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de_bello_gallico_5 [2018/04/21 03:30] (current)
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 +====== The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar 5 ======
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​05 The Gallic Wars, V.mp3">​Book 5 In Audio (alt version not a transcription)</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​​player.js"></​script></​html>​
 +(54 B.C.)
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +Lucius Domitius and Appius Claudius being consuls, Caesar, when departing
 +from his winter quarters into Italy, as he had been accustomed to
 +do yearly, commands the lieutenants whom he appointed over the legions
 +to take care that during the winter as many ships as possible should
 +be built, and the old repaired. He plans the size and shape of them.
 +For dispatch of lading, and for drawing them on shore, he makes them
 +a little lower than those which we have been accustomed to use in
 +our sea; and that so much the more, because he knew that, on account
 +of the frequent changes of the tide, less swells occurred there; for
 +the purpose of transporting burdens and a great number of horses,
 +[he makes them] a little broader than those which we use in other
 +seas. All these he orders to be constructed for lightness and expedition,
 +to which object their lowness contributes greatly. He orders those
 +things which are necessary for equipping ships to be brought thither
 +from Spain. He himself, on the assizes of Hither Gaul being concluded,
 +proceeds into Illyricum, because he heard that the part of the province
 +nearest them was being laid waste by the incursions of the Pirustae.
 +When he had arrived there, he levies soldiers upon the states, and
 +orders them to assemble at an appointed place. Which circumstance
 +having been reported [to them], the Pirustae send embassadors to him
 +to inform him that no part of those proceedings was done by public
 +deliberation,​ and assert that they were ready to make compensation
 +by all means for the injuries [inflicted]. Caesar, accepting their
 +defense, demands hostages, and orders them to be brought to him on
 +a specified day, and assures them that unless they did so he would
 +visit their state with war. These being brought to him on the day
 +which he had ordered, he appoints arbitrators between the states,
 +who should estimate the damages and determine the reparation.
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +These things being finished, and the assizes being concluded, he returns
 +into Hither Gaul, and proceeds thence to the army. When he had arrived
 +there, having made a survey of the winter quarter, he finds that,
 +by the extraordinary ardor of the soldiers, amid the utmost scarcity
 +of all materials, about six hundred ships of that kind which we have
 +described above and twenty-eight ships of war, had been built, and
 +were not far from that state, that they might be launched in a few
 +days. Having commended the soldiers and those who had presided over
 +the work, he informs them what he wishes to be done, and orders all
 +the ships to assemble at port Itius, from which port he had learned
 +that the passage into Britain was shortest, [being only] about thirty
 +miles from the continent. He left what seemed a sufficient number
 +of soldiers for that design; he himself proceeds into the territories
 +of the Treviri with four legions without baggage, and 800 horse, because
 +they neither came to the general diets [of Gaul], nor obeyed his commands,
 +and were moreover, said to be tampering with the Germans beyond the
 +Rhine. ​
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +This state is by far the most powerful of all Gaul in cavalry, and
 +has great forces of infantry, and as we have remarked above, borders
 +on the Rhine. In that state, two persons, Indutiomarus and Cingetorix,
 +were then contending with each other for the supreme power; one of
 +whom, as soon as the arrival of Caesar and his legions was known,
 +came to him; assures him that he and all his party would continue
 +in their allegiance, and not revolt from the alliance of the Roman
 +people, and informs him of the things which were going on among the
 +Treviri. But Indutiomarus began to collect cavalry and infantry, and
 +make preparations for war, having concealed those who by reason of
 +their age could not be under arms, in the forest Arduenna, which is
 +of immense size, [and] extends from the Rhine across the country of
 +the Treviri to the frontiers of the Remi. But after that, some of
 +the chief persons of the state, both influenced by their friendship
 +for Cingetorix, and alarmed at the arrival of our army, came to Caesar
 +and began to solicit him privately about their own interests, since
 +they could not provide for the safety of the state; Indutiomarus,​
 +dreading lest he should be abandoned by all, sends embassadors to
 +Caesar, to declare that he absented himself from his countrymen, and
 +refrained from coming to him on this account, that he might the more
 +easily keep the state in its allegiance, lest on the departure of
 +all the nobility the commonalty should, in their indiscretion,​ revolt.
 +And thus the whole state was at his control; and that he, if Caesar
 +would permit, would come to the camp to him, and would commit his
 +own fortunes and those of the state to his good faith. ​
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +Caesar, though he discerned from what motive these things were said,
 +and what circumstances deterred him from his meditated plan, still,
 +in order that he might not be compelled to waste the summer among
 +the Treviri, while all things were prepared for the war with Britain,
 +ordered Indutiomarus to come to him with 200 hostages. When they were
 +brought, [and] among them his son and near relations, whom he had
 +demanded by name, he consoled Indutiomarus,​ and enjoined him to continue
 +in his allegiance; yet, nevertheless,​ summoning to him the chief men
 +of the Treviri, he reconciled them individually to Cingetorix: this
 +he both thought should be done by him in justice to the merits of
 +the latter, and also judged that it was of great importance that the
 +influence of one whose singular attachment toward him he had fully
 +seen, should prevail as much as possible among his people. Indutiomarus
 +was very much offended at this act, [seeing that] his influence was
 +diminished among his countrymen; and he, who already before had borne
 +a hostile mind toward us, was much more violently inflamed against
 +us through resentment at this. 
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +These matters being settled, Caesar went to port Itius with the legions.
 +There he discovers that forty ships, which had been built in the country
 +of the Meldi, having been driven back by a storm, had been unable
 +to maintain their course, and had returned to the same port from which
 +they had set out; he finds the rest ready for sailing, and furnished
 +with every thing. In the same place, the cavalry of the whole of Gaul,
 +in number 4,000, assembles, and [also] the chief persons of all the
 +states; he had determined to leave in Gaul a very few of them, whose
 +fidelity toward him he had clearly discerned, and take the rest with
 +him as hostages; because he feared a commotion in Gaul when he should
 +be absent. ​
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +There was together with the others, Dumnorix, the Aeduan, of whom
 +we have made previous mention. Him, in particular, he had resolved
 +to have with him, because he had discovered him to be fond of change,
 +fond of power, possessing great resolution, and great influence among
 +the Gauls. To this was added, that Dumnorix had before said in an
 +assembly of Aeduans, that the sovereignty of the state had been made
 +over to him by Caesar; which speech the Aedui bore with impatience
 +and yet dared not send embassadors to Caesar for the purpose of either
 +rejecting or deprecating [that appointment]. That fact Caesar had
 +learned from his own personal friends. He at first strove to obtain
 +by every entreaty that he should be left in Gaul; partly, because,
 +being unaccustomed to sailing, he feared the sea; partly because he
 +said he was prevented by divine admonitions. After he saw that this
 +request was firmly refused him, all hope of success being lost, he
 +began to tamper with the chief persons of the Gauls, to call them
 +apart singly and exhort them to remain on the continent; to agitate
 +them with the fear that it was not without reason that Gaul should
 +be stripped of all her nobility; that it was Caesar'​s design, to bring
 +over to Britain and put to death all those whom he feared to slay
 +in the sight of Gaul, to pledge his honor to the rest, to ask for
 +their oath that they would by common deliberation execute what they
 +should perceive to be necessary for Gaul. These things were reported
 +to Caesar by several persons. ​
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +Having learned this fact, Caesar, because he had conferred so much
 +honor upon the Aeduan state, determined that Dumnorix should be restrained
 +and deterred by whatever means he could; and that, because he perceived
 +his insane designs to be proceeding further and further, care should
 +be taken lest he might be able to injure him and the commonwealth.
 +Therefore, having stayed about twenty-five days in that place, because
 +the north wind, which usually blows a great part of every season,
 +prevented the voyage, he exerted himself to keep Dumnorix in his allegiance
 +[and] nevertheless learn all his measures: having at length met with
 +favorable weather, he orders the foot soldiers and the horse to embark
 +in the ships. But, while the minds of all were occupied, Dumnorix
 +began to take his departure from the camp homeward with the cavalry
 +of the Aedui, Caesar being ignorant of it. Caesar, on this matter
 +being reported to him, ceasing from his expedition and deferring all
 +other affairs, sends a great part of the cavalry to pursue him, and
 +commands that he be brought back; he orders that if he use violence
 +and do not submit, that he be slain; considering that Dumnorix would
 +do nothing as a rational man while he himself was absent, since he
 +had disregarded his command even when present. He, however, when recalled,
 +began to resist and defend himself with his hand, and implore the
 +support of his people, often exclaiming that "he was free and the
 +subject of a free state."​ They surround and kill the man as they had
 +been commanded; but the Aeduan horsemen all return to Caesar.
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +When these things were done [and] Labienus, left on the continent
 +with three legions and 2,000 horse, to defend the harbors and provide
 +corn, and discover what was going on in Gaul, and take measures according
 +to the occasion and according to the circumstance;​ he himself, with
 +five legions and a number of horse, equal to that which he was leaving
 +on the continent, set sail at sun-set, and [though for a time] borne
 +forward by a gentle south-west wind, he did not maintain his course,
 +in consequence of the wind dying away about midnight, and being carried
 +on too far by the tide, when the sun rose, espied Britain passed on
 +his left. Then, again, following the change of tide, he urged on with
 +the oars that he might make that part of the island in which he had
 +discovered the preceding summer, that there was the best landing-place,​
 +and in this affair the spirit of our soldiers was very much to be
 +extolled; for they with the transports and heavy ships, the labor
 +of rowing not being [for a moment] discontinued,​ equaled the speed
 +of the ships of war. All the ships reached Britain nearly at mid-day;
 +nor was there seen a [single] enemy in that place, but, as Caesar
 +afterward found from some prisoners, though large bodies of troops
 +had assembled there, yet being alarmed by the great number of our
 +ships, more than eight hundred of which, including the ships of the
 +preceding year, and those private vessels which each had built for
 +his own convenience,​ had appeared at one time, they had quitted the
 +coast and concealed themselves among the higher points. ​
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +Caesar, having disembarked his army and chosen a convenient place
 +for the camp, when he discovered from the prisoners in what part the
 +forces of the enemy had lodged themselves, having left ten cohorts
 +and 300 horse at the sea, to be a guard to the ships, hastens to the
 +enemy, at the third watch, fearing the less for the ships, for this
 +reason because he was leaving them fastened at anchor upon an even
 +and open shore; and he placed Q. Atrius over the guard of the ships.
 +He himself, having advanced by night about twelve miles, espied the
 +forces of the enemy. They, advancing to the river with their cavalry
 +and chariots from the higher ground, began to annoy our men and give
 +battle. Being repulsed by our cavalry, they concealed themselves in
 +woods, as they had secured a place admirably fortified by nature and
 +by art, which, as it seemed, they had before prepared on account of
 +a civil war; for all entrances to it were shut up by a great number
 +of felled trees. They themselves rushed out of the woods to fight
 +here and there, and prevented our men from entering their fortifications.
 +But the soldiers of the seventh legion, having formed a testudo and
 +thrown up a rampart against the fortification,​ took the place and
 +drove them out of the woods, receiving only a few wounds. But Caesar
 +forbade his men to pursue them in their flight any great distance;
 +both because he was ignorant of the nature of the ground, and because,
 +as a great part of the day was spent, he wished time to be left for
 +the fortification of the camp. 
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +The next day, early in the morning, he sent both foot-soldiers and
 +horse in three divisions on an expedition to pursue those who had
 +fled. These having advanced a little way, when already the rear [of
 +the enemy] was in sight, some horse came to Caesar from Quintus Atrius,
 +to report that the preceding night, a very great storm having arisen,
 +almost all the ships were dashed to pieces and cast upon the shore,
 +because neither the anchors and cables could resist, nor could the
 +sailors and pilots sustain the violence of the storm; and thus great
 +damage was received by that collision of the ships. ​
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +These things being known [to him], Caesar orders the legions and cavalry
 +to be recalled and to cease from their march; he himself returns to
 +the ships: he sees clearly before him almost the same things which
 +he had heard of from the messengers and by letter, so that, about
 +forty ships being lost, the remainder seemed capable of being repaired
 +with much labor. Therefore he selects workmen from the legions, and
 +orders others to be sent for from the continent; he writes to Labienus
 +to build as many ships as he could with those legions which were with
 +him. He himself, though the matter was one of great difficulty and
 +labor, yet thought it to be most expedient for all the ships to be
 +brought up on shore and joined with the camp by one fortification.
 +In these matters he employed about ten days, the labor of the soldiers
 +being unremitting even during the hours of night. The ships having
 +been brought up on shore and the camp strongly fortified, he left
 +the same forces as he did before as a guard for the ships; he sets
 +out in person for the same place that he had returned from. When he
 +had come thither, greater forces of the Britons had already assembled
 +at that place, the chief command and management of the war having
 +been intrusted to Cassivellaunus,​ whose territories a river, which
 +is called the Thames, separates, from the maritime states at about
 +eighty miles from the sea. At an earlier period perpetual wars had
 +taken place between him and the other states; but, greatly alarmed
 +by our arrival, the Britons had placed him over the whole war and
 +the conduct of it. 
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +The interior portion of Britain is inhabited by those of whom they
 +say that it is handed down by tradition that they were born in the
 +island itself: the maritime portion by those who had passed over from
 +the country of the Belgae for the purpose of plunder and making war;
 +almost all of whom are called by the names of those states from which
 +being sprung they went thither, and having waged war, continued there
 +and began to cultivate the lands. The number of the people is countless,
 +and their buildings exceedingly numerous, for the most part very like
 +those of the Gauls: the number of cattle is great. They use either
 +brass or iron rings, determined at a certain weight, as their money.
 +Tin is produced in the midland regions; in the maritime, iron; but
 +the quantity of it is small: they employ brass, which is imported.
 +There, as in Gaul, is timber of every description,​ except beech and
 +fir. They do not regard it lawful to eat the hare, and the cock, and
 +the goose; they, however, breed them for amusement and pleasure. The
 +climate is more temperate than in Gaul, the colds being less severe.
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +The island is triangular in its form, and one of its sides is opposite
 +to Gaul. One angle of this side, which is in Kent, whither almost
 +all ships from Gaul are directed, [looks] to the east; the lower looks
 +to the south. This side extends about 500 miles. Another side lies
 +toward Spain and the west, on which part is Ireland, less, as is reckoned,
 +than Britain, by one half: but the passage [from it] into Britain
 +is of equal distance with that from Gaul. In the middle of this voyage,
 +is an island, which is called Mona: many smaller islands besides are
 +supposed to lie [there], of which islands some have written that at
 +the time of the winter solstice it is night there for thirty consecutive
 +days. We, in our inquiries about that matter, ascertained nothing,
 +except that, by accurate measurements with water, we perceived the
 +nights to be shorter there than on the continent. The length of this
 +side, as their account states, is 700 miles. The third side is toward
 +the north, to which portion of the island no land is opposite; but
 +an angle of that side looks principally toward Germany. This side
 +is considered to be 800 miles in length. Thus the whole island is
 +[about] 2,000 miles in circumference. ​
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +The most civilized of all these nations are they who inhabit Kent,
 +which is entirely a maritime district, nor do they differ much from
 +the Gallic customs. Most of the inland inhabitants do not sow corn,
 +but live on milk and flesh, and are clad with skins. All the Britains,
 +indeed, dye themselves with wood, which occasions a bluish color,
 +and thereby have a more terrible appearance in fight. They wear their
 +hair long, and have every part of their body shaved except their head
 +and upper lip. Ten and even twelve have wives common to them, and
 +particularly brothers among brothers, and parents among their children;
 +but if there be any issue by these wives, they are reputed to be the
 +children of those by whom respectively each was first espoused when
 +a virgin. ​
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +The horse and charioteers of the enemy contended vigorously in a skirmish
 +with our cavalry on the march; yet so that our men were conquerors
 +in all parts, and drove them to their woods and hills; but, having
 +slain a great many, they pursued too eagerly, and lost some of their
 +men. But the enemy, after some time had elapsed, when our men were
 +off their guard, and occupied in the fortification of the camp, rushed
 +out of the woods, and making an attack upon those who were placed
 +on duty before the camp, fought in a determined manner; and two cohorts
 +being sent by Caesar to their relief, and these severally the first
 +of two legions, when these had taken up their position at a very small
 +distance from each other, as our men were disconcerted by the unusual
 +mode of battle, the enemy broke through the middle of them most courageously,​
 +and retreated thence in safety. That day, Q. Laberius Durus, a tribune
 +of the soldiers, was slain. The enemy, since more cohorts were sent
 +against them, were repulsed. ​
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +In the whole of this method of fighting since the engagement took
 +place under the eyes of all and before the camp, it was perceived
 +that our men, on account of the weight of their arms, inasmuch as
 +they could neither pursue [the enemy when] retreating, nor dare quit
 +their standards, were little suited to this kind of enemy; that the
 +horse also fought with great danger, because they [the Britons] generally
 +retreated even designedly, and, when they had drawn off our men a
 +short distance from the legions, leaped from their chariots and fought
 +on foot in unequal [and to them advantageous] battle. But the system
 +of cavalry engagement is wont to produce equal danger, and indeed
 +the same, both to those who retreat and to those who pursue. To this
 +was added, that they never fought in close order, but in small parties
 +and at great distances, and had detachments placed [in different parts],
 +and then the one relieved the other, and the vigorous and fresh succeeded
 +the wearied.
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +The following day the enemy halted on the hills, a distance from our
 +camp, and presented themselves in small parties, and began to challenge
 +our horse to battle with less spirit than the day before. But at noon,
 +when Caesar had sent three legions, and all the cavalry, with C. Trebonius,
 +the lieutenant, for the purpose of foraging, they flew upon the foragers
 +suddenly from all quarters, so that they did not keep off [even] from
 +the standards and the legions. Our men making an attack on them vigorously,
 +repulsed them; nor did they cease to pursue them until the horse,
 +relying on relief, as they saw the legions behind them, drove the
 +enemy precipitately before them, and slaying a great number of them,
 +did not give them the opportunity either of rallying, or halting,
 +or leaping from their chariots. Immediately after this retreat, the
 +auxiliaries who had assembled from all sides, departed; nor after
 +that time did the enemy ever engage with us in very large numbers.
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +Caesar, discovering their design, leads his army into the territories
 +of Cassivellaunus to the river Thames; which river can be forded in
 +one place only and that with difficulty. When he had arrived there,
 +he perceives that numerous forces of the enemy were marshaled on the
 +other bank of the river; the bank also was defended by sharp stakes
 +fixed in front, and stakes of the same kind fixed under the water
 +were covered by the river. These things being discovered from [some]
 +prisoners and deserters, Caesar, sending forward the cavalry, ordered
 +the legions to follow them immediately. But the soldiers advanced
 +with such speed and such ardor, though they stood above the water
 +by their heads only, that the enemy could not sustain the attack of
 +the legions and of the horse, and quitted the banks, and committed
 +themselves to flight. ​
 +===== Chapter 19 ===== 
 +Cassivellaunus,​ as we have stated above, all hope [rising out] of
 +battle being laid aside, the greater part of his forces being dismissed,
 +and about 4,000 charioteers only being left, used to observe our marches
 +and retire a little from the road, and conceal himself in intricate
 +and woody places, and in those neighborhoods in which he had discovered
 +we were about to march, he used to drive the cattle and the inhabitants
 +from the fields into the woods; and, when our cavalry, for the sake
 +of plundering and ravaging the more freely, scattered themselves among
 +the fields, he used to send out charioteers from the woods by all
 +the well-known roads and paths, and to the great danger of our horse,
 +engage with them; and this source of fear hindered them from straggling
 +very extensively. The result was, that Caesar did not allow excursions
 +to be made to a great distance from the main body of the legions,
 +and ordered that damage should be done to the enemy in ravaging their
 +lands, and kindling fires only so far as the legionary soldiers could,
 +by their own exertion and marching, accomplish it. 
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +In the mean time, the Trinobantes,​ almost the most powerful state
 +of those parts, from which the young man, Mandubratius embracing the
 +protection of Caesar had come to the continent of Gaul to [meet] him
 +(whose father, Imanuentius,​ had possessed the sovereignty in that
 +state, and had been killed by Cassivellaunus;​ he himself had escaped
 +death by flight), send embassadors to Caesar, and promise that they
 +will surrender themselves to him and perform his commands; they entreat
 +him to protect Mandubratius from the violence of Cassivellaunus,​ and
 +send to their state some one to preside over it, and possess the government.
 +Caesar demands forty hostages from them, and corn for his army, and
 +sends Mandubratius to them. They speedily performed the things demanded,
 +and sent hostages to the number appointed, and the corn.
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +The Trinobantes being protected and secured from any violence of the
 +soldiers, the Cenimagni, the Segontiaci, the Ancalites, the Bibroci,
 +and the Cassi, sending embassies, surrendered themselves to Caesar.
 +From them he learns that the capital town of Cassivellaunus was not
 +far from that place, and was defended by woods and morasses, and a
 +very large number of men and of cattle had been collected in it. (Now
 +the Britons, when they have fortified the intricate woods, in which
 +they are wont to assemble for the purpose of avoiding the incursion
 +of an enemy, with an intrenchment and a rampart, call them a town.)
 +Thither he proceeds with his legions: he finds the place admirably
 +fortified by nature and art; he, however, undertakes to attack it
 +in two directions. The enemy, having remained only a short time, did
 +not sustain the attack of our soldiers, and hurried away on the other
 +side of the town. A great amount of cattle was found there, and many
 +of the enemy were taken and slain in their flight. ​
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +While these things are going forward in those places, Cassivellaunus
 +sends messengers into Kent, which, we have observed above, is on the
 +sea, over which districts four several kings reigned, Cingetorix,
 +Carvilius, Taximagulus and Segonax, and commands them to collect all
 +their forces, and unexpectedly assail and storm the naval camp. When
 +they had come to the camp, our men, after making a sally, slaying
 +many of their men, and also capturing a distinguished leader named
 +Lugotorix, brought back their own men in safety. Cassivellaunus,​ when
 +this battle was reported to him as so many losses had been sustained,
 +and his territories laid waste, being alarmed most of all by the desertion
 +of the states, sends embassadors to Caesar [to treat] about a surrender
 +through the mediation of Commius the Atrebatian. Caesar, since he
 +had determined to pass the winter on the continent, on account of
 +the sudden revolts of Gaul, and as much of the summer did not remain,
 +and he perceived that even that could be easily protracted, demands
 +hostages, and prescribes what tribute Britain should pay each year
 +to the Roman people; he forbids and commands Cassivellaunus that he
 +wage not war against Mandubratius or the Trinobantes. ​
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +When he had received the hostages, he leads back the army to the sea,
 +and finds the ships repaired. After launching these, because he had
 +a large number of prisoners, and some of the ships had been lost in
 +the storm, he determines to convey back his army at two embarkations.
 +And it so happened, that out of so large a number of ships, in so
 +many voyages, neither in this nor in the previous year was any ship
 +missing which conveyed soldiers; but very few out of those which were
 +sent back to him from the continent empty, as the soldiers of the
 +former convoy had been disembarked,​ and out of those (sixty in number)
 +which Labienus had taken care to have built, reached their destination;​
 +almost all the rest were driven back, and when Caesar had waited for
 +them for some time in vain, lest he should be debarred from a voyage
 +by the season of the year, inasmuch as the equinox was at hand, he
 +of necessity stowed his soldiers the more closely, and, a very great
 +calm coming on, after he had weighed anchor at the beginning of the
 +second watch, he reached land at break of day and brought in all the
 +ships in safety. ​
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +The ships having been drawn up and a general assembly of the Gauls
 +held at Samarobriva,​ because the corn that year had not prospered
 +in Gaul by reason of the droughts, he was compelled to station his
 +army in its winter-quarters differently from the former years, and
 +to distribute the legions among several states: one of them he gave
 +to C. Fabius, his lieutenant, to be marched into the territories of
 +the Morini; a second to Q. Cicero, into those of the Nervii; a third
 +to L. Roscius, into those of the Essui; a fourth he ordered to winter
 +with T. Labienus among the Remi in the confines of the Treviri; he
 +stationed three in Belgium; over these he appointed M. Crassus, his
 +questor, and L. Munatius Plancus and C. Trebonius, his lieutenants.
 +One legion which he had raised last on the other side of the Po, and
 +five cohorts, he sent among the Eburones, the greatest portion of
 +whom lie between the Meuse and the Rhine, [and] who were under the
 +government of Ambiorix and Cativolcus. He ordered Q. Titurius Sabinus
 +and L. Aurunculeius Cotta, his lieutenants,​ to take command of these
 +soldiers. The legions being distributed in this manner, he thought
 +he could most easily remedy the scarcity of corn and yet the winter-quarters
 +of all these legions (except that which he had given to L. Roscius,
 +to be led into the most peaceful and tranquil neighborhood) were comprehended
 +within [about] 100 miles. He himself in the mean while, until he had
 +stationed the legions and knew that the several winter-quarters were
 +fortified, determined to stay in Gaul. 
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +There was among the Carnutes a man named Tasgetius, born of very high
 +rank, whose ancestors had held the sovereignty in his state. To him
 +Caesar had restored the position of his ancestors, in consideration
 +of his prowess and attachment toward him, because in all his wars
 +he had availed himself of his valuable services. His personal enemies
 +had killed him when in the third year of his reign, many even of his
 +own state being openly promoters [of that act] This event is related
 +to Caesar. He fearing, because several were involved in the act, that
 +the state might revolt at their instigation,​ orders Lucius Plancus,
 +with a legion, to proceed quickly from Belgium to the Carnutes, and
 +winter there, and arrest and send to him the persons by whose instrumentality
 +he should discover that Tasgetius was slain. In the mean time, he
 +was apprised by all the lieutenants and questors to whom he had assigned
 +the legions, that they had arrived in winter-quarters,​ and that the
 +place for the quarters was fortified. ​
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +About fifteen days after they had come into winter-quarters,​ the beginning
 +of a sudden insurrection and revolt arose from Ambiorix and Cativolcus,
 +who, though they had met with Sabinus and Cotta at the borders of
 +their kingdom, and had conveyed corn into our winter-quarters,​ induced
 +by the messages of Indutiomarus,​ one of the Treviri, excited their
 +people, and after having suddenly assailed the soldiers engaged in
 +procuring wood, came with a large body to attack the camp. When our
 +men had speedily taken up arms and had ascended the rampart, and sending
 +out some Spanish horse on one side, had proved conquerors in a cavalry
 +action, the enemy, despairing of success, drew off their troops from
 +the assault. Then they shouted, according to their custom, that some
 +of our men should go forward to a conference, [alleging] that they
 +had some things which they desired to say respecting the common interest,
 +by which they trusted their disputes could be removed. ​
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +C. Arpineius, a Roman knight, the intimate friend of Q. Titurius,
 +and with him, Q. Junius, a certain person from Spain, who already
 +on previous occasions, had been accustomed to go to Ambiorix, at Caesar'​s
 +mission, is sent to them for the purpose of a conference: before them
 +Ambiorix spoke to this effect: "That he confessed, that for Caesar'​s
 +kindness toward him, he was very much indebted to him, inasmuch as
 +by his aid he had been freed from a tribute which he had been accustomed
 +to pay to the Aduatuci, his neighbors; and because his own son and
 +the son of his brother had been sent back to him, whom, when sent
 +in the number of hostages, the Aduatuci had detained among them in
 +slavery and in chains; and that he had not done that which he had
 +done in regard to the attacking of the camp, either by his own judgment
 +or desire, but by the compulsion of his state; and that his government
 +was of that nature, that the people had as much authority over him
 +as he over the people. To the state moreover the occasion of the war
 +was this - that it could not withstand the sudden combination of the
 +Gauls; that he could easily prove this from his own weakness, since
 +he was not so little versed in affairs as to presume that with his
 +forces he could conquer the Roman people; but that it was the common
 +resolution of Gaul; that that day was appointed for the storming of
 +all Caesar'​s winter-quarters,​ in order that no legion should be able
 +to come to the relief of another legion, that Gauls could not easily
 +deny Gauls, especially when a measure seemed entered into for recovering
 +their common freedom. Since he had performed his duty to them on the
 +score of patriotism [he said], he has now regard to gratitude for
 +the kindness of Caesar; that he warned, that he prayed Titurius by
 +the claims of hospitality,​ to consult for his and his soldiers'​ safely;
 +that a large force of the Germans had been hired and had passed the
 +Rhine; that it would arrive in two days: that it was for them to consider
 +whether they thought fit, before the nearest people perceived it,
 +to lead off their soldiers when drawn out of winter-quarters,​ either
 +to Cicero or to Labienus; one of whom was about fifty miles distant
 +from them, the other rather more; that this he promised and confirmed
 +by oath, that he would give them a safe passage through his territories;​
 +and when he did that, he was both consulting for his own state, because
 +it would be relieved from the winter-quarters,​ and also making a requital
 +to Caesar for his obligations." ​
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +Arpineius and Junius relate to the lieutenants what they had heard.
 +They, greatly alarmed by the unexpected affair, though those things
 +were spoken by an enemy, still thought they were not to be disregarded;​
 +and they were especially influenced by this consideration,​ that it
 +was scarcely credible that the obscure and humble state of the Eburones
 +had dared to make war upon the Roman people of their own accord. Accordingly,​
 +they refer the matter to a council, and a great controversy arises
 +among them. L. Aurunculeius,​ and several tribunes of the soldiers
 +and the centurions of the first rank, were of opinion "that nothing
 +should be done hastily, and that they should not depart from the camp
 +without Caesar'​s orders;"​ they declared, "that any forces of the Germans,
 +however great, might be encountered by fortified winter-quarters;​
 +that this fact was a proof [of it]; that they had sustained the first
 +assault of the Germans most valiantly, inflicting many wounds upon
 +them; that they were not distressed for corn; that in the mean time
 +relief would come both from the nearest winter-quarters and from Caesar;
 +lastly, they put the query, "what could be more undetermined,​ more
 +undignified,​ than to adopt measures respecting the most important
 +affairs on the authority of an enemy?" ​
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +In opposition to those things, Titurius exclaimed, "That they would
 +do this too late, when greater forces of the enemy, after a junction
 +with the Germans, should have assembled; or when some disaster had
 +been received in the neighboring winter-quarters;​ that the opportunity
 +for deliberating was short; that he believed that Caesar had set forth
 +into Italy, as the Carnutes would not otherwise have taken the measure
 +of slaying Tasgetius, nor would the Eburones, if he had been present,
 +have come to the camp with so great defiance of us; that he did not
 +regard the enemy, but the fact, as the authority; that the Rhine was
 +near; that the death of Ariovistus and our previous victories were
 +subjects of great indignation to the Germans; that Gaul was inflamed,
 +that after having received so many defeats she was reduced under the
 +sway of the Roman people, her pristine glory in military matters being
 +extinguished."​ Lastly, "who would persuade himself of this, that Ambiorix
 +had resorted to a design of that nature without sure grounds? That
 +his own opinion was safe on either side; if there be nothing very
 +formidable, they would go without danger to the nearest legion; if
 +all Gaul conspired with the Germans, their only safety lay in dispatch.
 +What issue would the advice of Cotta and of those who differed from
 +him, have? from which, if immediate danger was not to be dreaded,
 +yet certainly famine, by a protracted siege, was." ​
 +===== Chapter 30 =====
 +This discussion having been held on the two sides, when opposition
 +was offered strenuously by Cotta and the principal officers, "​Prevail,"​
 +said Sabinus, "if so you wish it;" and he said it with a louder voice,
 +that a great portion of the soldiers might hear him; "nor am I the
 +person among you," he said, "who is most powerfully alarmed by the
 +danger of death; these will be aware of it, and then, if any thing
 +disastrous shall have occurred, they will demand a reckoning at your
 +hands; these, who, if it were permitted by you, united three days
 +hence with the nearest winter-quarters,​ may encounter the common condition
 +of war with the rest, and not, as if forced away and separated far
 +from the rest, perish either by the sword or by famine."​
 +===== Chapter 31 =====
 +They rise from the council, detain both, and entreat, that "they do
 +not bring the matter into the greatest jeopardy by their dissension
 +and obstinacy; the affair was an easy one, if only they all thought
 +and approved of the same thing, whether they remain or depart; on
 +the other hand, they saw no security in dissension."​ The matter is
 +prolonged by debate till midnight. At last Cotta, being overruled,
 +yields his assent; the opinion of Sabinus prevails. It is proclaimed
 +that they will march at day-break; the remainder of the night is spent
 +without sleep, since every soldier was inspecting his property, [to
 +see] what he could carry with him, and what, out of the appurtenances
 +of the winter-quarters,​ he would be compelled to leave; every reason
 +is suggested to show why they could not stay without danger, and how
 +that danger would be increased by the fatigue of the soldiers and
 +their want of sleep. At break of day they quit the camp, in a very
 +extended line and with a very large amount of baggage, in such a manner
 +as men who were convinced that the advice was given by Ambiorix, not
 +as an enemy, but as most friendly [toward them]. ​
 +===== Chapter 32 =====
 +But the enemy, after they had made the discovery of their intended
 +departure by the noise during the night and their not retiring to
 +rest, having placed an ambuscade in two divisions in the woods, in
 +a suitable and concealed place, two miles from the camp, waited for
 +the arrival of the Romans: and when the greater part of the line of
 +march had descended into a considerable valley, they suddenly presented
 +themselves on either side of that valley, and began both to harass
 +the rear and hinder the van from ascending, and to give battle in
 +a place exceedingly disadvantageous to our men. 
 +===== Chapter 33 ===== 
 +Then at length Titurius, as one who had provided nothing beforehand,
 +was confused, ran to and fro, and set about arranging his troops;
 +these very things, however, he did timidly and in such a manner that
 +all resources seemed to fail him: which generally happens to those
 +who are compelled to take council in the action itself. But Cotta,
 +who had reflected that these things might occur on the march, and
 +on that account had not been an adviser of the departure, was wanting
 +to the common safety in no respect; both in addressing and encouraging
 +the soldiers, he performed the duties of a general, and in the battle
 +those of a soldier. And since they [Titurius and Cotta] could less
 +easily perform every thing by themselves, and provide what was to
 +be done in each place, by reason of the length of the line of march,
 +they ordered [the officers] to give the command that they should leave
 +the baggage and form themselves into an orb, which measure, though
 +in a contingency of that nature it was not to be condemned, still
 +turned out unfortunately;​ for it both diminished the hope of our soldiers
 +and rendered the enemy more eager for the fight, because it appeared
 +that this was not done without the greatest fear and despair. Besides
 +that happened, which would necessarily be the case, that the soldiers
 +for the most part quitted their ensigns and hurried to seek and carry
 +off from the baggage whatever each thought valuable, and all parts
 +were filled with uproar and lamentation. ​
 +===== Chapter 34 ===== 
 +But judgment was not wanting to the barbarians; for their leaders
 +ordered [the officers] to proclaim through the ranks "that no man
 +should quit his place; that the booty was theirs, and for them was
 +reserved whatever the Romans should leave; therefore let them consider
 +that all things depended on their victory. Our men were equal to them
 +in fighting, both in courage and in number, and though they were deserted
 +by their leader and by fortune, yet they still placed all hope of
 +safety in their valor, and as often as any cohort sallied forth on
 +that side, a great number of the enemy usually fell. Ambiorix, when
 +he observed this, orders the command to be issued that they throw
 +their weapons from a distance and do not approach too near, and in
 +whatever direction the Romans should make an attack, there give way
 +(from the lightness of their appointments and from their daily practice
 +no damage could be done them); [but] pursue them when betaking themselves
 +to their standards again. ​
 +===== Chapter 35 =====
 +Which command having been most carefully obeyed, when any cohort had
 +quitted the circle and made a charge, the enemy fled very precipitately.
 +In the mean time, that part of the Roman army, of necessity, was left
 +unprotected,​ and the weapons received on their open flank. Again,
 +when they had begun to return to that place from which they had advanced,
 +they were surrounded both by those who had retreated and by those
 +who stood next them; but if, on the other hand, they wish to keep
 +their place, neither was an opportunity left for valor, nor could
 +they, being crowded together, escape the weapons cast by so large
 +a body of men. Yet, though assailed by so many disadvantages,​ [and]
 +having received many wounds, they withstood the enemy, and, a great
 +portion of the day being spent, though they fought from day-break
 +till the eighth hour, they did nothing which was unworthy of them.
 +At length, each thigh of T. Balventius, who the year before had been
 +chief centurion, a brave man and one of great authority, is pierced
 +with a javelin; Q. Lucanius, of the same rank, fighting most valiantly,
 +is slain while he assists his son when surrounded by the enemy; L.
 +Cotta, the lieutenant, when encouraging all the cohorts and companies,
 +is wounded full in the mouth by a sling. ​
 +===== Chapter 36 =====
 +Much troubled by these events, Q. Titurius, when he had perceived
 +Ambiorix in the distance encouraging his men, sends to him his interpreter,​
 +Cn. Pompey, to beg that he would spare him and his soldiers. He, when
 +addressed, replied, "If he wishes to confer with him, it was permitted;
 +that he hoped what pertained to the safety of the soldiers could be
 +obtained from the people; that to him however certainly no injury
 +would be done, and that he pledged his faith to that effect."​ He consults
 +with Cotta, who had been wounded, whether it would appear right to
 +retire from battle, and confer with Ambiorix; [saying] that he hoped
 +to be able to succeed respecting his own and the soldiers'​ safety.
 +Cotta says he will not go to an armed enemy, and in that perseveres.
 +===== Chapter 37 =====
 +Sabinus orders those tribunes of the soldiers whom he had at the time
 +around him, and the centurions of the first ranks, to follow him,
 +and when he had approached near to Ambiorix, being ordered to throw
 +down his arms, he obeys the order and commands his men to do the same.
 +In the mean time, while they treat upon the terms, and a longer debate
 +than necessary is designedly entered into by Ambiorix, being surrounded
 +by degrees, he is slain. Then they, according to their custom, shout
 +out "​Victory,"​ and raise their war-cry, and, making an attack on our
 +men, break their ranks. There L. Cotta, while fighting, is slain,
 +together with the greater part of the soldiers; the rest betake themselves
 +to the camp, from which they had marched forth, and one of them, L.
 +Petrosidius,​ the standard bearer, when he was overpowered by the great
 +number of the enemy, threw the eagle within the intrenchments and
 +is himself slain while fighting with the greatest courage before the
 +camp. They with difficulty sustain the attack till night; despairing
 +of safety, they all to a man destroy themselves in the night. A few
 +escaping from the battle, made their way to Labienus at winter-quarters,​
 +after wandering at random through the woods, and inform him of these
 +events ​
 +===== Chapter 38 =====
 +Elated by this victory, Ambiorix marches immediately with his cavalry
 +to the Aduatuci, who bordered on his kingdom; he halts neither day
 +nor night, and orders the infantry to follow him closely. Having related
 +the exploit and roused the Aduatuci, the next day he arrived among
 +the Nervii, and entreats "that they should not throw away the opportunity
 +of liberating themselves forever and of punishing the Romans for those
 +wrongs which they had received from them;" [he tells them] "that two
 +lieutenants have been slain, and that a large portion of the army
 +has perished; that it was not a matter of difficulty for the legion
 +which was wintering with Cicero to be cut off, when suddenly assaulted;
 +he declares himself ready to cooperate in that design. He easily gains
 +over the Nervii by this speech. ​
 +===== Chapter 39 =====
 +Accordingly,​ messengers having been forthwith dispatched to the Centrones,
 +the Grudii, the Levaci, the Pleumoxii, and the Geiduni, all of whom
 +are under their government, they assemble as large bodies as they
 +can, and rush unexpectedly to the winter-quarters of Cicero, the report
 +of the death of Titurius not having as yet been conveyed to him. That
 +also occurred to him, which was the consequence of a necessary work
 +- that some soldiers who had gone off into the woods for the purpose
 +of procuring timber and therewith constructing fortifications,​ were
 +intercepted by the sudden arrival of [the enemy'​s] horse. These having
 +been entrapped, the Eburones, the Nervii, and the Aduatici and all
 +their allies and dependents, begin to attack the legion: our men quickly
 +run together to arms and mount the rampart; they sustained the attack
 +that day with great difficulty, since the enemy placed all their hope
 +in dispatch, and felt assured that, if they obtained this victory,
 +they would be conquerors forever. ​
 +===== Chapter 40 =====
 +Letters are immediately sent to Caesar by Cicero, great rewards being
 +offered [to the messengers] if they carried them through. All these
 +passes having been beset, those who were sent are intercepted. During
 +the night as many as 120 towers are raised with incredible dispatch
 +out of the timber which they had collected for the purpose of fortification:​
 +the things which seemed necessary to the work are completed. The following
 +day the enemy, having collected far greater forces, attack the camp
 +[and] fill up the ditch. Resistance is made by our men in the same
 +manner as the day before; this same thing is done afterward during
 +the remaining days. The work is carried on incessantly in the night:
 +not even to the sick, or wounded, is opportunity given for rest: whatever
 +things are required for resisting the assault of the next day are
 +provided during the night: many stakes burned at the end, and a large
 +number of mural pikes are procured: towers are built up, battlements
 +and parapets are formed of interwoven hurdles. Cicero himself, though
 +he was in very weak health, did not leave himself the night-time for
 +repose, so that he was forced to spare himself by the spontaneous
 +movement and entreaties of the soldiers.
 +===== Chapter 41 =====
 +Then these leaders and chiefs of the Nervii, who had any intimacy
 +and grounds of friendship with Cicero, say they desire to confer with
 +him. When permission was granted, they recount the same things which
 +Ambiorix had related to Titurius, namely, "that all Gaul was in arms,
 +that the Germans had passed the Rhine, that the winter-quarters of
 +Caesar and of the others were attacked."​ They report in addition also,
 +about the death of Sabinus. They point to Ambiorix for the purpose
 +of obtaining credence; "they are mistaken,"​ say they, "if they hoped
 +for any relief from those who distrust their own affairs; that they
 +bear such feelings toward Cicero and the Roman people that they deny
 +them nothing but winter-quarters,​ and are unwilling that the practice
 +should become constant; that through their [the Nervii'​s] means it
 +is possible for them [the Romans] to depart from their winter-quarters
 +safely and to proceed without fear into whatever parts they desire."​
 +To these Cicero made only one reply: "that it is not the custom of
 +the Roman people to accept any condition from an armed enemy: if they
 +are willing to lay down their arms, they may employ him as their advocate
 +and send embassadors to Caesar: that he believed, from his [Caesar'​s]
 +justice, they would obtain the things which they might request."​
 +===== Chapter 42 =====
 +Disappointed in this hope, the Nervii surround the winter-quarters
 +with a rampart eleven feet high, and a ditch thirteen feet in depth.
 +These military works they had learned from our men in the intercourse
 +of former years, and, having taken some of our army prisoners, were
 +instructed by them: but, as they had no supply of iron tools which
 +are requisite for this service, they were forced to cut the turf with
 +their swords, and to empty out the earth with their hands and cloaks,
 +from which circumstance,​ the vast number of the men could be inferred;
 +for in less than three hours they completed a fortification of ten
 +miles in circumference;​ and during the rest of the days they began
 +to prepare and construct towers of the height of the ramparts, and
 +grappling irons, and mantelets, which the same prisoners had taught
 +===== Chapter 43 =====
 +On the seventh day of the attack, a very high wind having sprung up,
 +they began to discharge by their slings hot balls made of burned or
 +hardened clay, and heated javelins, upon the huts, which, after the
 +Gallic custom, were thatched with straw. These quickly took fire,
 +and by the violence of the wind, scattered their flames in every part
 +of the camp. The enemy following up their success with a very loud
 +shout, as if victory were already obtained and secured, began to advance
 +their towers and mantelets, and climb the rampart with ladders. But
 +so great was the courage of our soldiers, and such their presence
 +of mind, that though they were scorched on all sides, and harassed
 +by a vast number of weapons, and were aware that their baggage and
 +their possessions were burning, not only did no one quit the rampart
 +for the purpose of withdrawing from the scene, but scarcely did any
 +one even then look behind; and they all fought most vigorously and
 +most valiantly. This day was by far the most calamitous to our men;
 +it had this result, however, that on that day the largest number of
 +the enemy was wounded and slain, since they had crowded beneath the
 +very rampart, and the hindmost did not afford the foremost a retreat.
 +The flame having abated a little, and a tower having been brought
 +up in a particular place and touching the rampart, the centurions
 +of the third cohort retired from the place in which they were standing,
 +and drew off all their men: they began to call on the enemy by gestures
 +and by words, to enter if they wished; but none of them dared to advance.
 +Then stones having been cast from every quarter, the enemy were dislodged,
 +and their tower set on fire. 
 +===== Chapter 44 ===== 
 +In that legion there were two very brave men, centurions, who were
 +now approaching the first ranks, T. Pulfio, and L. Varenus. These
 +used to have continual disputes between them which of them should
 +be preferred, and every year used to contend for promotion with the
 +utmost animosity. When the fight was going on most vigorously before
 +the fortifications,​ Pulfio, one of them, says, "Why do you hesitate,
 +Varenus? or what [better] opportunity of signalizing your valor do
 +you seek? This very day shall decide our disputes."​ When he had uttered
 +these words, he proceeds beyond the fortifications,​ and rushes on
 +that part of the enemy which appeared the thickest. Nor does Varenus
 +remain within the rampart, but respecting the high opinion of all,
 +follows close after. Then, when an inconsiderable space intervened,
 +Pulfio throws his javelin at the enemy, and pierces one of the multitude
 +who was running up, and while the latter was wounded and slain, the
 +enemy cover him with their shields, and all throw their weapons at
 +the other and afford him no opportunity of retreating. The shield
 +of Pulfio is pierced and a javelin is fastened in his belt. This circumstance
 +turns aside his scabbard and obstructs his right hand when attempting
 +to draw his sword: the enemy crowd around him when [thus] embarrassed.
 +His rival runs up to him and succors him in this emergency. Immediately
 +the whole host turn from Pulfio to him, supposing the other to be
 +pierced through by the javelin. Varenus rushes on briskly with his
 +sword and carries on the combat hand to hand, and having slain one
 +man, for a short time drove back the rest: while he urges on too eagerly,
 +slipping into a hollow, he fell. To him, in his turn, when surrounded,
 +Pulfio brings relief; and both having slain a great number, retreat
 +into the fortifications amid the highest applause. Fortune so dealt
 +with both in this rivalry and conflict, that the one competitor was
 +a succor and a safeguard to the other, nor could it be determined
 +which of the two appeared worthy of being preferred to the other.
 +===== Chapter 45 =====
 +In proportion as the attack became daily more formidable and violent,
 +and particularly,​ because, as a great number of the soldiers were
 +exhausted with wounds, the matter had come to a small number of defenders,
 +more frequent letters and messages were sent to Caesar; a part of
 +which messengers were taken and tortured to death in the sight of
 +our soldiers. There was within our camp a certain Nervian, by name
 +Vertico, born in a distinguished position, who in the beginning of
 +the blockade had deserted to Cicero, and had exhibited his fidelity
 +to him. He persuades his slave, by the hope of freedom, and by great
 +rewards, to convey a letter to Caesar. This he carries out bound about
 +his javelin; and mixing among the Gauls without any suspicion by being
 +a Gaul, he reaches Caesar. From him they received information of the
 +imminent danger of Cicero and the legion. ​
 +===== Chapter 46 =====
 +Caesar having received the letter about the eleventh hour of the day,
 +immediately sends a messenger to the Bellovaci, to M. Crassus, questor
 +there, whose winter-quarters were twenty-five miles distant from him.
 +He orders the legion to set forward in the middle of the night, and
 +come to him with dispatch. Crassus sets out with the messenger. He
 +sends another to C. Fabius, the lieutenant, ordering him to lead forth
 +his legion into the territories of the Atrebates, to which he knew
 +his march must be made. He writes to Labienus to come with his legion
 +to the frontiers of the Nervii, if he could do so to the advantage
 +of the commonwealth:​ he does not consider that the remaining portion
 +of the army, because it was somewhat further distant, should be waited
 +for; but assembles about 400 horse from the nearest winter-quarters.
 +===== Chapter 47 =====
 +Having been apprised of the arrival of Crassus by the scouts at about
 +the third hour, he advances twenty miles that day. He appoints Crassus
 +over Samarobriva and assigns him a legion, because he was leaving
 +there the baggage of the army, the hostages of the states, the public
 +documents, and all the corn, which he had conveyed thither for passing
 +the winter. Fabius, without delaying a moment, meets him on the march
 +with his legion, as he had been commanded. Labienus, having learned
 +the death of Sabinus and the destruction of the cohorts, as all the
 +forces of the Treviri had come against him, beginning to fear lest,
 +if he made a departure from his winter-quarters,​ resembling a flight,
 +he should not be able to support the attack of the enemy, particularly
 +since he knew them to be elated by their recent victory, sends back
 +a letter to Caesar, informing him with what great hazard he would
 +lead out his legion from winter-quarters;​ he relates at large the
 +affairs which had taken place among the Eburones; he informs him that
 +all the infantry and cavalry of the Treviri had encamped at a distance
 +of only three miles from his own camp. 
 +===== Chapter 48 =====
 +Caesar, approving of his motives, although he was disappointed in
 +his expectation of three legions, and reduced to two, yet placed his
 +only hopes of the common safety in dispatch. He goes into the territories
 +of the Nervii by long marches. There he learns from some prisoners
 +what things are going on in the camp of Cicero, and in how great jeopardy
 +the affair is. Then with great rewards he induces a certain man of
 +the Gallic horse to convey a letter to Cicero. This he sends written
 +in Greek characters, lest the letter being intercepted,​ our measures
 +should be discovered by the enemy. He directs him, if he should be
 +unable to enter, to throw his spear with the letter fastened to the
 +thong, inside the fortifications of the camp. He writes in the letter,
 +that he having set out with his legions, will quickly be there: he
 +entreats him to maintain his ancient valor. The Gaul apprehending
 +danger, throws his spear as he has been directed. Is by chance stuck
 +in a tower, and, not being observed by our men for two days, was seen
 +by a certain soldier on the third day: when taken down, it was carried
 +to Cicero. He, after perusing it, reads it out in an assembly of the
 +soldiers, and fills all with the greatest joy. Then the smoke of the
 +fires was seen in the distance, a circumstance which banished all
 +doubt of the arrival of the legions. ​
 +===== Chapter 49 =====
 +The Gauls, having discovered the matter through their scouts, abandon
 +the blockade, and march toward Caesar with all their forces; these
 +were about 60,000 armed men. Cicero, an opportunity being now afforded,
 +again begs of that Vertico, the Gaul, whom we mentioned above, to
 +convey back a letter to Caesar; he advises him to perform his journey
 +warily; he writes in the letter that the enemy had departed and had
 +turned their entire force against him. When this letter was brought
 +to him about the middle of the night, Caesar apprises his soldiers
 +of its contents, and inspires them with courage for fighting: the
 +following day, at the dawn, he moves his camp, and, having proceeded
 +four miles, he espies the forces of the enemy on the other side of
 +a considerable valley and rivulet. It was an affair of great danger
 +to fight with such large forces in a disadvantageous situation. For
 +the present, therefore, inasmuch as he knew that Cicero was released
 +from the blockade, and thought that he might, on that account, relax
 +his speed, he halted there and fortifies a camp in the most favorable
 +position he can. And this, though it was small in itself, [there being]
 +scarcely 7,000 men, and these too without baggage, still by the narrowness
 +of the passages, he contracts as much as he can, with this object,
 +that he may come into the greatest contempt with the enemy. In the
 +mean while scouts having been sent in all directions, he examines
 +by what most convenient path he might cross the valley. ​
 +===== Chapter 50 =====
 +That day, slight skirmishes of cavalry having taken place near the
 +river, both armies kept in their own positions: the Gauls, because
 +they were awaiting larger forces which had not then arrived; Caesar,
 +[to see] if perchance by pretense of fear he could allure the enemy
 +toward his position, so that he might engage in battle, in front of
 +his camp, on this side of the valley; if he could not accomplish this,
 +that, having inquired about the passes, he might cross the valley
 +and the river with the less hazard. At daybreak the cavalry of the
 +enemy approaches to the camp and joins battle with our horse. Caesar
 +orders the horse to give way purposely, and retreat to the camp: at
 +the same time he orders the camp to be fortified with a higher rampart
 +in all directions, the gates to be barricaded, and in executing these
 +things as much confusion to be shown as possible, and to perform them
 +under the pretense of fear. 
 +===== Chapter 51 =====
 +Induced by all these things, the enemy lead over their forces and
 +draw up their line in a disadvantageous position; and as our men also
 +had been led down from the ramparts, they approach nearer, and throw
 +their weapons into the fortification from all sides, and sending heralds
 +round, order it to be proclaimed that, if "any, either Gaul or Roman,
 +was willing to go over to them before the third hour, it was permitted;
 +after that time there would not be permission;"​ and so much did they
 +disregard our men, that the gates having been blocked up with single
 +rows of turf as a mere appearance, because they did not seem able
 +to burst in that way, some began to pull down the rampart with their
 +hands, others to fill up the trenches. Then Caesar, making a sally
 +from all the gates, and sending out the cavalry, soon puts the enemy
 +to flight, so that no one at all stood his ground with the intention
 +of fighting; and he slew a great number of them, and deprived all
 +of their arms. 
 +===== Chapter 52 =====
 +Caesar, fearing to pursue them very far, because woods and morasses
 +intervened, and also [because] he saw that they suffered no small
 +loss in abandoning their position, reaches Cicero the same day with
 +all his forces safe. He witnesses with surprise the towers, mantelets,
 +and [other] fortifications belonging to the enemy: the legion having
 +been drawn out, he finds that even every tenth soldier had not escaped
 +without wounds. From all these things he judges with what danger and
 +with what great courage matters had been conducted; he commends Cicero
 +according to his desert, and likewise the legion; he addresses individually
 +the centurions and the tribunes of the soldiers, whose valor he had
 +discovered to have been signal. He receives information of the death
 +of Sabinus and Cotta from the prisoners. An assembly being held the
 +following day, he states the occurrence; he consoles and encourages
 +the soldiers; he suggests, that the disaster, which had been occasioned
 +by the misconduct and rashness of his lieutenant, should be borne
 +with a patient mind, because by the favor of the immortal gods and
 +their own valor, neither was lasting joy left to the enemy, nor very
 +lasting grief to them. 
 +===== Chapter 53 =====
 +In the mean while the report respecting the victory of Caesar is conveyed
 +to Labienus through the country of the Remi with incredible speed,
 +so that, though he was about sixty miles distant from the winter-quarter
 +of Cicero, and Caesar had arrived there after the ninth hour, before
 +midnight a shout arose at the gates of the camp, by which shout an
 +indication of the victory and a congratulation on the part of the
 +Remi were given to Labienus. This report having been carried to the
 +Treviri, Indutiomarus,​ who had resolved to attack the camp of Labienus
 +the following day, flies by night and leads back all his forces into
 +the country of the Treviri. Caesar sends back Fabius with his legion
 +to his winter-quarters;​ he himself determines to winter with three
 +legions near Samarobriva in three different quarters, and, because
 +such great commotions had arisen in Gaul, he resolved to remain during
 +the whole winter with the army himself. For the disaster respecting
 +the death of Sabinus having been circulated among them, almost all
 +the states of Gaul were deliberating about war, sending messengers
 +and embassies into all quarters, inquiring what further measure they
 +should take, and holding councils by night in secluded places. Nor
 +did any period of the whole winter pass over without fresh anxiety
 +to Caesar, or, without his receiving some intelligence respecting
 +the meetings and commotions of the Gauls. Among these, he is informed
 +by L. Roscius, the lieutenant whom he had placed over the thirteenth
 +legion, that large forces of those states of the Gauls, which are
 +called the Armoricae, had assembled for the purpose of attacking him
 +and were not more than eight miles distant; but intelligence respecting
 +the victory of Caesar being carried [to them], had retreated in such
 +a manner that their departure appeared like a flight. ​
 +===== Chapter 54 =====
 +But Caesar, having summoned to him the principal persons of each state,
 +in one case by alarming them, since he declared that he knew what
 +was going on, and in another case by encouraging them, retained a
 +great part of Gaul in its allegiance. The Senones, however, which
 +is a state eminently powerful and one of great influence among the
 +Gauls, attempting by general design to slay Cavarinus, whom Caesar
 +had created king among them (whose brother, Moritasgus, had held the
 +sovereignty at the period of the arrival of Caesar in Gaul, and whose
 +ancestors had also previously held it), when he discovered their plot
 +and fled, pursued him even to the frontiers [of the state], and drove
 +him from his kingdom and his home; and, after having sent embassadors
 +to Caesar for the purpose of concluding a peace, when he ordered all
 +their senate to come to him, did not obey that command. So far did
 +it operate among those barbarian people, that there were found some
 +to be the first to wage war; and so great a change of inclinations
 +did it produce in all, that, except the Aedui and the Remi, whom Caesar
 +had always held in especial honor, the one people for their long standing
 +and uniform fidelity toward the Roman people, the other for their
 +late service in the Gallic war, there was scarcely a state which was
 +not suspected by us. And I do not know whether that ought much to
 +be wondered at, as well for several other reasons, as particularly
 +because they who ranked above all nations for prowess in war, most
 +keenly regretted that they had lost so much of that reputation as
 +to submit to commands from the Roman people. ​
 +===== Chapter 55 =====
 +But the Triviri and Indutiomarus let no part of the entire winter
 +pass without sending embassadors across the Rhine, importuning the
 +states, promising money, and asserting that, as a large portion of
 +our army had been cut off, a much smaller portion remained. However,
 +none of the German States could be induced to cross the Rhine, since
 +"they had twice essayed it," they said, "in the war with Ariovistus
 +and in the passage of the Tenchtheri there; that fortune was not to
 +be tempted any more." Indutiomarus disappointed in this expectation,​
 +nevertheless began to raise troops, and discipline them, and procure
 +horses from the neighboring people, and allure to him by great rewards
 +the outlaws and convicts throughout Gaul. And such great influence
 +had he already acquired for himself in Gaul by these means, that embassies
 +were flocking to him in all directions, and seeking, publicly and
 +privately, his favor and friendship. ​
 +===== Chapter 56 =====
 +When he perceived that they were coming to him voluntarily;​ that on
 +the one side the Senones and the Carnutes were stimulated by their
 +consciousness of guilt, on the other side the Nervii and the Aduatuci
 +were preparing war against the Romans, and that forces of volunteers
 +would not be wanting to him if he began to advance from his own territories,​
 +he proclaims an armed council (this according to the custom of the
 +Gauls in the commencement of war) at which, by a common law, all the
 +youth were wont to assemble in arms, whoever of them comes last is
 +killed in the sight of the whole assembly after being racked with
 +every torture. In that council he declares Cingetorix, the leader
 +of the other faction, his own son-in-law (whom we have above mentioned,
 +as having embraced the protection of Caesar, and never having deserted
 +him) an enemy and confiscates his property. When these things were
 +finished, he asserts in the council that he, invited by the Senones
 +and the Carnutes, and several other states of Gaul, was about to march
 +thither through the territories of the Remi, devastate their lands,
 +and attack the camp of Labienus: before he does that, he informs them
 +of what he desires to be done. 
 +===== Chapter 57 =====
 +Labienus, since he was confining himself within a camp strongly fortified
 +by the nature of the ground and by art, had no apprehensions as to
 +his own and the legion'​s danger, but was devising that he might throw
 +away no opportunity of conducting the war successfully. Accordingly,​
 +the speech of Indutiomarus,​ which he had delivered in the council,
 +having been made known [to him] by Cingetorix and his allies, he sends
 +messengers to the neighboring states and summons horse from all quarters:
 +he appoints to them a fixed day for assembling. In the mean time,
 +Indutiomarus,​ with all his cavalry, nearly every day used to parade
 +close to his [Labienus'​] camp; at one time, that he might inform himself
 +of the situation of the camp; at another time, for the purpose of
 +conferring with or of intimidating him. Labienus confined his men
 +within the fortifications,​ and promoted the enemy'​s belief of his
 +fear by whatever methods he could. ​
 +===== Chapter 58 =====
 +Since Indutiomarus was daily advancing up to the camp with greater
 +defiance, all the cavalry of the neighboring states which he [Labienus]
 +had taken care to have sent for, having been admitted in one night,
 +he confined all his men within the camp by guards with such great
 +strictness, that that fact could by no means be reported or carried
 +to the Treviri. In the mean while, Indutiomarus,​ according to his
 +daily practice, advances up to the camp and spends a great part of
 +the day there: his horse cast their weapons, and with very insulting
 +language call out our men to battle. No reply being given by our men,
 +the enemy, when they thought proper, depart toward evening in a disorderly
 +and scattered manner, Labienus unexpectedly sends out all the cavalry
 +by two gates; he gives this command and prohibition,​ that, when the
 +enemy should be terrified and put to flight (which he foresaw would
 +happen, as it did), they should all make for Indutiomarus,​ and no
 +one wound any man before he should have seen him slain, because he
 +was unwilling that he should escape, in consequence of gaining time
 +by the delay [occasioned by the pursuit] of the rest. He offers great
 +rewards for those who should kill him: he sends up the cohorts as
 +a relief to the horse. The issue justifies the policy of the man,
 +and since all aimed at one, Indutiomarus is slain, having been overtaken
 +at the very ford of the river, and his head is carried to the camp,
 +the horse, when returning, pursue and slay all whom they can. This
 +affair having been known, all the forces of the Eburones and the Nervii
 +which had assembled, depart; and for a short time after this action,
 +Caesar was less harassed in the government of Gaul.
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