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de_bello_gallico_4 [2018/04/21 03:30] (current)
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 +====== The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar 4 ======
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​04 The Gallic Wars, IV.mp3">​Book 4 In Audio (alt version not a transcription)</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​​player.js"></​script></​html>​
 +(55 B.C.)
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +The following winter (this was the year in which Cn. Pompey and M.
 +Crassus were consuls), those Germans [called] the Usipetes, and likewise
 +the Tenchtheri, with a great number of men, crossed the Rhine, not
 +far from the place at which that river discharges itself into the
 +sea. The motive for crossing [that river] was, that having been for
 +several years harassed by the Suevi, they were constantly engaged
 +in war, and hindered from the pursuits of agriculture. The nation
 +of the Suevi is by far the largest and the most warlike nation of
 +all the Germans. They are said to possess a hundred cantons, from
 +each of which they yearly send from their territories for the purpose
 +of war a thousand armed men: the others who remain at home, maintain
 +[both] themselves and those-engaged in the expedition. The latter
 +again, in their turn, are in arms the year after: the former remain
 +at home. Thus neither husbandry, nor the art and practice of war are
 +neglected. But among them there exists no private and separate land;
 +nor are they permitted to remain more than one year in one place for
 +the purpose of residence. They do not live much on corn, but subsist
 +for the most part on milk and flesh, and are much [engaged] in hunting;
 +which circumstance must, by the nature of their food, and by their
 +daily exercise and the freedom of their life (for having from boyhood
 +been accustomed to no employment, or discipline, they do nothing at
 +all contrary to their inclination),​ both promote their strength and
 +render them men of vast stature of body. And to such a habit have
 +they brought themselves, that even in the coldest parts they wear
 +no clothing whatever except skins, by reason of the scantiness of
 +which, a great portion of their body is bare, and besides they bathe
 +in open rivers. ​
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +Merchants have access to them rather that they may have persons to
 +whom they may sell those things which they have taken in war, than
 +because they need any commodity to be imported to them. Moreover,
 +even as to laboring cattle, in which the Gauls take the greatest pleasure,
 +and which they procure at a great price, the Germans do not employ
 +such as are imported, but those poor and ill-shaped animals, which
 +belong to their country; these, however, they render capable of the
 +greatest labor by daily exercise. In cavalry actions they frequently
 +leap from their horses and fight on foot; and train their horses to
 +stand still in the very spot on which they leave them, to which they
 +retreat with great activity when there is occasion; nor, according
 +to their practice, is any thing regarded as more unseemly, or more
 +unmanly, than to use housings. Accordingly,​ they have the courage,
 +though they be themselves but few, to advance against any number whatever
 +of horse mounted with housings. They on no account permit wine to
 +be imported to them, because they consider that men degenerate in
 +their powers of enduring fatigue, and are rendered effeminate by that
 +commodity. ​
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +They esteem it their greatest praise as a nation, that the lands about
 +their territories lie unoccupied to a very great extent, inasmuch
 +as [they think] that by this circumstance is indicated, that a great
 +number of nations can not withstand their power; and thus on one side
 +of the Suevi the lands are said to lie desolate for about six hundred
 +miles. On the other side they border on the Ubii, whose state was
 +large and flourishing,​ considering the condition of the Germans, and
 +who are somewhat more refined than those of the same race and the
 +rest [of the Germans], and that because they border on the Rhine,
 +and are much resorted to by merchants, and are accustomed to the manners
 +of the Gauls, by reason of their approximity to them. Though the Suevi,
 +after making the attempt frequently and in several wars, could not
 +expel this nation from their territories,​ on account of the extent
 +and population of their state, yet they made them tributaries,​ and
 +rendered them less distinguished and powerful [than they had ever
 +been]. ​
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +In the same condition were the Usipetes and the Tenchtheri (whom we
 +have mentioned above), who, for many years, resisted the power of
 +the Suevi, but being at last driven from their possessions,​ and having
 +wandered through many parts of Germany, came to the Rhine, to districts
 +which the Menapii inhabited, and where they had lands, houses, and
 +villages on either side of the river. The latter people, alarmed by
 +the arrival of so great a multitude, removed from those houses which
 +they had on the other side of the river, and having placed guards
 +on this side the Rhine, proceeded to hinder the Germans from crossing.
 +They, finding themselves, after they had tried all means, unable either
 +to force a passage on account of their deficiency in shipping, or
 +cross by stealth on account of the guards of the Menapii, pretended
 +to return to their own settlements and districts; and, after having
 +proceeded three days' march, returned; and their cavalry having performed
 +the whole of this journey in one night, cut off the Menapii, who were
 +ignorant of, and did not expect [their approach, and] who, having
 +moreover been informed of the departure of the Germans by their scouts,
 +had, without apprehension,​ returned to their villages beyond the Rhine.
 +Having slain these, and seized their ships, they crossed the river
 +before that part of the Menapii, who were at peace in their settlements
 +over the Rhine, were apprized of [their intention]; and seizing all
 +their houses, maintained themselves upon their provisions during the
 +rest of the winter. ​
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +Caesar, when informed of these matters, fearing the fickle disposition
 +of the Gauls, who are easily prompted to take up resolutions,​ and
 +much addicted to change, considered that nothing was to be intrusted
 +to them; for it is the custom of that people to compel travelers to
 +stop, even against their inclination,​ and inquire what they may have
 +heard, or may know, respecting any matter; and in towns the common
 +people throng around merchants and force them to state from what countries
 +they come, and what affairs they know of there. They often engage
 +in resolutions concerning the most important matters, induced by these
 +reports and stories alone; of which they must necessarily instantly
 +repent, since they yield to mere unauthorized reports; and since most
 +people give to their questions answers framed agreeably to their wishes.
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +Caesar, being aware of their custom, in order that he might not encounter
 +a more formidable war, sets forward to the army earlier in the year
 +than he was accustomed to do. When he had arrived there, he discovered
 +that those things, which he had suspected would occur, had taken place;
 +that embassies had been sent to the Germans by some of the states,
 +and that they had been entreated to leave the Rhine, and had been
 +promised that all things which they desired should be provided by
 +the Gauls. Allured by this hope, the Germans were then making excursions
 +to greater distances, and had advanced to the territories of the Eburones
 +and the Condrusi, who are under the protection of the Treviri. After
 +summoning the chiefs of Gaul, Caesar thought proper to pretend ignorance
 +of the things which he had discovered; and having conciliated and
 +confirmed their minds, and ordered some cavalry to be raised, resolved
 +to make war against the Germans. ​
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +Having provided corn and selected his cavalry, he began to direct
 +his march toward those parts in which he heard the Germans were. When
 +he was distant from them only a few days' march, embassadors came
 +to him from their state, whose speech was as follows: "That the Germans
 +neither make war upon the Roman people first, nor do they decline,
 +if they are provoked, to engage with them in arms; for that this was
 +the custom of the Germans handed down to them from their forefathers,​
 +- to resist whatsoever people make war upon them and not to avert
 +it by entreaty; this, however, they confessed, - that they had come
 +hither reluctantly,​ having been expelled from their country. If the
 +Romans were disposed to accept their friendship, they might be serviceable
 +allies to them; and let them either assign them lands, or permit them
 +to retain those which they had acquired by their arms; that they are
 +inferior to the Suevi alone, to whom not even the immortal gods can
 +show themselves equal; that there was none at all besides on earth
 +whom they could not conquer." ​
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +To these remarks Caesar replied in such terms as he thought proper;
 +but the conclusion of his speech was, "That he could make no alliance
 +with them, if they continued in Gaul; that it was not probable that
 +they who were not able to defend their own territories,​ should get
 +possession of those of others, nor were there any lands lying waste
 +in Gaul, which could be given away, especially to so great a number
 +of men, without doing wrong [to others]; but they might, if they were
 +desirous, settle in the territories of the Ubii; whose embassadors
 +were then with him, and were complaining of the aggressions of the
 +Suevi, and requesting assistance from him; and that he would obtain
 +this request from them." ​
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +The embassadors said that they would report these things to their
 +country men; and, after having deliberated on the matter, would return
 +to Caesar after the third day, they begged that he would not in the
 +mean time advance his camp nearer to them. Caesar said that he could
 +not grant them even that; for he had learned that they had sent a
 +great part of their cavalry over the Meuse to the Ambivariti, some
 +days before, for the purpose of plundering and procuring forage. He
 +supposed that they were then waiting for these horse, and that the
 +delay was caused on this account. ​
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +The Meuse rises from mount Le Vosge, which is in the territories of
 +the Lingones; and, having received a branch of the Rhine, which is
 +called the Waal, forms the island of the Batavi, and not more than
 +eighty miles from it it falls into the ocean. But the Rhine takes
 +its source among the Lepontii, who inhabit the Alps, and is carried
 +with a rapid current for a long distance through the territories of
 +the Sarunates, Helvetii, Sequani, Mediomatrici,​ Tribuci, and Treviri,
 +and when it approaches the ocean, divides into several branches; and,
 +having formed many and extensive islands, a great part of which are
 +inhabited by savage and barbarous nations (of whom there are some
 +who are supposed to live on fish and the eggs of sea-fowl), flows
 +into the ocean by several mouths. ​
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +When Caesar was not more than twelve miles distant from the enemy,
 +the embassadors return to him, as had been arranged; who meeting him
 +on the march, earnestly entreated him not to advance any further.
 +When they could not obtain this, they begged him to send on a dispatch
 +to those who had marched in advance of the main army, and forbid them
 +to engage; and grant them permission to send embassadors to the Ubii,
 +and if the princes and senate of the latter would give them security
 +by oath, they assured Caesar that they would accept such conditions
 +as might be proposed by him; and requested that he would give them
 +the space of three days for negociating these affairs. Caesar thought
 +that these things tended to the self-same point [as their other proposal];
 +[namely] that, in consequence of a delay of three days intervening,​
 +their horse, which were at a distance, might return; however, he said,
 +that he would not that day advance further than four miles for the
 +purpose of procuring water; he ordered that they should assemble at
 +that place in as large a number as possible, the following day, that
 +he might inquire into their demands. In the mean time he sends messengers
 +to the officers who had marched in advance with all the cavalry, to
 +order them not to provoke the enemy to an engagement, and if they
 +themselves were assailed, to sustain the attack until he came up with
 +the army. 
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +But the enemy, as soon as they saw our horse, the number of which
 +was 5000, whereas they themselves had not more than 800 horse, because
 +those which had gone over the Meuse for the purpose of foraging had
 +not returned, while our men had no apprehensions,​ because their embassadors
 +had gone away from Caesar a little before, and that day had been requested
 +by them as a period of truce, made an onset on our men, and soon threw
 +them into disorder. When our men, in their turn, made a stand, they,
 +according to their practice, leaped from their horses to their feet,
 +and stabbing our horses in the belly and overthrowing a great many
 +of our men, put the rest to flight, and drove them forward so much
 +alarmed that they did not desist from their retreat till they had
 +come in sight of our army. In that encounter seventy-four of our horse
 +were slain; among them, Piso, an Aquitanian, a most valiant man, and
 +descended from a very illustrious family; whose grandfather had held
 +the sovereignty of his state, and had been styled friend by our senate.
 +He, while he was endeavoring to render assistance to his brother who
 +was surrounded by the enemy, and whom he rescued from danger, was
 +himself thrown from his horse, which was wounded under him, but still
 +opposed [his antagonists] with the greatest intrepidity,​ as long as
 +he was able to maintain the conflict. When at length he fell, surrounded
 +on all sides and after receiving many wounds, and his brother, who
 +had then retired from the fight, observed it from a distance, he spurred
 +on his horse, threw himself upon the enemy, and was killed.
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +After this engagement, Caesar considered that neither ought embassadors
 +to be received to audience, nor conditions be accepted by him from
 +those who, after having sued for peace by way of stratagem and treachery,
 +had made war without provocation. And to wait until the enemy'​s forces
 +were augmented and their cavalry had returned, he concluded, would
 +be the greatest madness; and knowing the fickleness of the Gauls,
 +he felt how much influence the enemy had already acquired among them
 +by this one skirmish. He [therefore] deemed that no time for concerting
 +measures ought to be afforded them. After having resolved on those
 +things and communicated his plans to his lieutenants and quaestor
 +in order that he might not suffer any opportunity for engaging to
 +escape him, a very seasonable event occurred, namely, that on the
 +morning of the next day, a large body of Germans, consisting of their
 +princes and old men, came to the camp to him to practice the same
 +treachery and dissimulation;​ but, as they asserted, for the purpose
 +of acquitting themselves for having engaged in a skirmish the day
 +before, contrary to what had been agreed and to what indeed, they
 +themselves had requested; and also if they could by any means obtain
 +a truce by deceiving him. Caesar, rejoicing that they had fallen into
 +his power, ordered them to be detained. He then drew all his forces
 +out of the camp, and commanded the cavalry, because he thought they
 +were intimidated by the late skirmish, to follow in the rear.
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +Having marshalled his army in three lines, and in a short time performed
 +a march of eight miles, he arrived at the camp of the enemy before
 +the Germans could perceive what was going on; who being suddenly alarmed
 +by all the circumstances,​ both by the speediness of our arrival and
 +the absence of their own officers, as time was afforded neither for
 +concerting measures nor for seizing their arms, are perplexed as to
 +whether it would be better to lead out their forces against the enemy,
 +or to defend their camp, or seek their safety by flight. Their consternation
 +being made apparent by their noise and tumult, our soldiers, excited
 +by the treachery of the preceding day, rushed into the camp: such
 +of them as could readily get their arms, for a short time withstood
 +our men, and gave battle among their carts and baggage wagons; but
 +the rest of the people, [consisting] of boys and women (for they had
 +left their country and crossed the Rhine with all their families)
 +began to fly in all directions; in pursuit of whom Caesar sent the
 +cavalry. ​
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +The Germans when, upon hearing a noise behind them, [they looked and]
 +saw that their families were being slain, throwing away their arms
 +and abandoning their standards, fled out of the camp, and when they
 +had arrived at the confluence of the Meuse and the Rhine, the survivors
 +despairing of further escape, as a great number of their countrymen
 +had been killed, threw themselves into the river and there perished,
 +overcome by fear, fatigue, and the violence of the stream. Our soldiers,
 +after the alarm of so great a war, for the number of the enemy amounted
 +to 430,000, returned to their camp, all safe to a man, very few being
 +even wounded. Caesar granted those whom he had detained in the camp
 +liberty of departing. They however, dreading revenge and torture from
 +the Gauls, whose lands they had harassed, said that they desired to
 +remain with him. Caesar granted them permission. ​
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +The German war being finished, Caesar thought it expedient for him
 +to cross the Rhine, for many reasons; of which this was the most weighty,
 +that, since he saw the Germans were so easily urged to go into Gaul,
 +he desired they should have their fears for their own territories,​
 +when they discovered that the army of the Roman people both could
 +and dared pass the Rhine. There was added also, that portion of the
 +cavalry of the Usipetes and the Tenchtheri, which I have above related
 +to have crossed the Meuse for the purpose of plundering and procuring
 +forage, and was not present at the engagement, had betaken themselves,
 +after the retreat of their countrymen, across the Rhine into the territories
 +of the Sigambri, and united themselves to them. When Caesar sent embassadors
 +to them, to demand that they should give up to him those who had made
 +war against him and against Gaul, they replied, "That the Rhine bounded
 +the empire of the Roman people; if he did not think it just for the
 +Germans to pass over into Gaul against his consent, why did he claim
 +that any thing beyond the Rhine should be subject to his dominion
 +or power?"​ The Ubii, also, who alone, out of all the nations lying
 +beyond the Rhine, had sent embassadors to Caesar, and formed an alliance
 +and given hostages, earnestly entreated "that he would bring them
 +assistance, because they were grievously oppressed by the Suevi; or,
 +if he was prevented from doing so by the business of the commonwealth,​
 +he would at least transport his army over the Rhine; that that would
 +be sufficient for their present assistance and their hope for the
 +future; that so great was the name and the reputation of his army,
 +even among the most remote nations of the Germans, arising from the
 +defeat of Ariovistus and this last battle which was fought, that they
 +might be safe under the fame and friendship of the Roman people."​
 +They promised a large number of ships for transporting the army.
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +Caesar, for those reasons which I have mentioned, had resolved to
 +cross the Rhine; but to cross by ships he neither deemed to be sufficiently
 +safe, nor considered consistent with his own dignity or that of the
 +Roman people. Therefore, although the greatest difficulty in forming
 +a bridge was presented to him, on account of the breadth, rapidity,
 +and depth of the river, he nevertheless considered that it ought to
 +be attempted by him, or that his army ought not otherwise to be led
 +over. He devised this plan of a bridge. He joined together at the
 +distance of two feet, two piles, each a foot and a half thick, sharpened
 +a little at the lower end, and proportioned in length, to the depth
 +of the river. After he had, by means of engines, sunk these into the
 +river, and fixed them at the bottom, and then driven them in with
 +rammers, not quite perpendicularly,​ dike a stake, but bending forward
 +and sloping, so as to incline in the direction of the current of the
 +river; he also placed two [other piles] opposite to these, at the
 +distance of forty feet lower down, fastened together in the same manner,
 +but directed against the force and current of the river. Both these,
 +moreover, were kept firmly apart by beams two feet thick (the space
 +which the binding of the piles occupied), laid in at their extremities
 +between two braces on each side, and in consequence of these being
 +in different directions and fastened on sides the one opposite to
 +the other, so great was the strength of the work, and such the arrangement
 +of the materials, that in proportion as the greater body of water
 +dashed against the bridge, so much the closer were its parts held
 +fastened together. These beams were bound together by timber laid
 +over them, in the direction of the length of the bridge, and were
 +[then] covered over with laths and hurdles; and in addition to this,
 +piles were driven into the water obliquely, at the lower side of the
 +bridge, and these, serving as buttresses, and being connected with
 +every portion of the work, sustained the force of the stream: and
 +there were others also above the bridge, at a moderate distance; that
 +if trunks of trees or vessels were floated down the river by the barbarians
 +for the purpose of destroying the work, the violence of such things
 +might be diminished by these defenses, and might not injure the bridge.
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +Within ten days after the timber began to be collected, the whole
 +work was completed, and the whole army led over. Caesar, leaving a
 +strong guard at each end of the bridge, hastens into the territories
 +of the Sigambri. In the mean time, embassadors from several nations
 +come to him, whom, on their suing for peace and alliance, he answers
 +in a courteous manner, and orders hostages to be brought to him. But
 +the Sigambri, at the very time the bridge was begun to be built, made
 +preparations for a flight (by the advice of such of the Tenchtheri
 +and Usipetes as they had among them), and quitted their territories,​
 +and conveyed away all their possessions,​ and concealed themselves
 +in deserts and woods. ​
 +===== Chapter 19 =====
 +Caesar, having remained in their territories a few days, and burned
 +all their villages and houses, and cut down their corn, proceeded
 +into the territories of the Ubii; and having promised them his assistance,
 +if they were ever harassed by the Suevi, he learned from them these
 +particulars:​ that the Suevi, after they had by means of their scouts
 +found that the bridge was being built, had called a council, according
 +to their custom, and sent orders to all parts of their state to remove
 +from the towns and convey their children, wives, and all their possessions
 +into the woods, and that all who could bear arms should assemble in
 +one place; that the place thus chosen was nearly the centre of those
 +regions which the Suevi possessed; that in this spot they had resolved
 +to await the arrival of the Romans, and give them battle there. When
 +Caesar discovered this, having already accomplished all these things
 +on account of which he had resolved to lead his army over, namely,
 +to strike fear into the Germans, take vengeance on the Sigambri, and
 +free the Ubii from the invasion of the Suevi, having spent altogether
 +eighteen days beyond the Rhine, and thinking he had advanced far enough
 +to serve both honor and interest, he returned into Gaul, and cut down
 +the bridge. ​
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +During the short part of summer which remained, Caesar, although in
 +these countries, as all Gaul lies toward the north, the winters are
 +early, nevertheless resolved to proceed into Britain, because he discovered
 +that in almost all the wars with the Gauls succors had been furnished
 +to our enemy from that country; and even if the time of year should
 +be insufficient for carrying on the war, yet he thought it would be
 +of great service to him if he only entered the island, and saw into
 +the character of the people, and got knowledge of their localities,
 +harbors, and landing-places,​ all which were for the most part unknown
 +to the Gauls. For neither does any one except merchants generally
 +go thither, nor even to them was any portion of it known, except the
 +sea-coast and those parts which are opposite to Gaul. Therefore, after
 +having called up to him the merchants from all parts, he could learn
 +neither what was the size of the island, nor what or how numerous
 +were the nations which inhabited it, nor what system of war they followed,
 +nor what customs they used, nor what harbors were convenient for a
 +great number of large ships. ​
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +He sends before him Caius Volusenus with a ship of war, to acquire
 +a knowledge of these particulars before he in person should make a
 +descent into the island, as he was convinced that this was a judicious
 +measure. He commissioned him to thoroughly examine into all matters,
 +and then return to him as soon as possible. He himself proceeds to
 +the Morini with all his forces. He orders ships from all parts of
 +the neighboring countries, and the fleet which the preceding summer
 +he had built for the war with the Veneti, to assemble in this place.
 +In the mean time, his purpose having been discovered, and reported
 +to the Britons by merchants, embassadors come to him from several
 +states of the island, to promise that they will give hostages, and
 +submit to the government of the Roman people. Having given them an
 +audience, he after promising liberally, and exhorting them to continue
 +in that purpose, sends them back to their own country, and [dispatches]
 +with them Commius, whom, upon subduing the Atrebates, he had created
 +king there, a man whose courage and conduct he esteemed, and who he
 +thought would be faithful to him, and whose influence ranked highly
 +in those countries. He orders him to visit as many states as he could,
 +and persuade them to embrace the protection of the Roman people, and
 +apprize them that he would shortly come thither. Volusenus, having
 +viewed the localities as far as means could be afforded one who dared
 +not leave his ship and trust himself to barbarians, returns to Caesar
 +on the fifth day, and reports what he had there observed.
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +While Caesar remains in these parts for the purpose of procuring ships,
 +embassadors come to him from a great portion of the Morini, to plead
 +their excuse respecting their conduct on the late occasion; alleging
 +that it was as men uncivilized,​ and as those who were unacquainted
 +with our custom, that they had made war upon the Roman people, and
 +promising to perform what he should command. Caesar, thinking that
 +this had happened fortunately enough for him, because he neither wished
 +to leave an enemy behind him, nor had an opportunity for carrying
 +on a war, by reason of the time of year, nor considered that employment
 +in such trifling matters was to be preferred to his enterprise on
 +Britain, imposes a large number of hostages; and when these were brought,
 +he received them to his protection. Having collected together, and
 +provided about eighty transport ships, as many as he thought necessary
 +for conveying over two legions, he assigned such [ships] of war as
 +he had besides to the quaestor, his lieutenants,​ and officers of cavalry.
 +There were in addition to these eighteen ships of burden which were
 +prevented, eight miles from that place, by winds, from being able
 +to reach the same port. These he distributed among the horse; the
 +rest of the army, he delivered to Q. Titurius Sabinus and L. Aurunculeius
 +Cotta, his lieutenants,​ to lead into the territories of the Menapii
 +and those cantons of the Morini from which embassadors had not come
 +to him. He ordered P. Sulpicius Rufus, his lieutenant, to hold possession
 +of the harbor, with such a garrison as he thought sufficient.
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +These matters being arranged, finding the weather favorable for his
 +voyage, he set sail about the third watch, and ordered the horse to
 +march forward to the further port, and there embark and follow him.
 +As this was performed rather tardily by them, he himself reached Britain
 +with the first squadron of ships, about the fourth hour of the day,
 +and there saw the forces of the enemy drawn up in arms on all the
 +hills. The nature of the place was this: the sea was confined by mountains
 +so close to it that a dart could be thrown from their summit upon
 +the shore. Considering this by no means a fit place for disembarking,​
 +he remained at anchor till the ninth hour, for the other ships to
 +arrive there. Having in the mean time assembled the lieutenants and
 +military tribunes, he told them both what he had learned from Volusenus,
 +and what he wished to be done; and enjoined them (as the principle
 +of military matters, and especially as maritime affairs, which have
 +a precipitate and uncertain action, required) that all things should
 +be performed by them at a nod and at the instant. Having dismissed
 +them, meeting both with wind and tide favorable at the same time,
 +the signal being given and the anchor weighed, he advanced about seven
 +miles from that place, and stationed his fleet over against an open
 +and level shore. ​
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +But the barbarians, upon perceiving the design of the Romans, sent
 +forward their cavalry and charioteers,​ a class of warriors of whom
 +it is their practice to make great use in their battles, and following
 +with the rest of their forces, endeavored to prevent our men landing.
 +In this was the greatest difficulty, for the following reasons, namely,
 +because our ships, on account of their great size, could be stationed
 +only in deep water; and our soldiers, in places unknown to them, with
 +their hands embarrassed,​ oppressed with a large and heavy weight of
 +armor, had at the same time to leap from the ships, stand amid the
 +waves, and encounter the enemy; whereas they, either on dry ground,
 +or advancing a little way into the water, free in all their limbs
 +in places thoroughly known to them, could confidently throw their
 +weapons and spur on their horses, which were accustomed to this kind
 +of service. Dismayed by these circumstances and altogether untrained
 +in this mode of battle, our men did not all exert the same vigor and
 +eagerness which they had been wont to exert in engagements on dry
 +ground. ​
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +When Caesar observed this, he ordered the ships of war, the appearance
 +of which was somewhat strange to the barbarians and the motion more
 +ready for service, to be withdrawn a little from the transport vessels,
 +and to be propelled by their oars, and be stationed toward the open
 +flank of the enemy, and the enemy to be beaten off and driven away,
 +with slings, arrows, and engines: which plan was of great service
 +to our men; for the barbarians being startled by the form of our ships
 +and the motions of our oars and the nature of our engines, which was
 +strange to them, stopped, and shortly after retreated a little. And
 +while our men were hesitating [whether they should advance to the
 +shore], chiefly on account of the depth of the sea, he who carried
 +the eagle of the tenth legion, after supplicating the gods that the
 +matter might turn out favorably to the legion, exclaimed, "Leap, fellow
 +soldiers, unless you wish to betray your eagle to the enemy. I, for
 +my part, will perform my duty to the commonwealth and my general."​
 +When he had said this with a loud voice, he leaped from the ship and
 +proceeded to bear the eagle toward the enemy. Then our men, exhorting
 +one another that so great a disgrace should not be incurred, all leaped
 +from the ship. When those in the nearest vessels saw them, they speedily
 +followed and approached the enemy. ​
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +The battle was maintained vigorously on both sides. Our men, however,
 +as they could neither keep their ranks, nor get firm footing, nor
 +follow their standards, and as one from one ship and another from
 +another assembled around whatever standards they met, were thrown
 +into great confusion. But the enemy, who were acquainted with all
 +the shallows, when from the shore they saw any coming from a ship
 +one by one, spurred on their horses, and attacked them while embarrassed;​
 +many surrounded a few, others threw their weapons upon our collected
 +forces on their exposed flank. When Caesar observed this, he ordered
 +the boats of the ships of war and the spy sloops to be filled with
 +soldiers, and sent them up to the succor of those whom he had observed
 +in distress. Our men, as soon as they made good their footing on dry
 +ground, and all their comrades had joined them, made an attack upon
 +the enemy, and put them to flight, but could not pursue them very
 +far, because the horse had not been able to maintain their course
 +at sea and reach the island. This alone was wanting to Caesar'​s accustomed
 +success. ​
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +The enemy being thus vanquished in battle, as soon as they recovered
 +after their flight, instantly sent embassadors to Caesar to negotiate
 +about peace. They promised to give hostages and perform what he should
 +command. Together with these embassadors came Commius the Altrebatian,​
 +who, as I have above said, had been sent by Caesar into Britain. Him
 +they had seized upon when leaving his ship, although in the character
 +of embassador he bore the general'​s commission to them, and thrown
 +into chains: then after the battle was fought, they sent him back,
 +and in suing for peace cast the blame of that act upon the common
 +people, and entreated that it might be pardoned on account of their
 +indiscretion. Caesar, complaining,​ that after they had sued for peace,
 +and had voluntarily sent embassadors into the continent for that purpose,
 +they had made war without a reason, said that he would pardon their
 +indiscretion,​ and imposed hostages, a part of whom they gave immediately;​
 +the rest they said they would give in a few days, since they were
 +sent for from remote places. In the mean time they ordered their people
 +to return to the country parts, and the chiefs assembled from all
 +quarter, and proceeded to surrender themselves and their states to
 +Caesar. ​
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +A peace being established by these proceedings four days after we
 +had come into Britain, the eighteen ships, to which reference has
 +been made above, and which conveyed the cavalry, set sail from the
 +upper port with a gentle gale, when, however, they were approaching
 +Britain and were seen from the camp, so great a storm suddenly arose
 +that none of them could maintain their course at sea; and some were
 +taken back to the same port from which they had started; - others,
 +to their great danger, were driven to the lower part of the island,
 +nearer to the west; which, however, after having cast anchor, as they
 +were getting filled with water, put out to sea through necessity in
 +a stormy night, and made for the continent. ​
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +It happened that night to be full moon, which usually occasions very
 +high tides in that ocean; and that circumstance was unknown to our
 +men. Thus, at the same time, the tide began to fill the ships of war
 +which Caesar had provided to convey over his army, and which he had
 +drawn up on the strand; and the storm began to dash the ships of burden
 +which were riding at anchor against each other; nor was any means
 +afforded our men of either managing them or of rendering any service.
 +A great many ships having been wrecked, inasmuch as the rest, having
 +lost their cables, anchors, and other tackling, were unfit for sailing,
 +a great confusion, as would necessarily happen, arose throughout the
 +army; for there were no other ships in which they could be conveyed
 +back, and all things which are of service in repairing vessels were
 +wanting, and, corn for the winter had not been provided in those places,
 +because it was understood by all that they would certainly winter
 +in Gaul. 
 +===== Chapter 30 =====
 +On discovering these things the chiefs of Britain, who had come up
 +after the battle was fought to perform those conditions which Caesar
 +had imposed, held a conference, when they perceived that cavalry,
 +and ships, and corn were wanting to the Romans, and discovered the
 +small number of our soldiers from the small extent of the camp (which,
 +too, was on this account more limited than ordinary, because Caesar
 +had conveyed over his legions without baggage), and thought that the
 +best plan was to renew the war, and cut off our men from corn and
 +provisions and protract the affair till winter; because they felt
 +confident, that, if they were vanquished or cut off from a return,
 +no one would afterward pass over into Britain for the purpose of making
 +war. Therefore, again entering into a conspiracy, they began to depart
 +from the camp by degrees and secretly bring up their people from the
 +country parts. ​
 +===== Chapter 31 =====
 +But Caesar, although he had not as yet discovered their measures,
 +yet, both from what had occurred to his ships, and from the circumstance
 +that they had neglected to give the promised hostages, suspected that
 +the thing would come to pass which really did happen. He therefore
 +provided remedies against all contingencies;​ for he daily conveyed
 +corn from the country parts into the camp, used the timber and brass
 +of such ships as were most seriously damaged for repairing the rest,
 +and ordered whatever things besides were necessary for this object
 +to be brought to him from the continent. And thus, since that business
 +was executed by the soldiers with the greatest energy, he effected
 +that, after the loss of twelve ships, a voyage could be made well
 +enough in the rest. 
 +===== Chapter 32 =====
 +While these things are being transacted, one legion had been sent
 +to forage, according to custom, and no suspicion of war had arisen
 +as yet, and some of the people remained in the country parts, others
 +went backward and forward to the camp, they who were on duty at the
 +gates of the camp reported to Caesar that a greater dust than was
 +usual was seen in that direction in which the legion had marched.
 +Caesar, suspecting that which was [really the case], - that some new
 +enterprise was undertaken by the barbarians, ordered the two cohorts
 +which were on duty, to march into that quarter with him, and two other
 +cohorts to relieve them on duty; the rest to be armed and follow him
 +immediately. When he had advanced some little way from the camp, he
 +saw that his men were overpowered by the enemy and scarcely able to
 +stand their ground, and that, the legion being crowded together, weapons
 +were being cast on them from all sides. For as all the corn was reaped
 +in every part with the exception of one, the enemy, suspecting that
 +our men would repair to that, had concealed themselves in the woods
 +during the night. Then attacking them suddenly, scattered as they
 +were, and when they had laid aside their arms, and were engaged in
 +reaping, they killed a small number, threw the rest into confusion,
 +and surrounded them with their cavalry and chariots. ​
 +===== Chapter 33 =====
 +Their mode of fighting with their chariots is this: firstly, they
 +drive about in all directions and throw their weapons and generally
 +break the ranks of the enemy with the very dread of their horses and
 +the noise of their wheels; and when they have worked themselves in
 +between the troops of horse, leap from their chariots and engage on
 +foot. The charioteers in the mean time withdraw some little distance
 +from the battle, and so place themselves with the chariots that, if
 +their masters are overpowered by the number of the enemy, they may
 +have a ready retreat to their own troops. Thus they display in battle
 +the speed of horse, [together with] the firmness of infantry; and
 +by daily practice and exercise attain to such expertness that they
 +are accustomed, even on a declining and steep place, to check their
 +horses at full speed, and manage and turn them in an instant and run
 +along the pole, and stand on the yoke, and thence betake themselves
 +with the greatest celerity to their chariots again. ​
 +===== Chapter 34 =====
 +Under these circumstances,​ our men being dismayed by the novelty of
 +this mode of battle, Caesar most seasonably brought assistance; for
 +upon his arrival the enemy paused, and our men recovered from their
 +fear; upon which thinking the time unfavorable for provoking the enemy
 +and coming to an action, he kept himself in his own quarter, and,
 +a short time having intervened, drew back the legions into the camp.
 +While these things are going on, and all our men engaged, the rest
 +of the Britons, who were in the fields, departed. Storms then set
 +in for several successive days, which both confined our men to the
 +camp and hindered the enemy from attacking us. In the mean time the
 +barbarians dispatched messengers to all parts, and reported to their
 +people the small number of our soldiers, and how good an opportunity
 +was given for obtaining spoil and for liberating themselves forever,
 +if they should only drive the Romans from their camp. Having by these
 +means speedily got together a large force of infantry and of cavalry
 +they came up to the camp. 
 +===== Chapter 35 =====
 +Although Caesar anticipated that the same thing which had happened
 +on former occasions would then occur - that, if the enemy were routed,
 +they would escape from danger by their speed; still, having got about
 +thirty horse, which Commius the Atrebatian, of whom mention has been
 +made, had brought over with him [from Gaul], he drew up the legions
 +in order of battle before the camp. When the action commenced, the
 +enemy were unable to sustain the attack of our men long, and turned
 +their backs; our men pursued them as far as their speed and strength
 +permitted, and slew a great number of them; then, having destroyed
 +and burned every thing far and wide, they retreated to their camp.
 +===== Chapter 36 =====
 +The same day, embassadors sent by the enemy came to Caesar to negotiate
 +a peace. Caesar doubled the number of hostages which he had before
 +demanded; and ordered that they should be brought over to the continent,
 +because, since the time of the equinox was near, he did not consider
 +that, with his ships out of repair, the voyage ought to be deferred
 +till winter. Having met with favorable weather, he set sail a little
 +after midnight, and all his fleet arrived safe at the continent, except
 +two of the ships of burden which could not make the same port which
 +the other ships did, and were carried a little lower down.
 +===== Chapter 37 =====
 +When our soldiers, about 300 in number, had been drawn out of these
 +two ships, and were marching to the camp, the Morini, whom Caesar,
 +when setting forth for Britain, had left in a state of peace, excited
 +by the hope of spoil, at first surrounded them with a small number
 +of men, and ordered them to lay down their arms, if they did not wish
 +to be slain; afterward however, when they, forming a circle, stood
 +on their defense, a shout was raised and about 6000 of the enemy soon
 +assembled; which being reported, Caesar sent all the cavalry in the
 +camp as a relief to his men. In the mean time our soldiers sustained
 +the attack of the enemy, and fought most valiantly for more than four
 +hours, and, receiving but few wounds themselves, slew several of them.
 +But after our cavalry came in sight, the enemy, throwing away their
 +arms, turned their backs, and a great number of them were killed.
 +===== Chapter 38 =====
 +The day following Caesar sent Labienus, his lieutenant, with those
 +legions which he had brought back from Britain, against the Morini,
 +who had revolted; who, as they had no place to which they might retreat,
 +on account of the drying up of their marshes (which they had availed
 +themselves of as a place of refuge the preceding year), almost all
 +fell into the power of Labienus. In the mean time Caesar'​s lieutenants,​
 +Q. Titurius and L. Cotta, who had led the legions into the territories
 +of the Menapii, having laid waste all their lands, cut down their
 +corn and burned their houses, returned to Caesar because the Menapii
 +had all concealed themselves in their thickest woods. Caesar fixed
 +the winter quarters of all the legions among the Belgae. Thither only
 +two British states sent hostages; the rest omitted to do so. For these
 +successes, a thanksgiving of twenty days was decreed by the senate
 +upon receiving Caesar'​s letter. ​
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