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de_bello_gallico_3 [2018/04/21 03:30] (current)
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 +====== The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar 3 ======
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​03 The Gallic Wars, III.mp3">​Book 3 In Audio (alt version not a transcription)</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​​player.js"></​script></​html>​
 +(56 B.C.)
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +When Caesar was setting out for Italy, he sent Servius Galba with
 +the twelfth legion and part of the cavalry, against the Nantuates,
 +the Veragri, and Seduni, who extend from the territories of the Allobroges,
 +and the lake of Geneva, and the River Rhone to the top of the Alps.
 +The reason for sending him was, that he desired that the pass along
 +the Alps, through which [the Roman] merchants had been accustomed
 +to travel with great danger, and under great imposts, should be opened.
 +He permitted him, if he thought it necessary, to station the legion
 +in these places, for the purpose of wintering. Galba having fought
 +some successful battles and stormed several of their forts, upon embassadors
 +being sent to him from all parts and hostages given and a peace concluded,
 +determined to station two cohorts among the Nantuates, and to winter
 +in person with the other cohorts of that legion in a village of the
 +Veragri, which is called Octodurus; and this village being situated
 +in a valley, with a small plain annexed to it, is bounded on all sides
 +by very high mountains. As this village was divided into two parts
 +by a river, he granted one part of it to the Gauls, and assigned the
 +other, which had been left by them unoccupied, to the cohorts to winter
 +in. He fortified this [latter] part with a rampart and a ditch.
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +When several days had elapsed in winter quarters, and he had ordered
 +corn to be brought in he was suddenly informed by his scouts that
 +all the people had gone off in the night from that part of the town
 +which he had given up to the Gauls, and that the mountains which hung
 +over it were occupied by a very large force of the Seduni and Veragri.
 +It had happened for several reasons that the Gauls suddenly formed
 +the design of renewing the war and cutting off that legion. First,
 +because they despised a single legion, on account of its small number,
 +and that not quite full (two cohorts having been detached, and several
 +individuals being absent, who had been dispatched for the purpose
 +of seeking provision); then, likewise, because they thought that on
 +account of the disadvantageous character of the situation, even their
 +first attack could not be sustained [by us] when they would rush from
 +the mountains into the valley, and discharge their weapons upon us.
 +To this was added, that they were indignant that their children were
 +torn from them under the title of hostages, and they were persuaded
 +that the Romans designed to seize upon the summits of the Alps, and
 +unite those parts to the neighboring province [of Gaul], not only
 +to secure the passes, but also a constant possession. ​
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +Having received these tidings, Galba, since the works of the winter-quarters
 +and the fortifications were not fully completed, nor was sufficient
 +preparation made with regard to corn and other provisions (since,
 +as a surrender had been made, and hostages received, he had thought
 +he need entertain no apprehension of war), speedily summoning a council,
 +began to anxiously inquire their opinions. In which council, since
 +so much sudden danger had happened contrary to the general expectation,​
 +and almost all the higher places were seen already covered with a
 +multitude of armed men, nor could [either] troops come to their relief,
 +or provisions be brought in, as the passes were blocked up [by the
 +enemy]; safety being now nearly despaired of, some opinions of this
 +sort were delivered: that, "​leaving their baggage, and making a sally,
 +they should hasten away for safety by the same routes by which they
 +had come thither."​ To the greater part, however, it seemed best, reserving
 +that measure to the last, to await the issue of the matter, and to
 +defend the camp. 
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +A short time only having elapsed, so that time was scarcely given
 +for arranging and executing those things which they had determined
 +on, the enemy, upon the signal being given, rushed down [upon our
 +men] from all parts, and discharged stones and darts, upon our rampart.
 +Our men at first, while their strength was fresh, resisted bravely,
 +nor did they cast any weapon ineffectually from their higher station.
 +As soon as any part of the camp, being destitute of defenders, seemed
 +to be hard pressed, thither they ran, and brought assistance. But
 +they were over-matched in this, that the enemy when wearied by the
 +long continuance of the battle, went out of the action, and others
 +with fresh strength came in their place; none of which things could
 +be done by our men, owing to the smallness of their number; and not
 +only was permission not given to the wearied [Roman] to retire from
 +the fight, but not even to the wounded [was liberty granted] to quit
 +the post where he had been stationed, and recover. ​
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +When they had now been fighting for more than six hours, without cessation,
 +and not only strength, but even weapons were failing our men, and
 +the enemy were pressing on more rigorously, and had begun to demolish
 +the rampart and to fill up the trench, while our men were becoming
 +exhausted, and the matter was now brought to the last extremity, P.
 +Sextius Baculus, a centurion of the first rank, whom we have related
 +to have been disabled by severe wounds in the engagement with the
 +Nervii, and also C. Volusenus, a tribune of the soldiers, a man of
 +great skill and valor, hasten to Galba, and assure him that the only
 +hope of safety lay in making a sally, and trying the last resource.
 +Whereupon assembling the centurions, he quickly gives orders to the
 +soldiers to discontinue the fight a short time, and only collect the
 +weapons flung [at them], and recruit themselves after their fatigue,
 +and afterward, upon the signal being given, sally forth from the camp,
 +and place in their valor all their hope of safety. ​
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +They do what they were ordered; and, making a sudden sally from all
 +the gates [of the camp], leave the enemy the means neither of knowing
 +what was taking place, nor of collecting themselves. Fortune thus
 +taking a turn, [our men] surround on every side, and slay those who
 +had entertained the hope of gaining the camp and having killed more
 +than the third part of an army of more than 30,000 men (which number
 +of the barbarians it appeared certain had come up to our camp), put
 +to flight the rest when panic-stricken,​ and do not suffer them to
 +halt even upon the higher grounds. All the forces of the enemy being
 +thus routed, and stripped of their arms, [our men] betake themselves
 +to their camp and fortifications. Which battle being finished, inasmuch
 +as Galba was unwilling to tempt fortune again, and remembered that
 +he had come into winter quarters with one design, and saw that he
 +had met with a different state of affairs; chiefly however urged by
 +the want of corn and provision, having the next day burned all the
 +buildings of that village, he hastens to return into the province;
 +and as no enemy opposed or hindered his march, he brought the legion
 +safe into the [country of the] Nantuates, thence into [that of] the
 +Allobroges, and there wintered. ​
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +These things being achieved, while Caesar had every reason to suppose
 +that Gaul was reduced to a state of tranquillity,​ the Belgae being
 +overcome, the Germans expelled, the Seduni among the Alps defeated,
 +and when he had, therefore, in the beginning of winter, set out for
 +Illyricum, as he wished to visit those nations, and acquire a knowledge
 +of their countries, a sudden war sprang up in Gaul. The occasion of
 +that war was this: P. Crassus, a young man, had taken up his winter
 +quarters with the seventh legion among the Andes, who border upon
 +the [Atlantic] ocean. He, as there was a scarcity of corn in those
 +parts, sent out some officers of cavalry, and several military tribunes
 +among the neighbouring states, for the purpose of procuring corn and
 +provision; in which number T. Terrasidius was sent among the Esubii;
 +M. Trebius Gallus among the Curiosolitae;​ Q. Velanius, T. Silius,
 +amongst the Veneti. ​
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +The influence of this state is by far the most considerable of any
 +of the countries on the whole sea coast, because the Veneti both have
 +a very great number of ships, with which they have been accustomed
 +to sail to Britain, and [thus] excel the rest in their knowledge and
 +experience of nautical affairs; and as only a few ports lie scattered
 +along that stormy and open sea, of which they are in possession, they
 +hold as tributaries almost all those who are accustomed to traffic
 +in that sea. With them arose the beginning [of the revolt] by their
 +detaining Silius and Velanius; for they thought that they should recover
 +by their means the hostages which they had given to Crassus. The neighboring
 +people led on by their influence (as the measures of the Gauls are
 +sudden and hasty), detain Trebius and Terrasidius for the same motive;
 +and quickly sending embassadors,​ by means of their leading men, they
 +enter into a mutual compact to do nothing except by general consent,
 +and abide the same issue of fortune; and they solicit the other states
 +to choose rather to continue in that liberty which they had received
 +from their ancestors, than endure slavery under the Romans. All the
 +sea coast being quickly brought over to their sentiments, they send
 +a common embassy to P. Crassus [to say], "If he wished to receive
 +back his officers, let him send back to them their hostages."​
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +Caesar, being informed of these things by Crassus, since he was so
 +far distant himself, orders ships of war to be built in the mean time
 +on the river Loire, which flows into the ocean; rowers to be raised
 +from the province; sailors and pilots to be provided. These matters
 +being quickly executed, he himself, as soon as the season of the year
 +permits, hastens to the army. The Veneti, and the other states also,
 +being informed of Caesar'​s arrival, when they reflected how great
 +a crime they had committed, in that, the embassadors (a character
 +which had among all nations ever been sacred and inviolable) had by
 +them been detained and thrown into prison, resolve to prepare for
 +a war in proportion to the greatness of their danger, and especially
 +to provide those things which appertain to the service of a navy,
 +with the greater confidence, inasmuch as they greatly relied on the
 +nature of their situation. They knew that the passes by land were
 +cut off by estuaries, that the approach by sea was most difficult,
 +by reason of our ignorance of the localities, [and] the small number
 +of the harbors, and they trusted that our army would not be able to
 +stay very long among them, on account of the insufficiency of corn;
 +and again, even if all these things should turn out contrary to their
 +expectation,​ yet they were very powerful in their navy. They well
 +understood that the Romans neither had any number of ships, nor were
 +acquainted with the shallows, the harbors, or the islands of those
 +parts where they would have to carry on the war; and the navigation
 +was very different in a narrow sea from what it was in the vast and
 +open ocean. Having come to this resolution, they fortify their towns,
 +convey corn into them from the country parts, bring together as many
 +ships as possible to Venetia, where it appeared Caesar would at first
 +carry on the war. They unite to themselves as allies for that war,
 +the Osismii, the Lexovii, the Nannetes, the Ambiliati, the Morini,
 +the Diablintes, and the Menapii; and send for auxiliaries from Britain,
 +which is situated over against those regions. ​
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +There were these difficulties which we have mentioned above, in carrying
 +on the war, but many things, nevertheless,​ urged Caesar to that war;
 +- the open insult offered to the state in the detention of the Roman
 +knights, the rebellion raised after surrendering,​ the revolt after
 +hostages were given, the confederacy of so many states, but principally,​
 +lest if, [the conduct of] this part was overlooked, the other nations
 +should think that the same thing was permitted them. Wherefore, since
 +he reflected that almost all the Gauls were fond of revolution, and
 +easily and quickly excited to war; that all men likewise, by nature,
 +love liberty and hate the condition of slavery, he thought he ought
 +to divide and more widely distribute his army, before more states
 +should join the confederation. ​
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +He therefore sends T. Labienus, his lieutenant, with the cavalry to
 +the Treviri, who are nearest to the river Rhine. He charges him to
 +visit the Remi and the other Belgians, and to keep them in their allegiance
 +and repel the Germans (who were said to have been summoned by the
 +Belgae to their aid,) if they attempted to cross the river by force
 +in their ships. He orders P. Crassus to proceed into Aquitania with
 +twelve legionary cohorts and a great number of the cavalry, lest auxiliaries
 +should be sent into Gaul by these states, and such great nations be
 +united. He sends Q. Titurius Sabinus his lieutenant, with three legions,
 +among the Unelli, the Curiosolitae,​ and the Lexovii, to take care
 +that their forces should be kept separate from the rest. He appoints
 +D. Brutus, a young man, over the fleet and those Gallic vessels which
 +he had ordered to be furnished by the Pictones and the Santoni, and
 +the other provinces which remained at peace; and commands him to proceed
 +toward the Veneti, as soon as he could. He himself hastens thither
 +with the land forces. ​
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +The sites of their towns were generally such that, being placed on
 +extreme points [of land] and on promontories,​ they neither had an
 +approach by land when the tide had rushed in from the main ocean,
 +which always happens twice in the space of twelve hours; nor by ships,
 +because, upon the tide ebbing again, the ships were likely to be dashed
 +upon the shoals. Thus, by either circumstance,​ was the storming of
 +their towns rendered difficult; and if at any time perchance the Veneti
 +overpowered by the greatness of our works, (the sea having been excluded
 +by a mound and large dams, and the latter being made almost equal
 +in height to the walls of the town) had begun to despair of their
 +fortunes; bringing up a large number of ships, of which they had a
 +very great quantity, they carried off all their property and betook
 +themselves to the nearest towns; there they again defended themselves
 +by the same advantages of situation. They did this the more easily
 +during a great part of the summer, because our ships were kept back
 +by storms, and the difficulty of sailing was very great in that vast
 +and open sea, with its strong tides and its harbors far apart and
 +exceedingly few in number. ​
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +For their ships were built and equipped after this manner. The keels
 +were somewhat flatter than those of our ships, whereby they could
 +more easily encounter the shallows and the ebbing of the tide: the
 +prows were raised very high, and, in like manner the sterns were adapted
 +to the force of the waves and storms [which they were formed to sustain].
 +The ships were built wholly of oak, and designed to endure any force
 +and violence whatever; the benches which were made of planks a foot
 +in breadth, were fastened by iron spikes of the thickness of a man's
 +thumb; the anchors were secured fast by iron chains instead of cables,
 +and for sails they used skins and thin dressed leather. These [were
 +used] either through their want of canvas and their ignorance of its
 +application,​ or for this reason, which is more probable, that they
 +thought that such storms of the ocean, and such violent gales of wind
 +could not be resisted by sails, nor ships of such great burden be
 +conveniently enough managed by them. The encounter of our fleet with
 +these ships' was of such a nature that our fleet excelled in speed
 +alone, and the plying of the oars; other things, considering the nature
 +of the place [and] the violence of the storms, were more suitable
 +and better adapted on their side; for neither could our ships injure
 +theirs with their beaks (so great was their strength), nor on account
 +of their height was a weapon easily cast up to them; and for the same
 +reason they were less readily locked in by rocks. To this was added,
 +that whenever a storm began to rage and they ran before the wind,
 +they both could weather the storm more easily and heave to securely
 +in the shallows, and when left by the tide feared nothing from rocks
 +and shelves: the risk of all which things was much to be dreaded by
 +our ships. ​
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +Caesar, after taking many of their towns, perceiving that so much
 +labor was spent in vain and that the flight of the enemy could not
 +be prevented on the capture of their towns, and that injury could
 +not be done them, he determined to wait for his fleet. As soon as
 +it came up and was first seen by the enemy, about 220 of their ships,
 +fully equipped and appointed with every kind of [naval] implement,
 +sailed forth from the harbor, and drew up opposite to ours; nor did
 +it appear clear to Brutus, who commanded the fleet, or to the tribunes
 +of the soldiers and the centurions, to whom the several ships were
 +assigned, what to do, or what system of tactics to adopt; for they
 +knew that damage could not be done by their beaks; and that, although
 +turrets were built [on their decks], yet the height of the stems of
 +the barbarian ships exceeded these; so that weapons could not be cast
 +up from [our] lower position with sufficient effect, and those cast
 +by the Gauls fell the more forcibly upon us. One thing provided by
 +our men was of great service, [viz.] sharp hooks inserted into and
 +fastened upon poles, of a form not unlike the hooks used in attacking
 +town walls. When the ropes which fastened the sail-yards to the masts
 +were caught by them and pulled, and our vessel vigorously impelled
 +with the oars, they [the ropes] were severed; and when they were cut
 +away, the yards necessarily fell down; so that as all the hope of
 +the Gallic vessels depended on their sails and rigging, upon these
 +being cut away, the entire management of the ships was taken from
 +them at the same time. The rest of the contest depended on courage;
 +in which our men decidedly had the advantage; and the more so, because
 +the whole action was carried on in the sight of Caesar and the entire
 +army; so that no act, a little more valiant than ordinary, could pass
 +unobserved, for all the hills and higher grounds, from which there
 +was a near prospect of the sea were occupied by our army.
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +The sail yards [of the enemy], as we have said, being brought down,
 +although two and [in some cases] three ships [of theirs] surrounded
 +each one [of ours], the soldiers strove with the greatest energy to
 +board the ships of the enemy; and, after the barbarians observed this
 +taking place, as a great many of their ships were beaten, and as no
 +relief for that evil could be discovered, they hastened to seek safety
 +in flight. And, having now turned their vessels to that quarter in
 +which the wind blew, so great a calm and lull suddenly arose, that
 +they could not move out of their place, which circumstance,​ truly,
 +was exceedingly opportune for finishing the business; for our men
 +gave chase and took them one by one, so that very few out of all the
 +number, [and those] by the intervention of night, arrived at the land,
 +after the battle had lasted almost from the fourth hour till sun-set.
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +By this battle the war with the Veneti and the whole of the sea coast
 +was finished; for both all the youth, and all, too, of more advanced
 +age, in whom there was any discretion or rank, had assembled in that
 +battle; and they had collected in that one place whatever naval forces
 +they had anywhere; and when these were lost, the survivors had no
 +place to retreat to, nor means of defending their towns. They accordingly
 +surrendered themselves and all their possessions to Caesar, on whom
 +Caesar thought that punishment should be inflicted the more severely,
 +in order that for the future the rights of embassadors might be more
 +carefully respected by barbarians; having, therefore, put to death
 +all their senate, he sold the rest for slaves. ​
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +While these things are going on among the Veneti, Q. Titurius Sabinus
 +with those troops which he had received from Caesar, arrives in the
 +territories of the Unelli. Over these people Viridovix ruled, and
 +held the chief command of all those states which had revolted; from
 +which he had collected a large and powerful army. And in those few
 +days, the Aulerci and the Sexovii, having slain their senate because
 +they would not consent to be promoters of the war, shut their gates
 +[against us] and united themselves to Viridovix; a great multitude
 +besides of desperate men and robbers assembled out of Gaul from all
 +quarters, whom the hope of plundering and the love of fighting had
 +called away from husbandry and their daily labor. Sabinus kept himself
 +within his camp, which was in a position convenient for everything;
 +while Viridovix encamped over against him at a distance of two miles,
 +and daily bringing out his forces, gave him an opportunity of fighting;
 +so that Sabinus had now not only come into contempt with the enemy,
 +but also was somewhat taunted by the speeches of our soldiers; and
 +furnished so great a suspicion of his cowardice that the enemy presumed
 +to approach even to the very rampart of our camp. He adopted this
 +conduct for the following reason: because he did not think that a
 +lieutenant ought to engage in battle with so great a force, especially
 +while he who held the chief command was absent, except on advantageous
 +ground or some favorable circumstance presented itself. ​
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +After having established this suspicion of his cowardice, he selected
 +a certain suitable and crafty Gaul, who was one of those whom he had
 +with him as auxiliaries. He induces him by great gifts and promises
 +to go over to the enemy; and informs [him] of what he wished to be
 +done. Who, when he arrives among them as a deserter, lays before them
 +the fears of the Romans; and informs them by what difficulties Caesar
 +himself was harassed, and that the matter was not far removed from
 +this - that Sabinus would the next night privately draw off his army
 +out of the camp and set forth to Caesar for the purpose of carrying
 +[him] assistance, which, when they heard, they a11 cry out together
 +that an opportunity of successfully conducting their enterprise, ought
 +not to be thrown away: that they ought to go to the [Roman] camp.
 +Many things persuaded the Gauls to this measure; the delay of Sabinus
 +during the previous days; the positive assertion of the [pretended]
 +deserter; want of provisions, for a supply of which they had not taken
 +the requisite precautions;​ the hope springing from the Venetic war;
 +and [also] because in most cases men willingly believe what they wish.
 +Influenced by these things they do not discharge Viridovix and the
 +other leaders from the council, before they gained permission from
 +them to take up arms and hasten to [our] camp; which being granted,
 +rejoicing as if victory were fully certain, they collected faggots
 +and brushwood, with which to fill up the Roman trenches, and hasten
 +to the camp. 
 +===== Chapter 19 =====
 +The situation of the camp was a rising ground, gently sloping from
 +the bottom for about a mile. Thither they proceeded with great speed
 +(in order that as little time as possible might be given to the Romans
 +to collect and arm themselves),​ and arrived quite out of breath. Sabinus
 +having encouraged his men, gives them the signal, which they earnestly
 +desired. While the enemy were encumbered by reason of the burdens
 +which they were carrying, he orders a sally to be made suddenly from
 +two gates [of the camp]. It happened, by the advantage of situation,
 +by the unskilfulness and the fatigue of the enemy, by the valor of
 +our soldiers, and their experience in former battles, that they could
 +not stand one attack of our men, and immediately turned their backs;
 +and our men with full vigor followed them while disordered, and slew
 +a great number of them; the horse pursuing the rest, left but few,
 +who escaped by flight. Thus at the same time, Sabinus was informed
 +of the naval battle and Caesar of victory gained by Sabinus; and all
 +the states immediately surrendered themselves to Titurius: for as
 +the temper of the Gauls is impetuous and ready to undertake wars,
 +so their mind is weak, and by no means resolute in enduring calamities.
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +About the same time, P. Crassus, when he had arrived in Aquitania
 +(which, as has been before said, both from its extent of territory
 +and the great number of its people, is to be reckoned a third part
 +of Gaul,) understanding that he was to wage war in these parts, where
 +a few years before, L. Valerius Praeconinus,​ the lieutenant had been
 +killed, and his army routed, and from which L. Manilius, the proconsul,
 +had fled with the loss of his baggage, he perceived that no ordinary
 +care must be used by him. Wherefore, having provided corn, procured
 +auxiliaries and cavalry, [and] having summoned by name many valiant
 +men from Tolosa, Carcaso, and Narbo, which are the states of the province
 +of Gaul, that border on these regions [Aquitania],​ he led his army
 +into the territories of the Sotiates. On his arrival being known,
 +the Sotiates having brought together great forces and [much] cavalry,
 +in which their strength principally lay, and assailing our army on
 +the march, engaged first in a cavalry action, then when their cavalry
 +was routed, and our men pursuing, they suddenly display their infantry
 +forces, which they had placed in ambuscade in a valley. These attacked
 +our men [while] disordered, and renewed the fight. ​
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +The battle was long and vigorously contested, since the Sotiates,
 +relying on their former victories, imagined that the safety of the
 +whole of Aquitania rested on their valor; [and] our men, on the other
 +hand, desired it might be seen what they could accomplish without
 +their general and without the other legions, under a very young commander;
 +at length the enemy, worn out with wounds, began to turn their backs,
 +and a great number of them being slain, Crassus began to besiege the
 +[principal] town of the Sotiates on his march. Upon their valiantly
 +resisting, he raised vineae and turrets. They at one time attempting
 +a sally, at another forming mines, to our rampart and vineae (at which
 +the Aquitani are eminently skilled, because in many places among them
 +there are copper mines); when they perceived that nothing could be
 +gained by these operations through the perseverance of our men, they
 +send embassadors to Crassus, and entreat him to admit them to a surrender.
 +Having obtained it, they, being ordered to deliver up their arms,
 +comply. ​
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +And while the attention of our men is engaged in that matter, in another
 +part Adcantuannus,​ who held the chief command, with 600 devoted followers
 +whom they call soldurii (the conditions of whose association are these,
 +- that they enjoy all the conveniences of life with those to whose
 +friendship they have devoted themselves: if any thing calamitous happen
 +to them, either they endure the same destiny together with them, or
 +commit suicide: nor hitherto, in the, memory of men, has there been
 +found any one who, upon his being slain to whose friendship he had
 +devoted himself, refused to die); Adcantuannus,​ [Isay] endeavoring
 +to make a sally with these, when our soldiers had rushed together
 +to arms, upon a shout being raised at that part of the, fortification,​
 +and a fierce battle had been fought there, was driven back into the
 +town, yet he obtained from Crassus [the indulgence] that he should
 +enjoy the same terms of surrender [as the other inhabitants].
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +Crassus, having received their arms and hostages, marched into the
 +territories of the Vocates and the Tarusates. But then, the barbarians
 +being alarmed, because they had heard that a town fortified by the
 +nature of the place and by art, had been taken by us in a few days
 +after our arrival there, began to send embassadors into all quarters,
 +to combine, to give hostages one to another, to raise troops. Embassadors
 +also are sent to those states of Hither Spain which are nearest to
 +Aquitania, and auxiliaries and leaders are summoned from them; on
 +whose arrival they proceed to carry on the war with great confidence,
 +and with a great host of men. They who had been with Q. Sertorius
 +the whole period [of his war in Spain] and were supposed to have very
 +great skill in military matters, are chosen leaders. These, adopting
 +the practice of the Roman people, begin to select [advantageous] places,
 +to fortify their camp, to cut off our men from provisions, which,
 +when Crassus observes, [and likewise] that his forces, on account
 +of their small number could not safely be separated; that the enemy
 +both made excursions and beset the passes, and [yet] left sufficient
 +guard for their camp; that on that account, corn and provision could
 +not very conveniently be brought up to him, and that the number of
 +the enemy was daily increased, he thought that he ought not to delay
 +in giving battle. This matter being brought to a council, when he
 +discovered that all thought the same thing, he appointed the next
 +day for the fight. ​
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +Having drawn out all his forces at the break of day, and marshaled
 +them in a double line, he posted the auxiliaries in the center, and
 +waited to see what measures the enemy would take. They, although on
 +account of their great number and their ancient renown in war, and
 +the small number of our men, they supposed they might safely fight,
 +nevertheless considered it safer to gain the victory without any wound,
 +by besetting the passes [and] cutting off the provisions: and if the
 +Romans, on account of the want of corn, should begin to retreat, they
 +intended to attack them while encumbered in their march and depressed
 +in spirit [as being assailed while] under baggage. This measure being
 +approved of by the leaders and the forces of the Romans drawn out,
 +the enemy [still] kept themselves in their camp. Crassus having remarked
 +this circumstance,​ since the enemy, intimidated by their own delay,
 +and by the reputation [i.e. for cowardice arising thence] had rendered
 +our soldiers more eager for fighting, and the remarks of all were
 +heard [declaring] that no longer ought delay to be made in going to
 +the camp, after encouraging his men, he marches to the camp of the
 +enemy, to the great gratification of his own troops.) ​
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +There, while some were filling up the ditch, and others, by throwing
 +a large number of darts, were driving the defenders from the rampart
 +and fortifications,​ and the auxiliaries,​ on whom Crassus did not much
 +rely in the battle, by supplying stones and weapons [to the soldiers],
 +and by conveying turf to the mound, presented the appearance and character
 +of men engaged in fighting; while also the enemy were fighting resolutely
 +and boldly, and their weapons, discharged from their higher position,
 +fell with great effect; the horse, having gone round the camp of the
 +enemy, reported to Crassus that the camp was not fortified with equal
 +care on the side of the Decuman gate, and had an easy approach.
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +Crassus, having exhorted the commanders of the horse to animate their
 +men by great rewards and promises, points out to them what he wished
 +to have done. They, as they had been commanded, having brought out
 +the four cohorts, which, as they had been left as a guard for the
 +camp, were not fatigued by exertion, and having led them round by
 +a some what longer way, lest they could be seen from the camp of the
 +enemy, when the eyes and minds of all were intent upon the battle,
 +quickly arrived at those fortifications which we have spoken of, and,
 +having demolished these, stood in the camp of the enemy before they
 +were seen by them, or it was known what was going on. And then, a
 +shout being heard in that quarter, our men, their strength having
 +been recruited, (which usually occurs on the hope of victory), began
 +to fight more vigorously. The enemy surrounded on all sides, [and]
 +all their affairs being despaired of, made great attempts to cast
 +themselves down over the ramparts and to seek safety in flight. These
 +the cavalry pursued over the very open plains, and after leaving scarcely
 +a fourth part out of the number of 50,000, which it was certain had
 +assembled out of Aquitania and from the Cantabri, returned late at
 +night to the camp. 
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +Having heard of this battle, the greatest part of Aquitania surrendered
 +itself to Crassus, and of its own accord sent hostages, in which number
 +were the Tarbelli, the Bigerriones,​ the Preciani, the Vocasates, the
 +Tarusates, the Elurates, the Garites, the Ausci, the Garumni, the
 +Sibuzates, the Cocosates. A few [and those] most remote nations, relying
 +on the time of the year, because winter was at hand, neglected to
 +do this. 
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +About the same time Caesar, although the summer was nearly past, yet,
 +since, all Gaul being reduced, the Morini and the Menapii alone remained
 +in arms, and had never sent embassadors to him [to make a treaty]
 +of peace, speedily led his army thither, thinking that that war might
 +soon be terminated. They resolved to conduct the war on a very different
 +method from the rest of the Gauls; for as they perceived that the
 +greatest nations [of Gaul] who had engaged in war, had been routed
 +and overcome, and as they possessed continuous ranges of forests and
 +morasses, they removed themselves and all their property thither.
 +When Caesar had arrived at the opening of these forests, and had began
 +to fortify his camp, and no enemy was in the mean time seen, while
 +our men were dispersed on their respective duties, they suddenly rushed
 +out from all parts of the forest, and made an attack on our men. The
 +latter quickly took up arms and drove them back again to their forests;
 +and having killed a great many, lost a few of their own men while
 +pursuing them too far through those intricate places. ​
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +During the remaining days after this, Caesar began to cut down the
 +forests; and that no attack might be made on the flank of the soldiers,
 +while unarmed and not foreseeing it, he placed together (opposite
 +to the enemy) all that timber which was cut down, and piled it up
 +as a rampart on either flank. When a great space had been, with incredible
 +speed, cleared in a few days, when the cattle [of the enemy] and the
 +rear of their baggage train were already seized by our men, and they
 +themselves were seeking for the thickest parts of the forests, storms
 +of such a kind came on that the work was necessarily suspended, and,
 +through the continuance of the rains, the soldiers could not any longer
 +remain in their tents. Therefore, having laid waste all their country,
 +[and] having burned their villages and houses, Caesar led back his
 +army and stationed them in winter quarters among the Aulerci and Lexovii,
 +and the other states which had made war upon him last.
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