripped of its defenders, [then],
 +forming a testudo, they advance to the gates and undermine the wall:
 +which was easily effected on this occasion; for while so large a number
 +were casting stones and darts, no one was able to maintain his position
 +upon the wall. When night had put an end to the assault, Iccius, who
 +was then in command of the town, one of the Remi, a man of the highest
 +rank and influence among his people, and one of those who had come
 +to Caesar as embassador [to sue] for peace, sends messengers to him,
 +[to report] "That, unless assistance were sent to him he could not
 +hold out any longer." ​
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +Thither, immediately after midnight, Caesar, using as guides the same
 +persons who had come to him as messengers from Iccius, sends some
 +Numidian and Cretan archers, and some Balearian slingers as a relief
 +to the towns-people,​ by whose arrival both a desire to resist together
 +with the hope of [making good their] defense, was infused into the
 +Remi, and, for the same reason, the hope of gaining the town, abandoned
 +the enemy. Therefore, after staying a short time before the town,
 +and laying waste the country of the Remi, when all the villages and
 +buildings which they could approach had been burned, they hastened
 +with all their forces to the camp of Caesar, and encamped within less
 +than two miles [of it]; and their camp, as was indicated by the smoke
 +and fires, extended more than eight miles in breadth. ​
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +Caesar at first determined to decline a battle, as well on account
 +of the great number of the enemy as their distinguished reputation
 +for valor: daily, however, in cavalry actions, he strove to ascertain
 +by frequent trials, what the enemy could effect by their prowess and
 +what our men would dare. When he perceived that our men were not inferior,
 +as the place before the camp was naturally convenient and suitable
 +for marshaling an army (since the hill where the camp was pitched,
 +rising gradually from the plain, extended forward in breadth as far
 +as the space which the marshaled army could occupy, and had steep
 +declines of its side in either direction, and gently sloping in front
 +gradually sank to the plain); on either side of that hill he drew
 +a cross trench of about four hundred paces, and at the extremities
 +of that trench built forts, and placed there his military engines,
 +lest, after he had marshaled his army, the enemy, since they were
 +so powerful in point of number, should be able to surround his men
 +in the flank, while fighting. After doing this, and leaving in the
 +camp the two legions which he had last raised, that, if there should
 +be any occasion, they might be brought as a reserve, he formed the
 +other six legions in order of battle before the camp. The enemy, likewise,
 +had drawn up their forces which they had brought out of the camp.
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +There was a marsh of no great extent between our army and that of
 +the enemy. The latter were waiting to see if our men would pass this;
 +our men, also, were ready in arms to attack them while disordered,
 +if the first attempt to pass should be made by them. In the mean time
 +battle was commenced between the two armies by a cavalry action. When
 +neither army began to pass the marsh, Caesar, upon the skirmishes
 +of the horse [proving] favorable to our men, led back his forces into
 +the camp. The enemy immediately hastened from that place to the river
 +Aisne, which it has been; stated was behind our camp. Finding a ford
 +there, they endeavored to lead a part of their forces over it; with
 +the design, that, if they could, they might carry by storm the fort
 +which Q. Titurius, Caesar'​s lieutenant, commanded, and might cut off
 +the bridge; but, if they could not do that, they should lay waste
 +the lands of the Remi, which were of great use to us in carrying on
 +the war, and might hinder our men from foraging. ​
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +Caesar, being apprized of this by Titurius, leads all his cavalry
 +and light-armed Numidians, slingers and archers, over the bridge,
 +and hastens toward them. There was a severe struggle in that place.
 +Our men, attacking in the river the disordered enemy, slew a great
 +part of them. By the immense number of their missiles they drove back
 +the rest, who, in a most courageous manner were attempting to pass
 +over their bodies, and surrounded with their cavalry, and cut to pieces
 +those who had first crossed the river. The enemy, when they perceived
 +that their hopes had deceived them both with regard to their taking
 +the town by storm and also their passing the river, and did not see
 +our men advance to a more disadvantageous place for the purpose of
 +fighting, and when provisions began to fail them, having called a
 +council, determined that it was best for each to return to his country,
 +and resolved to assemble from all quarters to defend those into whose
 +territories the Romans should first march an army; that they might
 +contend in their own rather than in a foreign country, and might enjoy
 +the stores of provision which they possessed at home. Together with
 +other causes, this consideration also led them to that resolution,
 +viz: that they had learned that Divitiacus and the Aedui were approaching
 +the territories of the Bellovaci. And it was impossible to persuade
 +the latter to stay any longer, or to deter them from conveying succor
 +to their own people. ​
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +That matter being determined on, marching out of their camp at the
 +second watch, with great noise and confusion, in no fixed order, nor
 +under any command, since each sought for himself the foremost place
 +in the journey, and hastened to reach home, they made their departure
 +appear very like a flight. Caesar, immediately learning this through
 +his scouts, [but] fearing an ambuscade, because he had not yet discovered
 +for what reason they were departing, kept his army and cavalry within
 +the camp. At daybreak, the intelligence having been confirmed by the
 +scouts, he sent forward his cavalry to harass their rear; and gave
 +the command of it to two of his lieutenants,​ Q. Pedius, and L. Aurunculeius
 +Cotta. He ordered T. Labienus, another of his lieutenants,​ to follow
 +them closely with three legions. These, attacking their rear, and
 +pursuing them for many miles, slew a great number of them as they
 +were fleeing; while those in the rear with whom they had come up,
 +halted, and bravely sustained the attack of our soldiers; the van,
 +because they appeared to be removed from danger, and were not restrained
 +by any necessity or command, as soon as the noise was heard, broke
 +their ranks, and, to a man, rested their safety in flight. Thus without
 +any risk [to themselves] our men killed as great a number of them
 +as the length of the day allowed; and at sunset desisted from the
 +pursuit, and betook themselves into the camp, as they had been commanded.
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +On the day following, before the enemy could recover from their terror
 +and flight, Caesar led his army into the territories of the Suessiones,
 +which are next to the Remi, and having accomplished a long march,
 +hastens to the town named Noviodunum. Having attempted to take it
 +by storm on his march, because he heard that it was destitute of [sufficient]
 +defenders, he was not able to carry it by assault, on account of the
 +breadth of the ditch and the height of the wall, though few were defending
 +it. Therefore, having fortified the camp, he began to bring up the
 +vineae, and to provide whatever things were necessary for the storm.
 +In the mean time the whole body of the Suessiones, after their flight,
 +came the next night into the town. The vineae having been quickly
 +brought up against the town, a mound thrown up, and towers built,
 +the Gauls, amazed by the greatness of the works, such as they had
 +neither seen nor heard of before, and struck also by the dispatch
 +of the Romans, send embassadors to Caesar respecting a surrender,
 +and succeed in consequence of the Remi requesting that they [the Suessiones]
 +might be spared. ​
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +Caesar, having received as hostages the first men of the state, and
 +even the two sons of king Galba himself; and all the arms in the town
 +having been delivered up, admitted the Suessiones to a surrender,
 +and led his army against the Bellovaci. Who, when they had conveyed
 +themselves and all their possessions into the town Galled Bratuspantium,​
 +and Caesar with his army was about five miles distant from that town,
 +all the old men, going out of the town, began to stretch out their
 +hands to Caesar, and to intimate by their voice that they would throw
 +themselves on his protection and power, nor would contend in arms
 +against the Roman people. In like manner, when he had come up to the
 +town, and there pitched his camp, the boys and the women from the
 +wall, with outstretched hands, after their custom, begged peace from
 +the Romans. ​
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +For these Divitiacus pleads (for after the departure of the Belgae,
 +having dismissed the troops of the Aedui, he had returned to Caesar).
 +"The Bellovaci had at all times been in the alliance and friendship
 +of the Aeduan state; that they had revolted from the Aedui and made
 +war upon the Roman people, being urged thereto by their nobles, who
 +said that the Aedui, reduced to slavery by Caesar, were suffering
 +every indignity and insult. That they who had been the leaders of
 +that plot, because they perceived how great a calamity they had brought
 +upon the state, had fled into Britain. That not only the Bellovaci,
 +but also the Aedui, entreated him to use his [accustomed] clemency
 +and lenity toward them [the Bellovaci]: which if he did, he would
 +increase the influence of the Aedui among all the Belgae, by whose
 +succor and resources they had been accustomed to support themselves
 +whenever any wars occurred." ​
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +Caesar said that on account of his respect for Divitiacus and the
 +Aeduans, he would receive them into his protection, and would spare
 +them; but, because the state was of great influence among the Belgae,
 +and pre-eminent in the number of its population, he demanded 600 hostages.
 +When these were delivered, and all the arms in the town collected,
 +he went from that place into the territories of the Ambiani, who,
 +without delay, surrendered themselves and all their possessions. Upon
 +their territories bordered the Nervii, concerning whose character
 +and customs when Caesar inquired he received the following information:​
 +- That there was no access for merchants to them; that they suffered
 +no wine and other things tending to luxury to be imported; because,
 +they thought that by their use the mind is enervated and the courage
 +impaired: that they were a savage people and of great bravery: that
 +they upbraided and condemned the rest of the Belgae who had surrendered
 +themselves to the Roman people and thrown aside their national courage:
 +that they openly declared they would neither send embassadors,​ nor
 +accept any condition of peace." ​
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +After he had made three days march through their territories,​ he discovered
 +from some prisoners, that the river Sambre was not more than ten miles
 +from his camp; that all the Nervii had stationed themselves on the
 +other side of that river, and together with the Atrebates and the
 +Veromandui, their neighbors, were there awaiting the arrival of the
 +Romans; for they had persuaded both these nations to try the same
 +fortune of war [as themselves]:​ that the forces of the Aduatuci were
 +also expected by them, and were on their march; that they had put
 +their women, and those who through age appeared useless for war, in
 +a place to which there was no approach for an army, on account of
 +the marshes. ​
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +Having learned these things, he sends forward scouts and centurions
 +to choose a convenient place for the camp. And as a great many of
 +the surrounding Belgae and other Gauls, following Caesar, marched
 +with him; some of these, as was afterwards learned from the prisoners,
 +having accurately observed, during those days, the army's method of
 +marching, went by night to the Nervii, and informed them that a great
 +number of baggage-trains passed between the several legions, and that
 +there would be no difficulty, when the first legion had come into
 +the camp, and the other legions were at a great distance, to attack
 +that legion while under baggage, which being routed, and the baggage-train
 +seized, it would come to pass that the other legions would not dare
 +to stand their ground. It added weight also to the advice of those
 +who reported that circumstance,​ that the Nervii, from early times,
 +because they were weak in cavalry, (for not even at this time do they
 +attend to it, but accomplish by their infantry whatever they can,)
 +in order that they might the more easily obstruct the cavalry of their
 +neighbors if they came upon them for the purpose of plundering, having
 +cut young trees, and bent them, by means of their numerous branches
 +[extending] on to the sides, and the quick-briars and thorns springing
 +up between them, had made these hedges present a fortification like
 +a wall, through which it was not only impossible to enter, but even
 +to penetrate with the eye. Since [therefore] the march of our army
 +would be obstructed by these things, the Nervii thought that the advice
 +ought not to be neglected by them. 
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +The nature of the ground which our men had chosen for the camp was
 +this: A hill, declining evenly from the top, extending to the river
 +Sambre, which we have mentioned above: from this river there arose
 +a [second] hill of like ascent, on the other side and opposite to
 +the former, and open for about 200 paces at the lower part; but in
 +the upper part, woody, (so much so) that it was not easy to see through
 +it into the interior. Within these woods the enemy kept themselves
 +in concealment;​ a few troops of horse-soldiers appeared on the open
 +ground, along the river. The depth of the river was about three feet.
 +===== Chapter 19 =====
 +Caesar, having sent his cavalry on before, followed close after them
 +with all his forces; but the plan and order of the march was different
 +from that which the Belgae had reported to the Nervii. For as he was
 +approaching the enemy, Caesar, according to his custom, led on [as
 +the van six legions unencumbered by baggage; behind them he had placed
 +the baggage- trains of the whole army; then the two legions which
 +had been last raised closed the rear, and were a guard for the baggage-train.
 +Our horse, with the slingers and archers, having passed the river,
 +commenced action with the cavalry of the enemy. While they from time
 +to time betook themselves into the woods to their companions, and
 +again made an assault out of the wood upon our men, who did not dare
 +to follow them in their retreat further than the limit to which the
 +plain and open parts extended, in the mean time the six legions which
 +had arrived first, having measured out the work, began to fortify
 +the camp. When the first part of the baggage train of our army was
 +seen by those who lay hid in the woods, which had been agreed on among
 +them as the time for commencing action, as soon as they had arranged
 +their line of battle and formed their ranks within the woods, and
 +had encouraged one another, they rushed out suddenly with all their
 +forces and made an attack upon our horse. The latter being easily
 +routed and thrown into confusion, the Nervii ran down to the river
 +with such incredible speed that they seemed to be in the woods, the
 +river, and close upon us almost at the same time. And with the same
 +speed they hastened up the hill to our camp, and to those who were
 +employed in the works. ​
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +Caesar had every thing to do at one time: the standard to be displayed,
 +which was the sign when it was necessary to run to arms; the signal
 +to be given by the trumpet; the soldiers to be called off from the
 +works; those who had proceeded some distance for the purpose of seeking
 +materials for the rampart, to be summoned; the order of battle to
 +be formed; the soldiers to be encouraged; the watchword to be given.
 +A great part of these arrangements was prevented by the shortness
 +of time and the sudden approach and charge of the enemy. Under these
 +difficulties two things proved of advantage; [first] the skill and
 +experience of the soldiers, because, having been trained by former
 +engagements,​ they could suggest to themselves what ought to be done,
 +as conveniently as receive information from others; and [secondly]
 +that Caesar had forbidden his several lieutenants to depart from the
 +works and their respective legions, before the camp was fortified.
 +These, on account of the near approach and the speed of the enemy,
 +did not then wait for any command from Caesar, but of themselves executed
 +whatever appeared proper. ​
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +Caesar, having given the necessary orders, hastened to and fro into
 +whatever quarter fortune carried him, to animate the troops, and came
 +to the tenth legion. Having encouraged the soldiers with no further
 +speech than that "they should keep up the remembrance of their wonted
 +valor, and not be confused in mind, but valiantly sustain the assault
 +of the enemy ;" as the latter were not further from them than the
 +distance to which a dart could be cast, he gave the signal for commencing
 +battle. And having gone to another quarter for the purpose of encouraging
 +[the soldiers], he finds them fighting. Such was the shortness of
 +the time, and so determined was the mind of the enemy on fighting,
 +that time was wanting not only for affixing the military insignia,
 +but even for putting on the helmets and drawing off the covers from
 +the shields. To whatever part any one by chance came from the works
 +(in which he had been employed), and whatever standards he saw first,
 +at these he stood, lest in seeking his own company he should lose
 +the time for fighting. ​
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +The army having been marshaled, rather as the nature of the ground
 +and the declivity of the hill and the exigency of the time, than as
 +the method and order of military matters required; while the legions
 +in the different places were withstanding the enemy, some in one quarter,
 +some in another, and the view was obstructed by the very thick hedges
 +intervening,​ as we have before remarked, neither could proper reserves
 +be posted, nor could the necessary measures be taken in each part,
 +nor could all the commands be issued by one person. Therefore, in
 +such an unfavorable state of affairs, various events of fortune followed.
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +The soldiers of the ninth and tenth legions, as they had been stationed
 +on the left part of the army, casting their weapons, speedily drove
 +the Atrebates (for that division had been opposed to them,) who were
 +breathless with running and fatigue, and worn out with wounds, from
 +the higher ground into the river; and following them as they were
 +endeavoring to pass it, slew with their swords a great part of them
 +while impeded (therein). They themselves did not hesitate to pass
 +the river; and having advanced to a disadvantageous place, when the
 +battle was renewed, they [nevertheless] again put to flight the enemy,
 +who had returned and were opposing them. In like manner, in another
 +quarter two different legions, the eleventh and the eighth, having
 +routed the Veromandui, with whom they had engaged, were fighting from
 +the higher ground upon the very banks of the river. But, almost the
 +whole camp on the front and on the left side being then exposed, since
 +the twelfth legion was posted in the right wing, and the seventh at
 +no great distance from it, all the Nervii, in a very close body, with
 +Boduognatus,​ who held the chief command, as their leader, hastened
 +toward that place; and part of them began to surround the legions
 +on their unprotected flank, part to make for the highest point of
 +the encampment. ​
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +At the same time our horsemen, and light-armed infantry, who had been
 +with those, who, as I have related, were routed by the first assault
 +of the enemy, as they were betaking themselves into the camp, met
 +the enemy face to face, and again sought flight into another quarter;
 +and the camp-followers who from the Decuman Gate, and from the highest
 +ridge of the hill had seen our men pass the river as victors, when,
 +after going out for the purposes of plundering, they looked back and
 +saw the enemy parading in our camp, committed themselves precipitately
 +to flight; at the same time there arose the cry and shout of those
 +who came with the baggage-train:​ and they (affrighted),​ were carried
 +some one way, some another. By all these circumstances the cavalry
 +of the Treviri were much alarmed, (whose reputation for courage is
 +extraordinary among the Gauls, and who had come to Caesar, being sent
 +by their state as auxiliaries),​ and, when they saw our camp filled
 +with a large number of the enemy, the legions hard pressed and almost
 +held surrounded, the camp-retainers,​ horsemen, slingers, and Numidians
 +fleeing on all sides divided and scattered, they, despairing of our
 +affairs, hastened home, and related to their state that the Romans
 +were routed and conquered, [and] that the enemy were in possession
 +of their camp and baggage-train. ​
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +Caesar proceeded, after encouraging the tenth legion, to the right
 +wing; where he perceived that his men were hard pressed, and that
 +in consequence of the standards of the twelfth legion being collected
 +together in one place, the crowded soldiers were a hinderance to themselves
 +in the fight; that all the centurions of the fourth cohort were slain,
 +and the standard- bearer killed, the standard itself lost, almost
 +all the centurions of the other cohorts either wounded or slain, and
 +among them the chief centurion of the legion P. Sextius Baculus, a
 +very valiant man, who was so exhausted by many and severe wounds,
 +that he was already unable to support himself; he likewise perceived
 +that the rest were slackening their efforts, and that some, deserted
 +by those in the rear, were retiring from the battle and avoiding the
 +weapons; that the enemy [on the other hand] though advancing from
 +the lower ground, were not relaxing in front, and were [at the same
 +time] pressing hard on both flanks; he also perceived that the affair
 +was at a crisis, and that there was not any reserve which could be
 +brought up, having therefore snatched a shield from one of the soldiers
 +in the rear (for he himself had come without a shield), he advanced
 +to the front of the line, and addressing the centurions by name, and
 +encouraging the rest of the soldiers, he ordered them to carry forward
 +the standards, and extend the companies, that they might the more
 +easily use their swords. On his arrival, as hope was brought to the
 +soldiers and their courage restored, while every one for his own part,
 +in the sight of his general, desired to exert his utmost energy, the
 +impetuosity of the enemy was a little checked. ​
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +Caesar, when he perceived that the seventh legion, which stood close
 +by him, was also hard pressed by the enemy, directed the tribunes
 +of the soldiers to effect a junction of the legions gradually, and
 +make their charge upon the enemy with a double front; which having
 +been done, since they brought assistance the one to the other, nor
 +feared lest their rear should be surrounded by the enemy, they began
 +to stand their ground more boldly, and to fight more courageously.
 +In the mean time, the soldiers of the two legions which had been in
 +the rear of the army, as a guard for the baggage-train,​ upon the battle
 +being reported to them, quickened their pace, and were seen by the
 +enemy on the top of the hill; and Titus Labienus, having gained possession
 +of the camp of the enemy, and observed from the higher ground what
 +was going on in our camp, sent the tenth legion as a relief to our
 +men, who, when they had learned from the flight of the horse and the
 +sutlers in what position the affair was, and in how great danger the
 +camp and the legion and the commander were involved, left undone nothing
 +[which tended] to dispatch. ​
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +By their arrival, so great a change of matters was made, that our
 +men, even those who had fallen down exhausted with wounds, leaned
 +on their shields, and renewed the fight: then the camp-retainers,​
 +though unarmed, seeing the enemy completely dismayed, attacked [them
 +though] armed; the horsemen too, that they might by their valor blot
 +the disgrace of their flight, thrust themselves before the legionary
 +soldiers in all parts of the battle. But the enemy, even in the last
 +hope of safety, displayed such great courage, that when the foremost
 +of them had fallen, the next stood upon them prostrate, and fought
 +from their bodies; when these were overthrown, and their corpses heaped
 +up together, those who survived cast their weapons against our men
 +[thence], as from a mound, and returned our darts which had fallen
 +short between [the armies]; so that it ought not to be concluded,
 +that men of such great courage had injudiciously dared to pass a very
 +broad river, ascend very high banks, and come up to a very disadvantageous
 +place; since their greatness of spirit had rendered these actions
 +easy, although in themselves very difficult. ​
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +This battle being ended, and the nation and name of the Nervii being
 +almost reduced to annihilation,​ their old men, whom together with
 +the boys and women we have stated to have been collected together
 +in the fenny places and marshes, on this battle having been reported
 +to them, since they were convinced that nothing was an obstacle to
 +the conquerors, and nothing safe to the conquered, sent embassadors
 +to Caesar by the consent of all who remained, and surrendered themselves
 +to him; and in recounting the calamity of their state, said that their
 +senators were reduced from 600 to three; that from 60,000 men they
 +[were reduced] to scarcely 500 who could bear arms; whom Caesar, that
 +he might appear to use compassion toward the wretched and the suppliant,
 +most carefully spared; and ordered them to enjoy their own territories
 +and towns, and commanded their neighbors that they should restrain
 +themselves and their dependents from offering injury or outrage [to
 +them]. ​
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +When the Aduatuci, of whom we have written above, were coming up with
 +all their forces to the assistance of the Nervii, upon this battle
 +being reported to them, they returned home after they were on the
 +march; deserting all their towns and forts, they conveyed together
 +all their possessions into one town, eminently fortified by nature.
 +While this town had on all sides around it very high rocks and precipices,
 +there was left on one side a gently ascending approach, of not more
 +than 200 feet in width; which place they had fortified with a very
 +lofty double wall: besides, they had placed stones of great weight
 +and sharpened stakes upon the walls. They were descended from the
 +Cimbri and Teutones, who, when they were marching into our province
 +and Italy, having deposited on this side the river Rhine such of their
 +baggage-trains as they could not drive or convey with them, left 6,000
 +of their men as a guard and defense for them. These having, after
 +the destruction of their countrymen, been harassed for many years
 +by their neighbors, while one time they waged war offensively,​ and
 +at another resisted it when waged against them, concluded a peace
 +with the consent of all, and chose this place as their settlement.
 +===== Chapter 30 =====
 +And on the first arrival of our army they made frequent sallies from
 +the town, and contended with our men in trifling skirmishes; afterward,
 +when hemmed in by a rampart of twelve feet [in height], and fifteen
 +miles in circuit, they kept themselves within the town. When, vineae
 +having been brought up and a mound raised, they observed that a tower
 +also was being built at a distance, they at first began to mock the
 +Romans from their wall, and to taunt them with the following speeches.
 +"For what purpose was so vast a machine constructed at so great a
 +distance? With what hands,"​ or "with what strength did they, especially
 +[as they were] men of such very small stature"​ (for our shortness
 +of stature, in comparison to the great size of their bodies, is generally
 +a subject of much contempt to the men of Gaul) "trust to place against
 +their walls a tower of such great weight." ​
 +===== Chapter 31 =====
 +But when they saw that it was being moved, and was approaching their
 +walls, startled by the new and unaccustomed sight, they sent embassadors
 +to Caesar [to treat] about peace; who spoke in the following manner:
 +"That they did not believe the Romans waged war without divine aid,
 +since they were able to move forward machines of such a height with
 +so great speed, and thus fight from close quarters; that they resigned
 +themselves and all their possessions to [Caesar'​s] disposal: that
 +they begged and earnestly entreated one thing, viz., that if perchance,
 +agreeable to his clemency and humanity, which they had heard of from
 +others, he should resolve that the Aduatuci were to be spared, he
 +would not deprive them of their arms; that all their neighbors were
 +enemies to them and envied their courage, from whom they could not
 +defend themselves if their arms were delivered up: that it was better
 +for them, if they should be reduced to that state, to suffer any fate
 +from the Roman people, than to be tortured to death by those among
 +whom they had been accustomed to rule." ​
 +===== Chapter 32 =====
 +To these things Caesar replied, "That he, in accordance with his custom,
 +rather than owing to their desert, should spare the state, if they
 +should surrender themselves before the battering-ram should touch
 +the wall; but that there was no condition of surrender, except upon
 +their arms being delivered up; that he should do to them that which
 +he had done in the case of the Nervii, and would command their neighbors
 +not to offer any injury to those who had surrendered to the Roman
 +people."​ The matter being reported to their countrymen, they said
 +that they would execute his commands. Having cast a very large quantity
 +of their arms from the wall into the trench that was before the town,
 +so that the heaps of arms almost equalled the top of the wall and
 +the rampart, and nevertheless having retained and concealed, as we
 +afterward discovered, about a third part in the town, the gates were
 +opened, and they enjoyed peace for that day. 
 +===== Chapter 33 =====
 +Toward evening Caesar ordered the gates to be shut, and the soldiers
 +to go out of the town, lest the towns-people should receive any injury
 +from them by night. They [the Aduatuci], by a design before entered
 +into, as we afterwards understood, because they believed that, as
 +a surrender had been made, our men would dismiss their guards, or
 +at least would keep watch less carefully, partly with those arms which
 +they had retained and concealed, partly with shields made of bark
 +or interwoven wickers, which they had hastily covered over with skins,
 +(as the shortness of time required) in the third watch, suddenly made
 +a sally from the town with all their forces [in that direction] in
 +which the ascent to our fortifications seemed the least difficult.
 +The signal having been immediately given by fires, as Caesar had previously
 +commended, a rush was made thither [i. e. by the Roman soldiers] from
 +the nearest fort; and the battle was fought by the enemy as vigorously
 +as it ought to be fought by brave men, in the last hope of safety,
 +in a disadvantageous place, and against those who were throwing their
 +weapons from a rampart and from towers; since all hope of safety depended
 +on their courage alone. About 4,000 of the men having been slain,
 +the rest were forced back into the town. The day after, Caesar, after
 +breaking open the gates, which there was no one then to defend, and
 +sending in our soldiers, sold the whole spoil of that town. The number
 +of 53,000 persons was reported to him by those who had bought them.
 +===== Chapter 34 =====
 +At the same time he was informed by P. Crassus, whom he had sent with
 +one legion against the Veneti, the Unelli, the Osismii, the Curiosolitae,​
 +the Sesuvii, the Aulerci, and the Rhedones, which are maritime states,
 +and touch upon the [Atlantic] ocean, that all these nations were brought
 +under the dominion and power of the Roman people. ​
 +===== Chapter 35 =====
 +These things being achieved, [and] all Gaul being subdued, so high
 +an opinion of this war was spread among the barbarians, that embassadors
 +were sent to Caesar by those nations who dwelt beyond the Rhine, to
 +promise that they would give hostages and execute his commands. Which
 +embassies Caesar, because he was hastening into Italy and Illyricum,
 +ordered to return to him at the beginning of the following summer.
 +He himself, having led his legions into winter quarters among the
 +Carnutes, the Andes, and the Turones, which states were close to those
 +regions in which he had waged war, set out for Italy; and a thanksgiving
 +of fifteen days was decreed for those achievements,​ upon receiving
 +Caesar'​s letter; [an honor] which before that time had been conferred
 +on none. 
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