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de_bello_gallico_7 [2018/04/21 03:31] (current)
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 +====== The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar 7 ======
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​07 The Gallic Wars, VII.mp3">​Book 7 In Audio (alt version not a transcription)</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​​player.js"></​script></​html>​
 +(52 B.C.)
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +Gaul being tranquil, Caesar, as he had determined, sets out for Italy
 +to hold the provincial assizes. There he receives intelligence of
 +the death of Clodius; and, being informed of the decree of the senate,
 +[to the effect] that all the youth of Italy should take the military
 +oath, he determined to hold a levy throughout the entire province.
 +Report of these events is rapidly borne into Transalpine Gaul. The
 +Gauls themselves add to the report, and invent what the case seemed
 +to require, [namely] that Caesar was detained by commotions in the
 +city, and could not, amid so violent dissensions,​ come to his army.
 +Animated by this opportunity,​ they who already, previously to this
 +occurrence, were indignant that they were reduced beneath the dominion
 +of Rome, begin to organize their plans for war more openly and daringly.
 +The leading men of Gaul, having convened councils among themselves
 +in the woods, and retired places, complain of the death of Acco: they
 +point out that this fate may fall in turn on themselves: they bewail
 +the unhappy fate of Gaul; and by every sort of promises and rewards,
 +they earnestly solicit some to begin the war, and assert the freedom
 +of Gaul at the hazard of their lives. They say that special care should
 +be paid to this, that Caesar should be cut off from his army before
 +their secret plans should be divulged. That this was easy, because
 +neither would the legions, in the absence of their general, dare to
 +leave their winter quarters, nor could the general reach his army
 +without a guard: finally, that it was better to be slain in battle,
 +than not to recover their ancient glory in war, and that freedom which
 +they had received from their forefathers. ​
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +While these things are in agitation, the Carnutes declare "that they
 +would decline no danger for the sake of the general safety, and promise"​
 +that they would be the first of all to begin the war; and since they
 +can not at present take precautions,​ by giving and receiving hostages,
 +that the affair shall not be divulged, they require that a solemn
 +assurance be given them by oath and plighted honor, their military
 +standards being brought together (in which manner their most sacred
 +obligations are made binding), that they should not be deserted by
 +the rest of the Gauls on commencing the war. 
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +When the appointed day came, the Carnutes, under the command of Cotuatus
 +and Conetodunus,​ desperate men, meet together at Genabum, and slay
 +the Roman citizens who had settled there for the purpose of trading
 +(among the rest, Caius Fusius Cita, a distinguished Roman knight,
 +who by Caesar'​s orders had presided over the provision department),​
 +and plunder their property. The report is quickly spread among all
 +the states of Gaul; for, whenever a more important and remarkable
 +event takes place, they transmit the intelligence through their lands
 +and districts by a shout; the others take it up in succession, and
 +pass it to their neighbors, as happened on this occasion; for the
 +things which were done at Genabum at sunrise, were heard in the territories
 +of the Arverni before the end of the first watch, which is an extent
 +of more than a hundred and sixty miles. ​
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +There in like manner, Vercingetorix the son of Celtillus the Arvernian,
 +a young man of the highest power (whose father had held the supremacy
 +of entire Gaul, and had been put to death by his fellow-citizens,​
 +for this reason, because he aimed at sovereign power), summoned together
 +his dependents, and easily excited them. On his design being made
 +known, they rush to arms: he is expelled from the town of Gergovia,
 +by his uncle Gobanitio and the rest of the nobles, who were of opinion,
 +that such an enterprise ought not to be hazarded: he did not however
 +desist, but held in the country a levy of the needy and desperate.
 +Having collected such a body of troops, he brings over to his sentiments
 +such of his fellow-citizens as he has access to: he exhorts them to
 +take up arms in behalf of the general freedom, and having assembled
 +great forces he drives from the state his opponents, by whom he had
 +been expelled a short time previously. He is saluted king by his partisans;
 +he sends embassadors in every direction, he conjures them to adhere
 +firmly to their promise. He quickly attaches to his interests the
 +Senones, Parisii, Pictones, Cadurci, Turones, Aulerci, Lemovice, and
 +all the others who border on the ocean; the supreme command is conferred
 +on him by unanimous consent. On obtaining this authority, he demands
 +hostages from all these states, he orders a fixed number of soldiers
 +to be sent to him immediately;​ he determines what quantity of arms
 +each state shall prepare at home, and before what time; he pays particular
 +attention to the cavalry. To the utmost vigilance he adds the utmost
 +rigor of authority; and by the severity of his punishments brings
 +over the wavering: for on the commission of a greater crime he puts
 +the perpetrators to death by fire and every sort of tortures; for
 +a slighter cause, he sends home the offenders with their ears cut
 +off, or one of their eyes put out, that they may be an example to
 +the rest, and frighten others by the severity of their punishment.
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +Having quickly collected an army by their punishments,​ he sends Lucterius,
 +one of the Cadurci, a man the utmost daring, with part of his forces,
 +into the territory of the Ruteni; and marches in person into the country
 +of the Bituriges. On his arrival, the Bituriges send embassadors to
 +the Aedui, under whose protection they were, to solicit aid in order
 +that they might more easily resist the forces of the enemy. The Aedui,
 +by the advice of the lieutenants whom Caesar had left with the army,
 +send supplies of horse and foot to succor the Bituriges. When they
 +came to the river Loire, which separates the Bituriges from the Aedui,
 +they delayed a few days there, and, not daring to pass the river,
 +return home, and send back word to the lieutenants that they had returned
 +through fear of the treachery of the Bituriges, who, they ascertained,​
 +had formed this design, that if the Aedui should cross the river,
 +the Bituriges on the one side, and the Arverni on the other, should
 +surround them. Whether they did this for the reason which they alleged
 +to the lieutenants,​ or influenced by treachery, we think that we ought
 +not to state as certain, because we have no proof. On their departure,
 +the Bituriges immediately unite themselves to the Arverni.
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +These affairs being announced to Caesar in Italy, at the time when
 +he understood that matters in the city had been reduced to a more
 +tranquil state by the energy of Cneius Pompey, he set out for Transalpine
 +Gaul. After he had arrived there, he was greatly at a loss to know
 +by what means he could reach his army. For if he should summon the
 +legions into the province, he was aware that on their march they would
 +have to fight in his absence; he foresaw too that if he himself should
 +endeavor to reach the army, he would act injudiciously,​ in trusting
 +his safety even to those who seemed to be tranquilized. ​
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +In the mean time Lucterius the Cadurcan, having been sent into the
 +country of the Ruteni, gains over that state to the Arverni. Having
 +advanced into the country of the Nitiobriges,​ and Gabali, he receives
 +hostages from both nations, and, assembling a numerous force, marches
 +to make a descent on the province in the direction of Narbo. Caesar,
 +when this circumstance was announced to him, thought that the march
 +to Narbo ought to take the precedence of all his other plans. When
 +he arrived there, he encourages the timid and stations garrisons among
 +the Ruteni, in the province of the Volcae Arecomici, and the country
 +around Narbo which was in the vicinity of the enemy; he orders a portion
 +of the forces from the province, and the recruits which he had brought
 +from Italy, to rendezvous among the Helvii who border on the territories
 +of the Arverni. ​
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +These matters being arranged, and Lucterius now checked and forced
 +to retreat, because he thought it dangerous to enter the line of Roman
 +garrisons, Caesar marches into the country of the Helvii; although
 +mount Cevennes, which separates the Arverni from the Helvii, blocked
 +up the way with very deep snow, as it was the severest season of the
 +year; yet having cleared away the snow to the depth of six feet, and
 +having opened the roads, he reaches the territories of the Arverni,
 +with infinite labor to his soldiers. This people being surprised,
 +because they considered themselves defended by the Cevennes as by
 +a wall, and the paths at this season of the year had never before
 +been passable even to individuals,​ he orders the cavalry to extend
 +themselves as far as they could, and strike as great a panic as possible
 +into the enemy. These proceedings are speedily announced to Vercingetorix
 +by rumor and his messengers. Around him all the Arverni crowd in alarm,
 +and solemnly entreat him to protect their property, and not to suffer
 +them to be plundered by the enemy, especially as he saw that all the
 +war was transferred into their country. Being prevailed upon by their
 +entreaties he moves his camp from the country of the Bituriges in
 +the direction of the Arverni. ​
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +Caesar, having delayed two days in that place, because he had anticipated
 +that, in the natural course of events, such would be the conduct of
 +Vercingetorix,​ leaves the army under pretense of raising recruits
 +and cavalry: he places Brutus, a young man, in command of these forces;
 +he gives him instructions that the cavalry should range as extensively
 +as possible in all directions; that he would exert himself not to
 +be absent from the camp longer than three days. Having arranged these
 +matters, he marches to Vienna by as long journeys as he can, when
 +his own soldiers did not expect him. Finding there a fresh body of
 +cavalry, which he had sent on to that place several days before, marching
 +incessantly night and day, he advanced rapidly through the territory
 +of the Aedui into that of the Lingones, in which two legions were
 +wintering, that, if any plan affecting his own safety should have
 +been organized by the Aedui, he might defeat it by the rapidity of
 +his movements. When he arrived there, he sends information to the
 +rest of the legions, and gathers all his army into one place before
 +intelligence of his arrival could be announced to the Arverni. Vercingetorix,​
 +on hearing this circumstance,​ leads back his army into the country
 +of the Bituriges; and after marching from it to Gergovia, a town of
 +the Boii, whom Caesar had settled there after defeating them in the
 +Helvetian war, and had rendered tributary to the Aedui, he determined
 +to attack it. 
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +This action caused great perplexity to Caesar in the selection of
 +his plans; [he feared] lest, if he should confine his legions in one
 +place for the remaining portion of the winter, all Gaul should revolt
 +when the tributaries of the Aedui were subdued, because it would appear
 +that there was in him no protection for his friends; but if he should
 +draw them too soon out of their winter quarters, he might be distressed
 +by the want of provisions, in consequence of the difficulty of conveyance.
 +It seemed better, however, to endure every hardship than to alienate
 +the affections of all his allies, by submitting to such an insult.
 +Having, therefore, impressed on the Aedui the necessity of supplying
 +him with provisions, he sends forward messengers to the Boii to inform
 +them of his arrival, and encourage them to remain firm in their allegiance,
 +and resist the attack of the enemy with great resolution. Having left
 +two legions and the luggage of the entire army at Agendicum, he marches
 +to the Boii. 
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +On the second day, when he came to Vellaunodunum,​ a town of the Senones,
 +he determined to attack it, in order that he might not leave an enemy
 +in his rear, and might the more easily procure supplies of provisions,
 +and draw a line of circumvallation around it in two days: on the third
 +day, embassadors being sent from the town to treat of a capitulation,​
 +he orders their arms to be brought together, their cattle to be brought
 +forth, and six hundred hostages to be given. He leaves Caius Trebonius
 +his lieutenant, to complete these arrangements;​ he himself sets out
 +with the intention of marching as soon as possible, to Genabum, a
 +town of the Carnutes, who having then for the first time received
 +information of the siege of Vellaunodunum,​ as they thought that it
 +would be protracted to a longer time, were preparing a garrison to
 +send to Genabum for the defense of that town. Caesar arrived here
 +in two days; after pitching his camp before the town, being prevented
 +by the time of the day, he defers the attack to the next day, and
 +orders his soldiers to prepare whatever was necessary for that enterprise;
 +and as a bridge over the Loire connected the town of Genabum with
 +the opposite bank, fearing lest the inhabitants should escape by night
 +from the town, he orders two legions to keep watch under arms. The
 +people of Genabum came forth silently from the city before midnight,
 +and began to cross the river. When this circumstance was announced
 +by scouts, Caesar, having set fire to the gates, sends in the legions
 +which he had ordered to be ready, and obtains possession of the town
 +so completely, that very few of the whole number of the enemy escaped
 +being taken alive, because the narrowness of the bridge and the roads
 +prevented the multitude from escaping. He pillages and burns the town,
 +gives the booty to the soldiers, then leads his army over the Loire,
 +and marches into the territories of the Bituriges. ​
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +Vercingetorix,​ when he ascertained the arrival of Caesar, desisted
 +from the siege [of Gergovia], and marched to meet Caesar. The latter
 +had commenced to besiege Noviodunum; and when embassadors came from
 +this town to beg that he would pardon them and spare their lives,
 +in order that he might execute the rest of his designs with the rapidity
 +by which he had accomplished most of them, he orders their arms to
 +be collected, their horses to be brought forth, and hostages to be
 +given. A part of the hostages being now delivered up, when the rest
 +of the terms were being performed, a few centurions and soldiers being
 +sent into the town to collect the arms and horses, the enemy'​s cavalry
 +which had outstripped the main body of Vercingetorix'​s army, was seen
 +at a distance; as soon as the townsmen beheld them, and entertained
 +hopes of assistance, raising a shout, they began to take up arms,
 +shut the gates, and line the walls. When the centurions in the town
 +understood from the signal-making of the Gauls that they were forming
 +some new design, they drew their swords and seized the gates, and
 +recovered all their men safe. 
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +Caesar orders the horse to be drawn out of the camp, and commences
 +a cavalry action. His men being now distressed, Caesar sends to their
 +aid about four hundred German horse, which he had determined, at the
 +beginning, to keep with himself. The Gauls could not withstand their
 +attack, but were put to flight, and retreated to their main body,
 +after losing a great number of men. When they were routed, the townsmen,
 +again intimidated,​ arrested those persons by whose exertions they
 +thought that the mob had been roused, and brought them to Caesar,
 +and surrendered themselves to him. When these affairs were accomplished,​
 +Caesar marched to the Avaricum, which was the largest and best fortified
 +town in the territories of the Bituriges, and situated in a most fertile
 +tract of country; because he confidently expected that on taking that
 +town, he would reduce beneath his dominion the state of the Bituriges.
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +Vercingetorix,​ after sustaining such a series of losses at Vellaunodunum,​
 +Genabum, and Noviodunum, summons his men to a council. He impresses
 +on them "that the war must be prosecuted on a very different system
 +from that which had been previously adopted; but they should by all
 +means aim at this object, that the Romans should be prevented from
 +foraging and procuring provisions; that this was easy, because they
 +themselves were well supplied with cavalry, and were likewise assisted
 +by the season of the year; that forage could not be cut; that the
 +enemy must necessarily disperse, and look for it in the houses, that
 +all these might be daily destroyed by the horse. Besides that the
 +interests of private property must be neglected for the sake of the
 +general safety; that the villages and houses ought to be fired, over
 +such an extent of country in every direction from Boia, as the Romans
 +appeared capable of scouring in their search for forage. That an abundance
 +of these necessaries could be supplied to them, because they would
 +be assisted by the resources of those in whose territories the war
 +would be waged: that the Romans either would not bear the privation,
 +or else would advance to any distance from the camp with considerable
 +danger; and that it made no difference whether they slew them or stripped
 +them of their baggage, since, if it was lost, they could not carry
 +on the war. Besides that, the towns ought to be burned which were
 +not secured against every danger by their fortifications or natural
 +advantages; that there should not be places of retreat for their own
 +countrymen for declining military service, nor be exposed to the Romans
 +as inducements to carry off abundance of provisions and plunder. If
 +these sacrifices should appear heavy or galling, that they ought to
 +consider it much more distressing that their wives and children should
 +be dragged off to slavery, and themselves slain; the evils which must
 +necessarily befall the conquered. ​
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +This opinion having been approved of by unanimous consent, more than
 +twenty towns of the Bituriges are burned in one day. Conflagrations
 +are beheld in every quarter; and although all bore this with great
 +regret, yet they laid before themselves this consolation,​ that, as
 +the victory was certain, they could quickly recover their losses.
 +There is a debate concerning Avaricum in the general council, whether
 +they should decide, that it should be burned or defended. The Bituriges
 +threw themselves at the feet of all the Gauls, and entreat that they
 +should not be compelled to set fire with their own hands to the fairest
 +city of almost the whole of Gaul, which was both a protection and
 +ornament to the state; they say that "they could easily defend it,
 +owing to the nature of the ground, for, being inclosed almost on every
 +side by a river and a marsh, it had only one entrance, and that very
 +narrow."​ Permission being granted to them at their earnest request,
 +Vercingetorix at first dissuades them from it, but afterward concedes
 +the point, owing to their entreaties and the compassion of the soldiers.
 +A proper garrison is selected for the town. 
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +Vercingetorix follows closely upon Caesar by shorter marches, and
 +selects for his camp a place defended by woods and marshes, at the
 +distance of fifteen miles from Avaricum. There he received intelligence
 +by trusty scouts, every hour in the day, of what was going on at Avaricum,
 +and ordered whatever he wished to be done; he closely watched all
 +our expeditions for corn and forage, and whenever they were compelled
 +to go to a greater distance, he attacked them when dispersed, and
 +inflicted severe loss upon them; although the evil was remedied by
 +our men, as far as precautions could be taken, by going forth at irregular
 +times' and by different ways. 
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +Caesar pitching his camp at that side of the town which was not defended
 +by the river and marsh, and had a very narrow approach, as we have
 +mentioned, began to raise the vineae and erect two towers: for the
 +nature of the place prevented him from drawing a line of circumvallation.
 +He never ceased to importune the Boii and Aedui for supplies of corn;
 +of whom the one [the Aedui], because they were acting with no zeal,
 +did not aid him much; the others [the Boii], as their resources were
 +not great, quickly consumed what they had. Although the army was distressed
 +by the greatest want of corn, through the poverty of the Boii, the
 +apathy of the Aedui, and the burning of the houses, to such a degree,
 +that for several days the soldiers were without corn, and satisfied
 +their extreme hunger with cattle driven from the remote villages;
 +yet no language was heard from them unworthy of the majesty of the
 +Roman people and their former victories. Moreover, when Caesar addressed
 +the legions, one by one, when at work, and said that he would raise
 +the siege, if they felt the scarcity too severely, they unanimously
 +begged him "not to do so; that they had served for several years under
 +his command in such a manner that they never submitted to insult,
 +and never abandoned an enterprise without accomplishing it; that they
 +should consider it a disgrace if they abandoned the siege after commencing
 +it; that it was better to endure every hardship than to not avenge
 +the names of the Roman citizens who perished at Genabum by the perfidy
 +of the Gauls."​ They intrusted the same declarations to the centurions
 +and military tribunes, that through them they might be communicated
 +to Caesar. ​
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +When the towers had now approached the walls, Caesar ascertained from
 +the captives that Vercingetorix after destroying the forage, had pitched
 +his camp nearer Avaricum, and that he himself with the cavalry and
 +light-armed infantry, who generally fought among the horse, had gone
 +to lay an ambuscade in that quarter, to which he thought that our
 +troops would come the next day to forage. On learning these facts,
 +he set out from the camp secretly at midnight, and reached the camp
 +of the enemy early in the morning. They having quickly learned the
 +arrival of Caesar by scouts, hid their cars and baggage in the thickest
 +parts of the woods, and drew up all their forces in a lofty and open
 +space: which circumstance being announced, Caesar immediately ordered
 +the baggage to be piled, and the arms to be got ready. ​
 +===== Chapter 19 =====
 +There was a hill of a gentle ascent from the bottom; a dangerous and
 +impassable marsh, not more than fifty feet broad, begirt it on almost
 +every side. The Gauls, having broken down the bridges, posted themselves
 +on this hill, in confidence of their position, and being drawn up
 +in tribes according to their respective states, held all the fords
 +and passages of that marsh with trusty guards, thus determined that
 +if the Romans should attempt to force the marsh, they would overpower
 +them from the higher ground while sticking in it, so that whoever
 +saw the nearness of the position, would imagine that the two armies
 +were prepared to fight on almost equal terms; but whoever should view
 +accurately the disadvantage of position, would discover that they
 +were showing off an empty affectation of courage. Caesar clearly points
 +out to his soldiers, who were indignant that the enemy could bear
 +the sight of them at the distance of so short a space, and were earnestly
 +demanding the signal for action, "with how great loss and the death
 +of how many gallant men the victory would necessarily be purchased:
 +and when he saw them so determined to decline no danger for his renown,
 +that he ought to be considered guilty of the utmost injustice if he
 +did not hold their life dearer than his personal safety."​ Having thus
 +consoled his soldiers, he leads them back on the same day to the camp,
 +and determined to prepare the other things which were necessary for
 +the siege of the town. 
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +Vercingetorix,​ when he had returned to his men, was accused of treason,
 +in that he had moved his camp nearer the Romans, in that he had gone
 +away with all the cavalry, in that he had left so great forces without
 +a commander, in that, on his departure, the Romans had come at such
 +a favorable season, and with such dispatch; that all these circumstances
 +could not have happened accidentally or without design; that he preferred
 +holding the sovereignty of Gaul by the grant of Caesar to acquiring
 +it by their favor. Being accused in such a manner, he made the following
 +reply to these charges: - "That his moving his camp had been caused
 +by want of forage, and had been done even by their advice; that his
 +approaching near the Romans had been a measure dictated by the favorable
 +nature of the ground, which would defend him by its natural strength;
 +that the service of the cavalry could not have been requisite in marshy
 +ground, and was useful in that place to which they had gone; that
 +he, on his departure, had given the supreme command to no one intentionally,​
 +lest he should be induced by the eagerness of the multitude to hazard
 +an engagement, to which he perceived that all were inclined, owing
 +to their want of energy, because they were unable to endure fatigue
 +any longer. That, if the Romans in the mean time came up by chance,
 +they [the Gauls] should feel grateful to fortune; if invited by the
 +information of some one they should feel grateful to him, because
 +they were enabled to see distinctly from the higher ground the smallness
 +of the number of their enemy, and despise the courage of those who,
 +not daring to fight, retreated disgracefully into their camp. That
 +he desired no power from Caesar by treachery, since he could have
 +it by victory, which was now assured to himself and to all the Gauls;
 +nay, that he would even give them back the command, if they thought
 +that they conferred honor on him, rather than received safety from
 +him. That you may be assured,"​ said he, "that I speak these words
 +with truth; - listen to these Roman soldiers!"​ He produces some camp-followers
 +whom he had surprised on a foraging expedition some days before, and
 +had tortured by famine and confinement. They being previously instructed
 +in what answers they should make when examined, say, "That they were
 +legionary soldiers, that, urged by famine and want, they had recently
 +gone forth from the camp, [to see] if they could find any corn or
 +cattle in the fields; that the whole army was distressed by a similar
 +scarcity, nor had any one now sufficient strength, nor could bear
 +the labor of the work; and therefore that the general was determined,
 +if he made no progress in the siege, to draw off his army in three
 +days." "These benefits,"​ says Vercingetorix,​ "you receive from me,
 +whom you accuse of treason - me, by whose exertions you see so powerful
 +and victorious an army almost destroyed by famine, without shedding
 +one drop of your blood; and I have taken precautions that no state
 +shall admit within its territories this army in its ignominious flight
 +from this place." ​
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +The whole multitude raise a shout and clash their arms, according
 +to their custom, as they usually do in the case of him of whose speech
 +they approve; [they exclaim] that Vercingetorix was a consummate general,
 +and that they had no doubt of his honor; that the war could not be
 +conducted with greater prudence. They determine that ten thousand
 +men should be picked out of the entire army and sent into the town,
 +and decide that the general safety should not be intrusted to the
 +Bituriges alone, because they were aware that the glory of the victory
 +must rest with the Bituriges, if they made good the defense of the
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +To the extraordinary valor of our soldiers, devices of every sort
 +were opposed by the Gauls; since they are a nation of consummate ingenuity,
 +and most skillful in imitating and making those things which are imparted
 +by any one; for they turned aside the hooks with nooses, and when
 +they had caught hold of them firmly, drew them on by means of engines,
 +and undermined the mound the more skillfully on this account, because
 +there are in their territories extensive iron mines, and consequently
 +every description of mining operations is known and practiced by them.
 +They had furnished, more over, the whole wall on every side with turrets,
 +and had covered them with skins. Besides, in their frequent sallies
 +by day and night, they attempted either to set fire to the mound,
 +or attack our soldiers when engaged in the works; and, moreover, by
 +splicing the upright timbers of their own towers, they equaled the
 +height of ours, as fast as the mound had daily raised them, and countermined
 +our mines, and impeded the working of them by stakes bent and sharpened
 +at the ends, and boiling pitch and stones of very great weight, and
 +prevented them from approaching the walls. ​
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +But this is usually the form of all the Gallic walls. Straight beams,
 +connected lengthwise and two feet distant from each other at equal
 +intervals, are placed together on the ground; these are mortised on
 +the inside, and covered with plenty of earth. But the intervals which
 +we have mentioned, are closed up in front by large stones. These being
 +thus laid and cemented together, another row is added above, in such
 +a manner, that the same interval may be observed, and that the beams
 +may not touch one another, but equal spaces intervening,​ each row
 +of beams is kept firmly in its place by a row of stones. In this manner
 +the whole wall is consolidated,​ until the regular height of the wall
 +be completed. This work, with respect to appearance and variety, is
 +not unsightly, owing to the alternate rows of beams and stones, which
 +preserve their order in right lines; and, besides, it possesses great
 +advantages as regards utility and the defense of cities; for the stone
 +protects it from fire, and the wood from the battering ram, since
 +it [the wood] being mortised in the inside with rows of beams, generally
 +forty feet each in length, can neither be broken through nor torn
 +asunder. ​
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +The siege having been impeded by so many disadvantages,​ the soldiers,
 +although they were retarded during the whole time by the mud, cold,
 +and constant showers, yet by their incessant labor overcame all these
 +obstacles, and in twenty-five days raised a mound three hundred and
 +thirty feet broad and eighty feet high. When it almost touched the
 +enemy'​s walls, and Caesar, according to his usual custom, kept watch
 +at the work, and encouraged the soldiers not to discontinue the work
 +for a moment: a little before the third watch they discovered that
 +the mound was sinking, since the enemy had set it on fire by a mine;
 +and at the same time a shout was raised along the entire wall, and
 +a sally was made from two gates on each side of the turrets. Some
 +at a distance were casting torches and dry wood from the wall on the
 +mound, others were pouring on it pitch, and other materials, by which
 +the flame might be excited, so that a plan could hardly be formed,
 +as to where they should first run to the defense, or to what part
 +aid should be brought. However, as two legions always kept guard before
 +the camp by Caesar'​s orders, and several of them were at stated times
 +at the work, measures were promptly taken, that some should oppose
 +the sallying party, others draw back the towers and make a cut in
 +the rampart; and moreover, that the whole army should hasten from
 +the camp to extinguish the flames. ​
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +When the battle was going on in every direction, the rest of the night
 +being now spent, and fresh hopes of victory always arose before the
 +enemy: the more so on this account because they saw the coverings
 +of our towers burnt away, and perceived, that we, being exposed, could
 +not easily go to give assistance, and they themselves were always
 +relieving the weary with fresh men, and considered that all the safety
 +of Gaul rested on this crisis; there happened in my own view a circumstance
 +which, having appeared to be worthy of record, we thought it ought
 +not to be omitted. A certain Gaul before the gate of the town, who
 +was casting into the fire opposite the turret balls of tallow and
 +fire which were passed along to him, was pierced with a dart on the
 +right side and fell dead. One of those next him stepped over him as
 +he lay, and discharged the same office: when the second man was slain
 +in the same manner by a wound from a cross-bow, a third succeeded
 +him, and a fourth succeeded the third: nor was this post left vacant
 +by the besieged, until, the fire of the mound having been extinguished,​
 +and the enemy repulsed in every direction, an end was put to the fighting.
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +The Gauls having tried every expedient, as nothing had succeeded,
 +adopted the design of fleeing from the town the next day, by the advice
 +and order of Vercingetorix. They hoped that, by attempting it at the
 +dead of night, they would effect it without any great loss of men,
 +because the camp of Vercingetorix was not far distant from the town,
 +and the extensive marsh which intervened, was likely to retard the
 +Romans in the pursuit. And they were now preparing to execute this
 +by night, when the matrons suddenly ran out - into the streets, and
 +weeping cast themselves at the feet of their husbands, and requested
 +of them, with every entreaty, that they should not abandon themselves
 +and their common children to the enemy for punishment, because the
 +weakness of their nature and physical powers prevented them from taking
 +to flight. When they saw that they (as fear does not generally admit
 +of mercy in extreme danger) persisted in their resolution, they began
 +to shout aloud, and give intelligence of their flight to the Romans.
 +The Gauls being intimidated by fear of this, lest the passes should
 +be pre-occupied by the Roman cavalry, desisted from their design.
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +The next day Caesar, the tower being advanced, and the works which
 +he had determined to raise being arranged, a violent storm arising,
 +thought this no bad time for executing his designs, because he observed
 +the guards arranged on the walls a little too negligently,​ and therefore
 +ordered his own men to engage in their work more remissly, and pointed
 +out what he wished to be done. He drew up his soldiers in a secret
 +position within the vineae, and exhorts them to reap, at least, the
 +harvest of victory proportionate to their exertions. He proposed a
 +reward for those who should first scale the walls, and gave the signal
 +to the soldiers. They suddenly flew out from all quarters and quickly
 +filled the walls. ​
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +The enemy being alarmed by the suddenness of the attack, were dislodged
 +from the wall and towers, and drew up, in form of a wedge, in the
 +market place and the open streets, with this intention that, if an
 +attack should be made on any side, they should fight with their line
 +drawn up to receive it. When they saw no one descending to the level
 +ground, and the enemy extending themselves along the entire wall in
 +every direction, fearing lest every hope of flight should be cut off,
 +they cast away their arms, and sought, without stopping, the most
 +remote parts of the town. A part was then slain by the infantry when
 +they were crowding upon one another in the narrow passage of the gates;
 +and a part having got without the gates, were cut to pieces by the
 +cavalry: nor was there one who was anxious for the plunder. Thus,
 +being excited by the massacre at Genabum and the fatigue of the siege,
 +they spared neither those worn out with years, women, or children.
 +Finally, out of all that number, which amounted to about forty thousand,
 +scarcely eight hundred, who fled from the town when they heard the
 +first alarm, reached Vercingetorix in safety: and he, the night being
 +now far spent, received them in silence after their flight (fearing
 +that any sedition should arise in the camp from their entrance in
 +a body and the compassion of the soldiers), so that, having arranged
 +his friends and the chiefs of the states at a distance on the road,
 +he took precautions that they should be separated and conducted to
 +their fellow countrymen, to whatever part of the camp had been assigned
 +to each state from the beginning. ​
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +Vercingetorix having convened an assembly on the following day, consoled
 +and encouraged his soldiers in the following words: "That they should
 +not be too much depressed in spirit, nor alarmed at their loss; that
 +the Romans did not conquer by valor nor in the field, but by a kind
 +of art and skill in assault, with which they themselves were unacquainted;​
 +that whoever expected every event in the war to be favorable, erred;
 +that it never was his opinion that Avaricum should be defended, of
 +the truth of which statement he had themselves as witnesses, but that
 +it was owing to the imprudence of the Bituriges, and the too ready
 +compliance of the rest, that this loss was sustained; that, however,
 +he would soon compensate it by superior advantages; for that he would,
 +by his exertions, bring over those states which severed themselves
 +from the rest of the Gauls, and would create a general unanimity throughout
 +the whole of Gaul, the union of which not even the whole earth could
 +withstand, and that he had it already almost effected; that in the
 +mean time it was reasonable that he should prevail on them, for the
 +sake of the general safety, to begin to fortify their camp, in order
 +that they might the more easily sustain the sudden attacks of the
 +enemy." ​
 +===== Chapter 30 =====
 +This speech was not disagreeable to the Gauls, principally,​ because
 +he himself was not disheartened by receiving so severe a loss, and
 +had not concealed himself, nor shunned the eyes of the people: and
 +he was believed to possess greater foresight and sounder judgment
 +than the rest, because, when the affair was undecided, he had at first
 +been of opinion that Avaricum should be burnt, and afterward that
 +it should be abandoned. Accordingly,​ as ill success weakens the authority
 +of other generals, so, on the contrary, his dignity increased daily,
 +although a loss was sustained: at the same time they began to entertain
 +hopes, on his assertion, of uniting the rest of the states to themselves,
 +and on this occasion, for the first time, the Gauls began to fortify
 +their camps, and were so alarmed that although they were men unaccustomed
 +to toil, yet they were of opinion that they ought to endure and suffer
 +every thing which should be imposed upon them. 
 +===== Chapter 31 =====
 +Nor did Vercingetorix use less efforts than he had promised, to gain
 +over the other states, and [in consequence] endeavored to entice their
 +leaders by gifts and promises. For this object he selected fitting
 +emissaries, by whose subtle pleading or private friendship, each of
 +the nobles could be most easily influenced. He takes care that those
 +who fled to him on the storming of Avaricum should be provided with
 +arms and clothes. At the same time that his diminished forces should
 +be recruited, he levies a fixed quota of soldiers from each state,
 +and defines the number and day before which he should wish them brought
 +to the camp, and orders all the archers, of whom there was a very
 +great number in Gaul, to be collected and sent to him. By these means,
 +the troops which were lost at Avaricum are speedily replaced. In the
 +mean time, Teutomarus, the son of Ollovicon, the king of the Nitiobriges,​
 +whose father had received the appellation of friend from our senate,
 +came to him with a great number of his own horse and those whom he
 +had hired from Aquitania. ​
 +===== Chapter 32 =====
 +Caesar, after delaying several days at Avaricum, and, finding there
 +the greatest plenty of corn and other provisions, refreshed his army
 +after their fatigue and privation. The winter being almost ended,
 +when he was invited by the favorable season of the year to prosecute
 +the war and march against the enemy, [and try] whether he could draw
 +them from the marshes and woods, or else press them by a blockade;
 +some noblemen of the Aedui came to him as embassadors to entreat "that
 +in an extreme emergency he should succor their state; that their affairs
 +were in the utmost danger, because, whereas single magistrates had
 +been usually appointed in ancient times and held the power of king
 +for a single year, two persons now exercised this office, and each
 +asserted that he was appointed according to their laws. That one of
 +them was Convictolitanis,​ a powerful and illustrious youth; the other
 +Cotus, sprung from a most ancient family, and personally a man of
 +very great influence and extensive connections. His brother Valetiacus
 +had borne the same office during the last year: that the whole state
 +was up in arms; the senate divided, the people divided; that each
 +of them had his own adherents; and that, if the animosity would be
 +fomented any longer, the result would be that one part of the state
 +would come to a collision with the other; that it rested with his
 +activity and influence to prevent it." ​
 +===== Chapter 33 =====
 +Although Caesar considered it ruinous to leave the war and the enemy,
 +yet, being well aware what great evils generally arise from internal
 +dissensions,​ lest a state so powerful and so closely connected with
 +the Roman people, which he himself had always fostered and honored
 +in every respect, should have recourse to violence and arms, and that
 +the party which had less confidence in its own power should summon
 +aid from Vercingetorix,​ he determined to anticipate this movement;
 +and because, by the laws of the Aedui, it was not permitted those
 +who held the supreme authority to leave the country, he determined
 +to go in person to the Aedui, lest he should appear to infringe upon
 +their government and laws, and summoned all the senate, and those
 +between whom the dispute was, to meet him at Decetia. When almost
 +all the state had assembled there, and he was informed that one brother
 +had been declared magistrate by the other, when only a few persons
 +were privately summoned for the purpose, at a different time and place
 +from what he ought, whereas the laws not only forbade two belonging
 +to one family to be elected magistrates while each was alive, but
 +even deterred them from being in the senate, he compelled Cotus to
 +resign his office; he ordered Convictolitanis,​ who had been elected
 +by the priests, according to the usage of the state, in the presence
 +of the magistrates,​ to hold the supreme authority. ​
 +===== Chapter 34 =====
 +Having pronounced this decree between [the contending parties], he
 +exhorted the Aedui to bury in oblivion their disputes and dissensions,​
 +and, laying aside all these things, devote themselves to the war,
 +and expect from him, on the conquest of Gaul, those rewards which
 +they should have earned, and send speedily to him all their cavalry
 +and ten thousand infantry, which he might place in different garrisons
 +to protect his convoys of provisions, and then divided his army into
 +two parts: he gave Labienus four legions to lead into the country
 +of the Senones and Parisii; and led in person six into the country
 +of the Arverni, in the direction of the town of Gergovia, along the
 +banks of the Allier. He gave part of the cavalry to Labienus and kept
 +part to himself. Vercingetorix,​ on learning this circumstance,​ broke
 +down all the bridges over the river and began to march on the other
 +bank of the Allier. ​
 +===== Chapter 35 =====
 +When each army was in sight of the other, and was pitching their camp
 +almost opposite that of the enemy, scouts being distributed in every
 +quarter, lest the Romans should build a bridge and bring over their
 +troops; it was to Caesar a matter attended with great difficulties,​
 +lest he should be hindered from passing the river during the greater
 +part of the summer, as the Allier can not generally be forded before
 +the autumn. Therefore, that this might not happen, having pitched
 +his camp in a woody place opposite to one of those bridges which Vercingetorix
 +had taken care should be broken down, the next day he stopped behind
 +with two legions in a secret place; he sent on the rest of the forces
 +as usual, with all the baggage, after having selected some cohorts,
 +that the number of the legions might appear to be complete. Having
 +ordered these to advance as far as they could, when now, from the
 +time of day, he conjectured they had come to an encampment, he began
 +to rebuild the bridge on the same piles, the lower part of which remained
 +entire. Having quickly finished the work and led his legions across,
 +he selected a fit place for a camp, and recalled the rest of his troops.
 +Vercingetorix,​ on ascertaining this fact, went before him by forced
 +marches, in order that he might not be compelled to come to an action
 +against his will. 
 +===== Chapter 36 =====
 +Caesar, in five days' march, went from that place to Gergovia, and
 +after engaging in a slight cavalry skirmish that day, on viewing the
 +situation of the city, which, being built on a very high mountain,
 +was very difficult of access, he despaired of taking it by storm,
 +and determined to take no measures with regard to besieging it before
 +he should secure a supply of provisions. But Vercingetorix,​ having
 +pitched his camp on the mountain near the town, placed the forces
 +of each state separately and at small intervals around himself, and
 +having occupied all the hills of that range as far as they commanded
 +a view [of the Roman encampment],​ he presented a formidable appearance;
 +he ordered the rulers of the states, whom he had selected as his council
 +of war, to come to him daily at the dawn, whether any measure seemed
 +to require deliberation or execution. Nor did he allow almost any
 +day to pass without testing in a cavalry action, the archers being
 +intermixed, what spirit and valor there was in each of his own men.
 +There was a hill opposite the town, at the very foot of that mountain,
 +strongly fortified and precipitous on every side (which if our men
 +could gain, they seemed likely to exclude the enemy from a great share
 +of their supply of water, and from free foraging; but this place was
 +occupied by them with a weak garrison): however, Caesar set out from
 +the camp in the silence of night, and dislodging the garrison before
 +succor could come from the town, he got possession of the place and
 +posted two legions there, and drew from the greater camp to the less
 +a double trench twelve feet broad, so that the soldiers could even
 +singly pass secure from any sudden attack of the enemy. ​
 +===== Chapter 37 =====
 +While these affairs were going on at Gergovia, Convictolanis,​ the
 +Aeduan, to whom we have observed the magistracy was adjudged by Caesar,
 +being bribed by the Arverni, holds a conference with certain young
 +men, the chief of whom were Litavicus and his brothers, who were born
 +of a most noble family. He shares the bribe with them, and exhorts
 +them to "​remember that they were free and born for empire; that the
 +state of the Aedui was the only one which retarded the most certain
 +victory of the Gauls; that the rest were held in check by its authority;
 +and, if it was brought over, the Romans would not have room to stand
 +on in Gaul; that he had received some kindness from Caesar, only so
 +far, however, as gaining a most just cause by his decision; but that
 +he assigned more weight to the general freedom; for, why should the
 +Aedui go to Caesar to decide concerning their rights and laws, rather
 +than the Romans come to the Aedui?"​ The young men being easily won
 +over by the speech of the magistrate and the bribe, when they declared
 +that they would even be leaders in the plot, a plan for accomplishing
 +it was considered, because they were confident their state could not
 +be induced to undertake the war on slight grounds. It was resolved
 +that Litavicus should have the command of the ten thousand, which
 +were being sent to Caesar for the war, and should have charge of them
 +on their march, and that his brothers should go before him to Caesar.
 +They arrange the other measures, and the manner in which they should
 +have them done. 
 +===== Chapter 38 =====
 +Litavicus, having received the command of the army, suddenly convened
 +the soldiers, when he was about thirty miles distant from Gergovia,
 +and, weeping, said, "​Soldiers,​ whither are we going? All our knights
 +and all our nobles have perished. Eporedirix and Viridomarus,​ the
 +principal men of the state, being accused of treason, have been slain
 +by the Romans without any permission to plead their cause. Learn this
 +intelligence from those who have escaped from the massacre; for I,
 +since my brothers and all my relations have been slain, am prevented
 +by grief from declaring what has taken place. Persons are brought
 +forward whom he had instructed in what he would have them say, and
 +make the same statements to the soldiery as Litavicus had made: that
 +all the knights of the Aedui were slain because they were said to
 +have held conferences with the Arverni; that they had concealed themselves
 +among the multitude of soldiers, and had escaped from the midst of
 +the slaughter. The Aedui shout aloud and conjure Litavicus to provide
 +for their safety. As if, said he, it were a matter of deliberation,​
 +and not of necessity, for us to go to Gergovia and unite ourselves
 +to the Arverni. Or have we any reasons to doubt that the Romans, after
 +perpetrating the atrocious crime, are now hastening to slay us? Therefore,
 +if there be any spirit in us, let us avenge the death of those who
 +have perished in a most unworthy manner, and let us slay these robbers."​
 +He points to the Roman citizens, who had accompanied them, in reliance
 +on his protection. He immediately seizes a great quantity of corn
 +and provisions, cruelly tortures them, and then puts them to death,
 +sends messengers throughout the entire state of the Aedui, and rouses
 +them completely by the same falsehood concerning the slaughter of
 +their knights and nobles; he earnestly advises them to avenge, in
 +the same manner as he did, the wrongs, which they had received.
 +===== Chapter 39 =====
 +Eporedirix, the Aeduan , a young man born in the highest rank and
 +possessing very great influence at home, and, along with Viridomarus,​
 +of equal age and influence, but of inferior birth, whom Caesar had
 +raised from a humble position to the highest rank, on being recommended
 +to him by Divitiacus, had come in the number of horse, being summoned
 +by Caesar by name. These had a dispute with each other for precedence,
 +and in the struggle between the magistrates they had contended with
 +their utmost efforts, the one for Convictolitanis,​ the other for Cotus.
 +Of these Eporedirix, on learning the design of Litavicus, lays the
 +matter before Caesar almost at midnight; he entreats that Caesar should
 +not suffer their state to swerve from the alliance with the Roman
 +people, owing to the depraved counsels of a few young men which he
 +foresaw would be the consequence if so many thousand men should unite
 +themselves to the enemy, as their relations could not neglect their
 +safety, nor the state regard it as a matter of slight importance.
 +===== Chapter 40 =====
 +Caesar felt great anxiety on this intelligence,​ because he had always
 +especially indulged the state of the Aedui, and, without any hesitation,
 +draws out from the camp four light-armed legions and all the cavalry:
 +nor had he time, at such a crisis, to contract the camp, because the
 +affair seemed to depend upon dispatch. He leaves Caius Fabius, his
 +lieutenant, with two legions to guard the camp. When he ordered the
 +brothers of Litavicus to be arrested, he discovers that they had fled
 +a short time before to the camp of the enemy. He encouraged his soldiers
 +"not to be disheartened by the labor of the journey on such a necessary
 +occasion,"​ and, after advancing twenty-five miles, all being most
 +eager, he came in sight of the army of the Aedui, and, by sending
 +on his cavalry, retards and impedes their march; he then issues strict
 +orders to all his soldiers to kill no one. He commands Eporedirix
 +and Viridomarus,​ who they thought were killed, to move among the cavalry
 +and address their friends. When they were recognized and the treachery
 +of Litavicus discovered, the Aedui began to extend their hands to
 +intimate submission, and, laying down their arms, to deprecate death.
 +Litavicus, with his clansmen, who after the custom of the Gauls consider
 +it a crime to desert their patrons, even in extreme misfortune, flees
 +forth to Gergovia. ​
 +===== Chapter 41 =====
 +Caesar, after sending messengers to the state of the Aedui, to inform
 +them that they whom he could have put to death by the right of war
 +were spared through his kindness, and after giving three hours of
 +the night to his army for his repose, directed his march to Gergovia.
 +Almost in the middle of the journey, a party of horse that were sent
 +by Fabius stated in how great danger matters were, they inform him
 +that the camp was attacked by a very powerful army, while fresh men
 +were frequently relieving the wearied, and exhausting our soldiers
 +by the incessant toil, since on account of the size of the camp, they
 +had constantly to remain on the rampart; that many had been wounded
 +by the immense number of arrows and all kinds of missiles; that the
 +engines were of great service in withstanding them; that Fabius, at
 +their departure, leaving only two gates open, was blocking up the
 +rest, and was adding breast-works to the ramparts, and was preparing
 +himself for a similar casualty on the following day. Caesar, after
 +receiving this information,​ reached the camp before sunrise owing
 +to the very great zeal of his soldiers. ​
 +===== Chapter 42 =====
 +While these things are going on at Gergovia, the Aedui, on receiving
 +the first announcements from Litavicus, leave themselves no time to
 +ascertain the truth of those statements. Some are stimulated by avarice,
 +others by revenge and credulity, which is an innate propensity in
 +that race of men to such a degree that they consider a slight rumor
 +as an ascertained fact. They plunder the property of the Roman citizens,
 +and either massacre them or drag them away to slavery. Convictolitanis
 +increases the evil state of affairs, and goads on the people to fury,
 +that by the commission of some outrage they may be ashamed to return
 +to propriety. They entice from the town of Cabillonus, by a promise
 +of safety, Marcus Aristius, a military tribune, who was on his march
 +to his legion; they compel those who had settled there for the purpose
 +of trading to do the same. By constantly attacking them on their march
 +they strip them of all their baggage; they besiege day and night those
 +that resisted; when many were slain on both sides, they excite a great
 +number to arms. 
 +===== Chapter 43 =====
 +In the mean time, when intelligence was brought that all their soldiers
 +were in Caesar'​s power, they run in a body to Aristius; they assure
 +him that nothing had been done by public authority; they order an
 +inquiry to be made about the plundered property; they confiscate the
 +property of Litavicus and his brothers; they send embassadors to Caesar
 +for the purpose of clearing themselves. They do all this with a view
 +to recover their soldiers; but being contaminated by guilt, and charmed
 +by the gains arising from the plundered property, as that act was
 +shared in by many, and being tempted by the fear of punishment, they
 +began to form plans of war and stir up the other states by embassies.
 +Although Caesar was aware of this proceeding, yet he addresses the
 +embassadors with as much mildness as he can: "That he did not think
 +worse of the state on account of the ignorance and fickleness of the
 +mob, nor would diminish his regard for the Aedui."​ He himself, fearing
 +a greater commotion in Gaul, in order to prevent his being surrounded
 +by all the states, began to form plans as to the manner in which he
 +should return from Gergovia and again concentrate his forces, lest
 +a departure arising from the fear of a revolt should seem like a flight.
 +===== Chapter 44 =====
 +While he was considering these things an opportunity of acting successfully
 +seemed to offer. For, when he had come into the smaller camp for the
 +purpose of securing the works, he noticed that the hill in the possession
 +of the enemy was stripped of men, although, on the former days, it
 +could scarcely be seen on account of the numbers on it. Being astonished,
 +he inquires the reason of it from the deserters, a great number of
 +whom flocked to him daily. They all concurred in asserting, what Caesar
 +himself had already ascertained by his scouts, that the back of that
 +hill was almost level; but likewise woody and narrow, by which there
 +was a pass to the other side of the town; that they had serious apprehensions
 +for this place, and had no other idea, on the occupation of one hill
 +by the Romans, than that, if they should lose the other, they would
 +be almost surrounded, and cut off from all egress and foraging; that
 +they were all summoned by Vercingetorix to fortify this place.
 +===== Chapter 45 =====
 +Caesar, on being informed of this circumstance,​ sends several troops
 +of horse to the place immediately after midnight; he orders them to
 +range in every quarter with more tumult than usual. At dawn he orders
 +a large quantity of baggage to be drawn out of the camp, and the muleteers
 +with helmets, in the appearance and guise of horsemen, to ride round
 +the hills. To these he adds a few cavalry, with instructions to range
 +more widely to make a show. He orders them all to seek the same quarter
 +by a long circuit; these proceedings were seen at a distance from
 +the town, as Gergovia commanded a view of the camp, nor could the
 +Gauls ascertain at so great a distance, what certainty there was in
 +the maneuver. He sends one legion to the same hill, and after it had
 +marched a little, stations it in the lower ground, and congeals it
 +in the woods. The suspicion of the Gauls are increased, and all their
 +forces are marched to that place to defend it. Caesar, having perceived
 +the camp of the enemy deserted, covers the military insignia of his
 +men, conceals the standards, and transfers his soldiers in small bodies
 +from the greater to the less camp, and points out to the lieutenants
 +whom he had placed in command over the respective legions, what he
 +should wish to be done; he particularly advises them to restrain their
 +men from advancing too far, through their desire of fighting, or their
 +hope of plunder, he sets before them what disadvantages the unfavorable
 +nature of the ground carries with it; that they could be assisted
 +by dispatch alone: that success depended on a surprise, and not on
 +a battle. After stating these particulars,​ he gives the signal for
 +action, and detaches the Aedui at the same time by another ascent
 +on the right. ​
 +===== Chapter 46 =====
 +The town wall was 1200 paces distant from the plain and foot of the
 +ascent, in a straight line, if no gap intervened; whatever circuit
 +was added to this ascent, to make the hill easy, increased the length
 +of the route. But almost in the middle of the hill, the Gauls had
 +previously built a wall six feet high, made of large stones, and extending
 +in length as far as the nature of the ground permitted, as a barrier
 +to retard the advance of our men; and leaving all the lower space
 +empty, they had filled the upper part of the hill, as far as the wall
 +of the town, with their camps very close to one another. The soldiers,
 +on the signal being given, quickly advance to this fortification,​
 +and passing over it, make themselves masters of the separate camps.
 +And so great was their activity in taking the camps, that Teutomarus,
 +the king of the Nitiobriges,​ being suddenly surprised in his tent,
 +as he had gone to rest at noon, with difficulty escaped from the hands
 +of the plunderers, with the upper part of his person naked, and his
 +horse wounded. ​
 +===== Chapter 47 =====
 +Caesar, having accomplished the object which he had in view, ordered
 +the signal to be sounded for a retreat; and the soldiers of the tenth
 +legion, by which he was then accompanied,​ halted. But the soldiers
 +of the other legions, not hearing the sound of the trumpet, because
 +there was a very large valley between them, were however kept back
 +by the tribunes of the soldiers and the lieutenants,​ according to
 +Caesar'​s orders; but being animated by the prospect of speedy victory,
 +and the flight of the enemy, and the favorable battles of former periods,
 +they thought nothing so difficult that their bravery could not accomplish
 +it; nor did they put an end to the pursuit, until they drew nigh to
 +the wall of the town and the gates. But then, when a shout arose in
 +every quarter of the city, those who were at a distance being alarmed
 +by the sudden tumult, fled hastily from the town, since they thought
 +that the enemy were within the gates. The matrons begin to cast their
 +clothes and silver over the wall, and bending over as far as the lower
 +part of the bosom, with outstretched hands beseech the Romans to spare
 +them, and not to sacrifice to their resentment even women and children,
 +as they had done at Avaricum. Some of them let themselves down from
 +the walls by their hands, and surrendered to our soldiers. Lucius
 +Fabius a centurion of the eighth legion, who, it was ascertained,​
 +had said that day among his fellow soldiers that he was excited by
 +the plunder of Avaricum, and would not allow any one to mount the
 +wall before him, finding three men of his own company, and being raised
 +up by them, scaled the wall. He himself, in turn, taking hold of them
 +one by one drew them up to the wall. 
 +===== Chapter 48 =====
 +In the mean time those who had gone to the other part of the town
 +to defend it, as we have mentioned above, at first, aroused by hearing
 +the shouts, and, afterward, by frequent accounts, that the town was
 +in possession of the Romans, sent forward their cavalry, and hastened
 +in larger numbers to that quarter. As each first came he stood beneath
 +the wall, and increased the number of his countrymen engaged in action.
 +When a great multitude of them had assembled, the matrons, who a little
 +before were stretching their hands from the walls to the Romans, began
 +to beseech their countrymen, and after the Gallic fashion to show
 +their disheveled hair, and bring their children into public view.
 +Neither in position nor in numbers was the contest an equal one to
 +the Romans; at the same time, being exhausted by running and the long
 +continuation of the fight, they could not easily withstand fresh and
 +vigorous troops. ​
 +===== Chapter 49 =====
 +Caesar, when he perceived that his soldiers were fighting on unfavorable
 +ground, and that the enemy'​s forces were increasing, being alarmed
 +for the safety of his troops, sent orders to Titus Sextius, one of
 +his lieutenants,​ whom he had left to guard the smaller camp, to lead
 +out his cohorts quickly from the camp, and post them at the foot of
 +the hill, on the right wing of the enemy; that if he should see our
 +men driven from the ground, he should deter the enemy from following
 +too closely. He himself, advancing with the legion a little from that
 +place where he had taken his post, awaited the issue of the battle.
 +===== Chapter 50 =====
 +While the fight was going on most vigorously, hand to hand, and the
 +enemy depended on their position and numbers, our men on their bravery,
 +the Aedui suddenly appeared on our exposed flank, as Caesar had sent
 +them by another ascent on the right, for the sake of creating a diversion.
 +These, from the similarity of their arms, greatly terrified our men;
 +and although they were discovered to have their right shoulders bare,
 +which was usually the sign of those reduced to peace, yet the soldiers
 +suspected that this very thing was done by the enemy to deceive them.
 +At the same time Lucius Fabius the centurion, and those who had scaled
 +the wall with him, being surrounded and slain, were cast from the
 +wall. Marcus Petreius, a centurion of the same legion, after attempting
 +to hew down the gates, was overpowered by numbers, and, despairing
 +of his safety, having already received many wounds, said to the soldiers
 +of his own company who followed him: "Since I can not save you as
 +well as myself, I shall at least provide for your safety, since I,
 +allured by the love of glory, led you into this danger, do you save
 +yourselves when an opportunity is given."​ At the same time he rushed
 +into the midst of the enemy, and slaying two of them, drove back the
 +rest a little from the gate. When his men attempted to aid him, "In
 +vain," he says, "you endeavor to procure me safety, since blood and
 +strength are now failing me, therefore leave this, while you have
 +the opportunity,​ and retreat to the legion."​ Thus he fell fighting
 +a few moments after, and saved his men by his own death.
 +===== Chapter 51 =====
 +Our soldiers, being hard pressed on every side, were dislodged from
 +their position, with the loss of forty-six centurions; but the tenth
 +legion, which had been posted in reserve on ground a little more level,
 +checked the Gauls in their eager pursuit. It was supported by the
 +cohorts of the thirteenth legion, which, being led from the smaller
 +camp, had, under the command of Titus Sextius, occupied the higher
 +ground. The legions, as soon as they reached the plain, halted and
 +faced the enemy. Vercingetorix led back his men from the part of the
 +hill within the fortifications. On that day little less than seven
 +hundred of the soldiers were missing. ​
 +===== Chapter 52 =====
 +On the next day, Caesar, having called a meeting, censured the rashness
 +and avarice of his soldiers, "In that they had judged for themselves
 +how far they ought to proceed, or what they ought to do, and could
 +not be kept back by the tribunes of the soldiers and the lieutenants;"​
 +and stated, "what the disadvantage of the ground could effect, what
 +opinion he himself had entertained at Avaricum, when having surprised
 +the enemy without either general or cavalry, he had given up a certain
 +victory, lest even a trifling loss should occur in the contest owing
 +to the disadvantage of position. That as much as he admired the greatness
 +of their courage, since neither the fortifications of the camp, nor
 +the height of the mountain, nor the wall of the town could retard
 +them; in the same degree he censured their licentiousness and arrogance,
 +because they thought that they knew more than their general concerning
 +victory, and the issue of actions: and that he required in his soldiers
 +forbearance and self-command,​ not less than valor and magnanimity."​
 +===== Chapter 53 =====
 +Having held this assembly, and having encouraged the soldiers at the
 +conclusion of his speech, "That they should not be dispirited on this
 +account, nor attribute to the valor of the enemy, what the disadvantage
 +of position had caused;"​ entertaining the same views of his departure
 +that he had previously had, he led forth the legions from the camp,
 +and drew up his army in order of battle in a suitable place. When
 +Vercingetorix,​ nevertheless,​ would not descend to the level ground,
 +a slight cavalry action, and that a successful one, having taken place,
 +he led back his army into the camp. When he had done this, the next
 +day, thinking that he had done enough to lower the pride of the Gauls,
 +and to encourage the minds of his soldiers, he moved his camp in the
 +direction of the Aedui. The enemy not even then pursuing us, on the
 +third day he repaired the bridge over the river Allier, and led over
 +his whole army. 
 +===== Chapter 54 =====
 +Having then held an interview with Viridomarus and Eporedirix the
 +Aeduans, he learns that Litavicus had set out with all the cavalry
 +to raise the Aedui; that it was necessary that they too should go
 +before him to confirm the state in their allegiance. Although he now
 +saw distinctly the treachery of the Aedui in many things, and was
 +of opinion that the revolt of the entire state would be hastened by
 +their departure; yet he thought that they should not be detained,
 +lest he should appear either to offer an insult, or betray some suspicion
 +of fear. He briefly states to them when departing his services toward
 +the Aedui: in what a state and how humbled he had found them, driven
 +into their towns, deprived of their lands, stripped of all their forces,
 +a tribute imposed on them, and hostages wrested from them with the
 +utmost insult; and to what condition and to what greatness he had
 +raised them, [so much so] that they had not only recovered their former
 +position, but seemed to surpass the dignity and influence of all the
 +previous eras of their history. After giving these admonitions he
 +dismissed them. 
 +===== Chapter 55 =====
 +Noviodunum was a town of the Aedui, advantageously situated on the
 +banks of the Loire. Caesar had conveyed hither all the hostages of
 +Gaul, the corn, public money, a great part of his own baggage and
 +that of his army; he had sent hither a great number of horses, which
 +he had purchased in Italy and Spain on account of this war. When Eporedirix
 +and Viridomarus came to this place, and received information of the
 +disposition of the state, that Litavicus had been admitted by the
 +Aedui into Bibracte, which is a town of the greatest importance among
 +them, that Convictolitanis the chief magistrate and a great part of
 +the senate had gone to meet him, that embassadors had been publicly
 +sent to Vercingetorix to negotiate a peace and alliance; they thought
 +that so great an opportunity ought not to be neglected. Therefore,
 +having put to the sword the garrison of Noviodunum, and those who
 +had assembled there for the purpose of trading or were on their march,
 +they divided the money and horses among themselves; they took care
 +that the hostages of the [different] states should be brought to Bibracte,
 +to the chief magistrate; they burned the town to prevent its being
 +of any service to the Romans, as they were of opinion that they could
 +not hold it; they carried away in their vessels whatever corn they
 +could in the hurry, they destroyed the remainder, by [throwing it]
 +into the river or setting it on fire, they themselves began to collect
 +forces from the neighboring country, to place guards and garrisons
 +in different positions along the banks of the Loire, and to display
 +the cavalry on all sides to strike terror into the Romans, [to try]
 +if they could cut them off from a supply of provisions. In which expectation
 +they were much aided, from the circumstance that the Loire had swollen
 +to such a degree from the melting of the snows, that it did not seem
 +capable of being forded at all. 
 +===== Chapter 56 =====
 +Caesar on being informed of these movements was of opinion that he
 +ought to make haste, even if he should run some risk in completing
 +the bridges, in order that he might engage before greater forces of
 +the enemy should be collected in that place. For no one even then
 +considered it an absolutely necessary act, that changing his design
 +he should direct his march into the Province, both because the infamy
 +and disgrace of the thing, and the intervening mount Cevennes, and
 +the difficulty of the roads prevented him; and especially because
 +he had serious apprehensions for the safety of Labienus whom he had
 +detached, and those legions whom he had sent with him. Therefore,
 +having made very long marches by day and night, he came to the river
 +Loire, contrary to the expectation of all; and having by means of
 +the cavalry, found out a ford, suitable enough considering the emergency,
 +of such depth that their arms and shoulders could be above water for
 +supporting their accoutrements,​ he dispersed his cavalry in such a
 +manner as to break the force of the current, and having confounded
 +the enemy at the first sight, led his army across the river in safety;
 +and finding corn and cattle in the fields, after refreshing his army
 +with them, he determined to march into the country of the Senones.
 +===== Chapter 57 =====
 +While these things are being done by Caesar, Labienus, leaving at
 +Agendicum the recruits who had lately arrived from Italy, to guard
 +the baggage, marches with four legions to Lutetia (which is a town
 +of the Parisii, situated on an island on the river Seine), whose arrival
 +being discovered by the enemy, numerous forces arrived from the neighboring
 +states. The supreme command is intrusted to Camalugenus one of the
 +Aulerci, who, although almost worn out with age, was called to that
 +honor on account of his extraordinary knowledge of military tactics.
 +He, when he observed that there was a large marsh which communicated
 +with the Seine, and rendered all that country impassable, encamped
 +there, and determined to prevent our troops from passing it.
 +===== Chapter 58 =====
 +Labienus at first attempted to raise Vineae, fill up the marsh with
 +hurdles and clay, and secure a road. After he perceived that this
 +was too difficult to accomplish, he issued in silence from his camp
 +at the third watch, and reached Melodunum by the same route by which
 +he came. This is a town of the Senones, situated on an island in the
 +Seine, as we have just before observed of Lutetia. Having seized upon
 +about fifty ships and quickly joined them together, and having placed
 +soldiers in them, he intimidated by his unexpected arrival the inhabitants,​
 +of whom a great number had been called out to the war, and obtains
 +possession of the town without a contest. Having repaired the bridge,
 +which the enemy had broken down during the preceding days, he led
 +over his army, and began to march along the banks of the river to
 +Lutetia. The enemy, on learning the circumstance from those who had
 +escaped from Melodunum, set fire to Lutetia, and order the bridges
 +of that town to be broken down: they themselves set out from the marsh,
 +and take their position on the banks of the Seine, over against Lutetia
 +and opposite the camp of Labienus. ​
 +===== Chapter 59 =====
 +Caesar was now reported to have departed from Gergovia; intelligence
 +was likewise brought to them concerning the revolt of the Aedui, and
 +a successful rising in Gaul; and that Caesar, having been prevented
 +from prosecuting his journey and crossing the Loire, and having been
 +compelled by the want of corn, had marched hastily to the province.
 +But the Bellovaci, who had been previously disaffected of themselves,
 +on learning the revolt of the Aedui, began to assemble forces and
 +openly to prepare for war. Then Labienus, as the change in affairs
 +was so great, thought that he must adopt a very different system from
 +what he had previously intended, and he did not now think of making
 +any new acquisitions,​ or of provoking the enemy to an action; but
 +that he might bring back his army safe to Agendicum. For, on one side,
 +the Bellovaci, a state which held the highest reputation for prowess
 +in Gaul, were pressing on him; and Camulogenus,​ with a disciplined
 +and well-equipped army, held the other side; moreover, a very great
 +river separated and cut off the legions from the garrison and baggage.
 +He saw that, in consequence of such great difficulties being thrown
 +in his way, he must seek aid from his own energy of disposition.
 +===== Chapter 60 =====
 +Having, therefore, called a council of war a little before evening,
 +he exhorted his soldiers to execute with diligence and energy such
 +commands as he should give; he assigns the ships which he had brought
 +from Melodunum to Roman knights, one to each, and orders them to fall
 +down the river silently for four miles, at the end of the fourth watch,
 +and there wait for him. He leaves the five cohorts, which he considered
 +to be the most steady in action, to guard the camp; he orders the
 +five remaining cohorts of the same legion to proceed a little after
 +midnight up the river with all their baggage, in a great tumult. He
 +collects also some small boats; and sends them in the same direction,
 +with orders to make a loud noise in rowing. He himself, a little after,
 +marched out in silence, and, at the head of three legions, seeks that
 +place to which he had ordered the ships to be brought. ​
 +===== Chapter 61 =====
 +When he had arrived there, the enemy'​s scouts, as they were stationed
 +along every part of the river, not expecting an attack, because a
 +great storm had suddenly arisen, were surprised by our soldiers: the
 +infantry and cavalry are quickly transported,​ under the superintendence
 +of the Roman knights, whom he had appointed to that office. Almost
 +at the same time, a little before daylight, intelligence was given
 +to the enemy that there was an unusual tumult in the camp of the Romans,
 +and that a strong force was marching up the river, and that the sound
 +of oars was distinctly heard in the same quarter, and that soldiers
 +were being conveyed across in ships a little below. On hearing these
 +things, because they were of opinion that the legions were passing
 +in three different places, and that the entire army, being terrified
 +by the revolt of the Aedui, were preparing for flight, they divided
 +their forces also into three divisions. For leaving a guard opposite
 +to the camp and sending a small body in the direction of Metiosedum,
 +with orders to advance as far as the ships would proceed, they led
 +the rest of their troops against Labienus. ​
 +===== Chapter 62 =====
 +By day-break all our soldiers were brought across, and the army of
 +the enemy was in sight. Labienus, having encouraged his soldiers "to
 +retain the memory of their ancient valor, and so many most successful
 +actions, and imagine Caesar himself, under whose command they had
 +so often routed the enemy, to be present,"​ gives the signal for action.
 +At the first onset the enemy are beaten and put to flight in the right
 +wing, where the seventh legion stood: on the left wing, which position
 +the twelfth legion held, although the first ranks fell transfixed
 +by the javelins of the Romans, yet the rest resisted most bravely;
 +nor did any one of them show the slightest intention of flying. Camulogenus,​
 +the general of the enemy, was present and encouraged his troops. But
 +when the issue of the victory was still uncertain, and the circumstances
 +which were taking place on the left wing were announced to the tribunes
 +of the seventh legion, they faced about their legion to the enemy'​s
 +rear and attacked it: not even then did any one retreat, but all were
 +surrounded and slain. Camulogenus met the same fate. But those who
 +were left as a guard opposite the camp of Labienus, when they heard
 +that the battle was commenced, marched to aid their countrymen and
 +take possession of a hill, but were unable to withstand the attack
 +of the victorious soldiers. In this manner, mixed with their own fugitives,
 +such as the woods and mountains did not shelter were cut to pieces
 +by our cavalry. When this battle was finished, Labienus returns to
 +Agendicum, where the baggage of the whole army had been left: from
 +it he marched with all his forces to Caesar. ​
 +===== Chapter 63 =====
 +The revolt of the Aedui being known, the war grows more dangerous.
 +Embassies are sent by them in all directions: as far as they can prevail
 +by influence, authority, or money, they strive to excite the state
 +[to revolt]. Having got possession of the hostages whom Caesar had
 +deposited with them, they terrify the hesitating by putting them to
 +death. The Aedui request Vercingetorix to come to them and communicate
 +his plans of conducting the war. On obtaining this request they insist
 +that the chief command should be assigned to them; and when the affair
 +became a disputed question, a council of all Gaul is summoned to Bibracte.
 +They came together in great numbers and from every quarter to the
 +same place. The decision is left to the votes of the mass; all to
 +a man approve of Vercingetorix as their general. The Remi, Lingones,
 +and Treviri were absent from this meeting; the two former because
 +they attached themselves to the alliance of Rome; the Treviri because
 +they were very remote and were hard pressed by the Germans; which
 +was also the reason of their being absent during the whole war, and
 +their sending auxiliaries to neither party. The Aedui are highly indignant
 +at being deprived of the chief command; they lament the change of
 +fortune, and miss Caesar'​s indulgence toward them; however, after
 +engaging in the war, they do not dare to pursue their own measures
 +apart from the rest. Eporedirix and Viridomarus,​ youths of the greatest
 +promise, submit reluctantly to Vercingetorix. ​
 +===== Chapter 64 =====
 +The latter demands hostages from the remaining states; nay, more,
 +appointed a day for this proceeding; he orders all the cavalry, fifteen
 +thousand in number, to quickly assemble here; he says that he will
 +be content with the infantry which he had before, and would not tempt
 +fortune nor come to a regular engagement; but since he had abundance
 +of cavalry, it would be very easy for him to prevent the Romans from
 +obtaining forage or corn, provided that they themselves should resolutely
 +destroy their corn and set fire to their houses; by which sacrifice
 +of private property they would evidently obtain perpetual dominion
 +and freedom. After arranging these matters, he levies ten thousand
 +infantry on the Aedui and Segusiani, who border on our province: to
 +these he adds eight hundred horse. He sets over them the brother of
 +Eporedirix, and orders him to wage war against the Allobroges. On
 +the other side he sends the Gabali and the nearest cantons of the
 +Arverni against the Helvii; he likewise sends the Ruteni and Cadurci
 +to lay waste the territories of the Volcae Arecomici. Besides, by
 +secret messages and embassies, he tampers with the Allobroges, whose
 +minds, he hopes, had not yet settled down after the excitement of
 +the late war. To their nobles he promises money, and to their state
 +the dominion of the whole province. ​
 +===== Chapter 65 =====
 +The only guards provided against all these contingencies were twenty-two
 +cohorts, which were collected from the entire province by Lucius Caesar,
 +the lieutenant, and opposed to the enemy in every quarter. The Helvii,
 +voluntarily engaging in battle with their neighbors, are defeated,
 +and Caius Valerius Donotaurus, the son of Caburus, the principal man
 +of the state, and several others, being slain, they are forced to
 +retire within their towns and fortifications. The Allobroges, placing
 +guards along the course of the Rhine, defend their frontiers with
 +great vigilance and energy. Caesar, as he perceived that the enemy
 +were superior in cavalry, and he himself could receive no aid from
 +the Province or Italy, while all communication was cut off, sends
 +across the Rhine into Germany to those states which he had subdued
 +in the preceding campaigns, and summons from them cavalry and the
 +light-armed infantry, who were accustomed to engage among them. On
 +their arrival, as they were mounted on unserviceable horses, he takes
 +horses from the military tribunes and the rest, nay, even from the
 +Roman knights and veterans, and distributes them among the Germans.
 +===== Chapter 66 =====
 +In the mean time, whilst these things are going on, the forces of
 +the enemy from the Arverni, and the cavalry which had been demanded
 +from all Gaul, meet together. A great number of these having been
 +collected, when Caesar was marching into the country of the Sequani,
 +through the confines of the Lingones, in order that he might the more
 +easily render aid to the province, Vercingetorix encamped in three
 +camps, about ten miles from the Romans: and having summoned the commanders
 +of the cavalry to a council, he shows that the time of victory was
 +come; that the Romans were fleeing into the Province and leaving Gaul;
 +that this was sufficient for obtaining immediate freedom; but was
 +of little moment in acquiring peace and tranquillity for the future;
 +for the Romans would return after assembling greater forces and would
 +not put an end to the war. Therefore they should attack them on their
 +march, when encumbered. If the infantry should [be obliged to] relieve
 +their cavalry, and be retarded by doing so, the march could not be
 +accomplished:​ if, abandoning their baggage they should provide for
 +their safety (a result which, he trusted, was more like to ensue),
 +they would lose both property and character. For as to the enemy'​s
 +horse, they ought not to entertain a doubt that none of them would
 +dare to advance beyond the main body. In order that they [the Gauls]
 +may do so with greater spirit, he would marshal all their forces before
 +the camp, and intimidate the enemy. The cavalry unanimously shout
 +out, "That they ought to bind themselves by a most sacred oath, that
 +he should not be received under a roof, nor have access to his children,
 +parents, or wife, who shall not twice have ridden through the enemy'​s
 +army." ​
 +===== Chapter 67 =====
 +This proposal receiving general approbation,​ and all being forced
 +to take the oath, on the next day the cavalry were divided into three
 +parts, and two of these divisions made a demonstration on our two
 +flanks; while one in front began to obstruct our march. On this circumstance
 +being announced, Caesar orders his cavalry also to form three divisions
 +and charge the enemy. Then the action commences simultaneously in
 +every part: the main body halts; the baggage is received within the
 +ranks of the legions. If our men seemed to be distressed, or hard
 +pressed in any quarter, Caesar usually ordered the troops to advance,
 +and the army to wheel round in that quarter; which conduct retarded
 +the enemy in the pursuit, and encouraged our men by the hope of support.
 +At length the Germans, on the right wing, having gained the top of
 +the hill, dislodge the enemy from their position and pursue them even
 +as far as the river at which Vercingetorix with the infantry was stationed,
 +and slay several of them. The rest, on observing this action, fearing
 +lest they should be surrounded, betake themselves to flight. A slaughter
 +ensues in every direction, and three of the noblest of the Aedui are
 +taken and brought to Caesar: Cotus, the commander of the cavalry,
 +who had been engaged in the contest with Convictolitanis the last
 +election, Cavarillus, who had held the command of the infantry after
 +the revolt of Litavicus, and Eporedirix, under whose command the Aedui
 +had engaged in war against the Sequani, before the arrival of Caesar.
 +===== Chapter 68 =====
 +All his cavalry being routed, Vercingetorix led back his troops in
 +the same order as he had arranged them before the camp, and immediately
 +began to march to Alesia, which is a town of the Mandubii, and ordered
 +the baggage to be speedily brought forth from the camp, and follow
 +him closely. Caesar, having conveyed his baggage to the nearest hill,
 +and having left two legions to guard it, pursued as far as the time
 +of day would permit, and after slaying about three thousand of the
 +rear of the enemy, encamped at Alesia on the next day. On reconnoitering
 +the situation of the city, finding that the enemy were panic-stricken,​
 +because the cavalry in which they placed their chief reliance, were
 +beaten, he encouraged his men to endure the toil, and began to draw
 +a line of circumvallation round Alesia. ​
 +===== Chapter 69 =====
 +The town itself was situated on the top of a hill, in a very lofty
 +position, so that it did not appear likely to be taken, except by
 +a regular siege. Two rivers, on two different sides, washed the foot
 +of the hill. Before the town lay a plain of about three miles in length;
 +on every other side hills at a moderate distance, and of an equal
 +degree of height, surrounded the town. The army of the Gauls had filled
 +all the space under the wall, comprising a part of the hill which
 +looked to the rising sun, and had drawn in front a trench and a stone
 +wall six feet high. The circuit of that fortification,​ which was commenced
 +by the Romans, comprised eleven miles. The camp was pitched in a strong
 +position, and twenty-three redoubts were raised in it, in which sentinels
 +were placed by day, lest any sally should be made suddenly; and by
 +night the same were occupied by watches and strong guards.
 +===== Chapter 70 =====
 +The work having been begun, a cavalry action ensues in that plain,
 +which we have already described as broken by hills, and extending
 +three miles in length. The contest is maintained on both sides with
 +the utmost vigor; Caesar sends the Germans to aid our troops when
 +distressed, and draws up the legions in front of the camp, lest any
 +sally should be suddenly made by the enemy'​s infantry. The courage
 +of our men is increased by the additional support of the legions;
 +the enemy being put to flight, hinder one another by their numbers,
 +and as only the narrower gates were left open, are crowded together
 +in them; then the Germans pursue them with vigor even to the fortifications.
 +A great slaughter ensues; some leave their horses, and endeavor to
 +cross the ditch and climb the wall. Caesar orders the legions which
 +he had drawn up in front of the rampart to advance a little. The Gauls,
 +who were within the fortifications,​ were no less panic-stricken,​ thinking
 +that the enemy were coming that moment against them, and unanimously
 +shout "to arms;" some in their alarm rush into the town; Vercingetorix
 +orders the gates to be shut, lest the camp should be left undefended.
 +The Germans retreat, after slaying many and taking several horses.
 +===== Chapter 71 =====
 +Vercingetorix adopts the design of sending away all his cavalry by
 +night, before the fortifications should be completed by the Romans.
 +He charges them when departing "that each of them should go to his
 +respective state, and press for the war all who were old enough to
 +bear arms; he states his own merits, and conjures them to consider
 +his safety, and not surrender him who had deserved so well of the
 +general freedom, to the enemy for torture; he points out to them that,
 +if they should be remiss, eighty thousand chosen men would perish
 +with him; that upon making a calculation,​ he had barely corn for thirty
 +days, but could hold out a little longer by economy."​ After giving
 +these instructions he silently dismisses the cavalry in the second
 +watch, [on that side] where our works were not completed; he orders
 +all the corn to be brought to himself; he ordains capital punishment
 +to such as should not obey; he distributes among them, man by man,
 +the cattle, great quantities of which had been driven there by the
 +Mandubii; he began to measure out the corn sparingly, and by little
 +and little; he receives into the town all the forces which he had
 +posted in front of it. In this manner he prepares to await the succors
 +from Gaul, and carry on the war. 
 +===== Chapter 72 =====
 +Caesar, on learning these proceedings from the deserters and captives,
 +adopted the following system of fortification;​ he dug a trench twenty
 +feet deep, with perpendicular sides, in such a manner that the base
 +of this trench should extend so far as the edges were apart at the
 +top. He raised all his other works at a distance of four hundred feet
 +from that ditch; [he did] that with this intention, lest (since he
 +necessarily embraced so extensive an area, and the whole works could
 +not be easily surrounded by a line of soldiers) a large number of
 +the enemy should suddenly, or by night, sally against the fortifications;​
 +or lest they should by day cast weapons against our men while occupied
 +with the works. Having left this interval, he drew two trenches fifteen
 +feet broad, and of the same depth; the innermost of them, being in
 +low and level ground, he filled with water conveyed from the river.
 +Behind these he raised a rampart and wall twelve feet high; to this
 +he added a parapet and battlements,​ with large stakes cut like stags'
 +horns, projecting from the junction of the parapet and battlements,​
 +to prevent the enemy from scaling it, and surrounded the entire work
 +with turrets, which were eighty feet distant from one another.
 +===== Chapter 73 =====
 +It was necessary, at one and the same time, to procure timber [for
 +the rampart], lay in supplies of corn, and raise also extensive fortifications,​
 +and the available troops were in consequence of this reduced in number,
 +since they used to advance to some distance from the camp, and sometimes
 +the Gauls endeavored to attack our works, and to make a sally from
 +the town by several gates and in great force. Caesar thought that
 +further additions should be made to these works, in order that the
 +fortifications might be defensible by a small number of soldiers.
 +Having, therefore, cut down the trunks of trees or very thick branches,
 +and having stripped their tops of the bark, and sharpened them into
 +a point, he drew a continued trench every where five feet deep. These
 +stakes being sunk into this trench, and fastened firmly at the bottom,
 +to prevent the possibility of their being torn up, had their branches
 +only projecting from the ground. There were five rows in connection
 +with, and intersecting each other; and whoever entered within them
 +were likely to impale themselves on very sharp stakes. The soldiers
 +called these "​cippi."​ Before these, which were arranged in oblique
 +rows in the form of a quincunx, pits three feet deep were dug, which
 +gradually diminished in depth to the bottom. In these pits tapering
 +stakes, of the thickness of a man's thigh; sharpened at the top and
 +hardened in the fire, were sunk in such a manner as to project from
 +the ground not more than four inches; at the same time for the purpose
 +of giving them strength and stability, they were each filled with
 +trampled clay to the height of one foot from the bottom: the rest
 +of the pit was covered over with osiers and twigs, to conceal the
 +deceit. Eight rows of this kind were dug, and were three feet distant
 +from each other. They called this a lily from its resemblance to that
 +flower. Stakes a foot long, with iron hooks attached to them, were
 +entirely sunk in the ground before these, and were planted in every
 +place at small intervals; these they called spurs. ​
 +===== Chapter 74 =====
 +After completing these works, saving selected as level ground as he
 +could, considering the nature of the country, and having inclosed
 +an area of fourteen miles, he constructed,​ against an external enemy,
 +fortifications of the same kind in every respect, and separate from
 +these, so that the guards of the fortifications could not be surrounded
 +even by immense numbers, if such a circumstance should take place
 +owing to the departure of the enemy'​s cavalry; and in order that the
 +Roman soldiers might not be compelled to go out of the camp with great
 +risk, ho orders all to provide forage and corn for thirty days.
 +===== Chapter 75 =====
 +While those things are carried on at Alesia, the Gauls, having convened
 +a council of their chief nobility, determine that all who could bear
 +arms should not be called out, which was the opinion of Vercingetorix,​
 +but that a fixed number should be levied from each state; lest, when
 +so great a multitude assembled together, they could neither govern
 +nor distinguish their men, nor have the means of supplying them with
 +corn. They demand thirty-five thousand men from the Aedui and their
 +dependents, the Segusiani, Ambivareti, and Aulerci Brannovices;​ an
 +equal number from the Arverni in conjunction with the Eleuteti Cadurci,
 +Gabali, and Velauni, who were accustomed to be under the command of
 +the Arverni; twelve thousand each from the Senones, Sequani, Bituriges,
 +Sentones, Ruteni, and Carnutes; ten thousand from the Bellovaci; the
 +same number from the Lemovici; eight thousand each from the Pictones,
 +and Turoni, and Parisii, and Helvii; five thousand each from the Suessiones,
 +Ambiani, Mediomatrici,​ Petrocorii, Nervii, Morini, and Nitiobriges;​
 +the same number from the Aulerci Cenomani; four thousand from the
 +Atrebates; three thousand each from the Bellocassi, Lexovii, and Aulerci
 +Eburovices; thirty thousand from the Rauraci, and Boii; six thousand
 +from all the states together, which border on the Atlantic, and which
 +in their dialect are called Armoricae (in which number are comprehended
 +the Curisolites,​ Rhedones, Ambibari, Caltes, Osismii, Lemovices, Veneti,
 +and Unelli). Of these the Bellovaci did not contribute their number,
 +as they said that they would wage war against the Romans on their
 +own account, and at their own discretion, and would not obey the order
 +of any one: however, at the request of Commius, they sent two thousand,
 +in consideration of a tie of hospitality which subsisted between him
 +and them. 
 +===== Chapter 76 =====
 +Caesar had, as we have previously narrated, availed himself of the
 +faithful and valuable services of this Commius, in Britain, in former
 +years: in consideration of which merits he had exempted from taxes
 +his [Commius'​s] state, and had conferred on Commius himself the country
 +of the Morini. Yet such was the unanimity of the Gauls in asserting
 +their freedom, and recovering their ancient renown in war, that they
 +were influenced neither by favors, nor by the recollection of private
 +friendship; and all earnestly directed their energies and resources
 +to that war, and collected eight thousand cavalry, and about two hundred
 +and forty thousand infantry. These were reviewed in the country of
 +the Aedui, and a calculation was made of their numbers: commanders
 +were appointed: the supreme command is intrusted to Commius the Atrebatian,
 +Viridomarus and Eporedirix the Aeduans, and Vergasillaunus the Arvernan,
 +the cousin-german of Vercingetorix. To them are assigned men selected
 +from each state, by whose advice the war should be conducted. All
 +march to Alesia, sanguine and full of confidence: nor was there a
 +single individual who imagined that the Romans could withstand the
 +sight of such an immense host: especially in an action carried on
 +both in front and rear, when [on the inside] the besieged would sally
 +from the town and attack the enemy, and on the outside so great forces
 +of cavalry and infantry would be seen. 
 +===== Chapter 77 =====
 +But those who were blockaded at Alesia, the day being past, on which
 +they had expected auxiliaries from their countrymen, and all their
 +corn being consumed ignorant of what was going on among the Aedui,
 +convened an assembly and deliberated on the exigency of their situation.
 +After various opinions had been expressed among them, some of which
 +proposed a surrender, others a sally, while their strength would support
 +it, the speech of Critognatus ought not to be omitted for its singular
 +and detestable cruelty. He sprung from the noblest family among the
 +Arverni, and possessing great influence, says, "I shall pay no attention
 +to the opinion of those who call a most disgraceful surrender by the
 +name of a capitulation;​ nor do I think that they ought to be considered
 +as citizens, or summoned to the council. My business is with those
 +who approve of a sally: in whose advice the memory of our ancient
 +prowess seems to dwell in the opinion of you all. To be unable to
 +bear privation for a short time is disgraceful cowardice, not true
 +valor. Those who voluntarily offer themselves to death are more easily
 +found than those who would calmly endure distress. And I would approve
 +of this opinion (for honor is a powerful motive with me), could I
 +foresee no other loss, save that of life; but let us, in adopting
 +our design, look back on all Gaul, which we have stirred up to our
 +aid. What courage do you think would our relatives and friends have,
 +if eighty thousand men were butchered in one spot, supposing that
 +they should be forced to come to an action almost over our corpses?
 +Do not utterly deprive them of your aid, for they have spurned all
 +thoughts of personal danger on account of your safety; nor by your
 +folly, rashness, and cowardice, crush all Gaul and doom it to an eternal
 +slavery. Do you doubt their fidelity and firmness because they have
 +not come at the appointed day? What then? Do you suppose that the
 +Romans are employed every day in the outer fortifications for mere
 +amusement? If you can not be assured by their dispatches, since every
 +avenue is blocked up, take the Romans as evidence that there approach
 +is drawing near; since they, intimidated by alarm at this, labor night
 +and day at their works. What, therefore, is my design? To do as our
 +ancestors did in the war against the Cimbri and Teutones, which was
 +by no means equally momentous who, when driven into their towns, and
 +oppressed by similar privations, supported life by the corpses of
 +those who appeared useless for war on account of their age, and did
 +not surrender to the enemy: and even if we had not a precedent for
 +such cruel conduct, still I should consider it most glorious that
 +one should be established,​ and delivered to posterity. For in what
 +was that war like this? The Cimbri, after laying Gaul waste, and inflicting
 +great calamities, at length departed from our country, and sought
 +other lands; they left us our rights, laws, lands, and liberty. But
 +what other motive or wish have the Romans, than, induced by envy,
 +to settle in the lands and states of those whom they have learned
 +by fame to be noble and powerful in war, and impose on them perpetual
 +slavery? For they never have carried on wars on any other terms. But
 +if you know not these things which are going on in distant countries,
 +look to the neighboring Gaul, which being reduced to the form of a
 +province, stripped of its rights and laws, and subjected to Roman
 +despotism, is oppressed by perpetual slavery." ​
 +===== Chapter 78 =====
 +When different opinions were expressed, they determined that those
 +who, owing to age or ill health, were unserviceable for war, should
 +depart from the town, and that themselves should try every expedient
 +before they had recourse to the advice of Critognatus:​ however, that
 +they would rather adopt that design, if circumstances should compel
 +them and their allies should delay, than accept any terms of a surrender
 +or peace. The Mandubii, who had admitted them into the town, are compelled
 +to go forth with their wives and children. When these came to the
 +Roman fortifications,​ weeping, they begged of the soldiers by every
 +entreaty to receive them as slaves and relieve them with food. But
 +Caesar, placing guards on the rampart, forbade them to be admitted.
 +===== Chapter 79 =====
 +In the mean time, Commius and the rest of the leaders, to whom the
 +supreme command had been intrusted, came with all their forces to
 +Alesia, and having occupied the entire hill, encamped not more than
 +a mile from our fortifications. The following day, having led forth
 +their cavalry from the camp, they fill all that plain, which, we have
 +related, extended three miles in length, and drew out their infantry
 +a little from that place, and post them on the higher ground. The
 +town Alesia commanded a view of the whole plain. The besieged run
 +together when these auxiliaries were seen; mutual congratulations
 +ensue, and the minds of all are elated with joy. Accordingly,​ drawing
 +out their troops, they encamp before the town, and cover the nearest
 +trench with hurdles and fill it up with earth, and make ready for
 +a sally and every casualty. ​
 +===== Chapter 80 =====
 +Caesar, having stationed his army on both sides of the fortifications,​
 +in order that, if occasion should arise, each should hold and know
 +his own post, orders the cavalry to issue forth from the camp and
 +commence action. There was a commanding view from the entire camp,
 +which occupied a ridge of hills; and the minds of all the soldiers
 +anxiously awaited the issue of the battle. The Gauls had scattered
 +archers and light-armed infantry here and there, among their cavalry,
 +to give relief to their retreating troops, and sustain the impetuosity
 +of our cavalry. Several of our soldiers were unexpectedly wounded
 +by these, and left the battle. When the Gauls were confident that
 +their countrymen were the conquerors in the action, and beheld our
 +men hard pressed by numbers, both those who were hemmed in by the
 +line of circumvallation and those who had come to aid them, supported
 +the spirits of their men by shouts and yells from every quarter. As
 +the action was carried on in sight of all, neither a brave nor cowardly
 +act could be concealed; both the desire of praise and the fear of
 +ignominy, urged on each party to valor. After fighting from noon almost
 +to sunset, without victory inclining in favor of either, the Germans,
 +on one side, made a charge against the enemy in a compact body, and
 +drove them back; and, when they were put to flight, the archers were
 +surrounded and cut to pieces. In other parts, likewise, our men pursued
 +to the camp the retreating enemy, and did not give them an opportunity
 +of rallying. But those who had come forth from Alesia returned into
 +the town dejected and almost despairing of success. ​
 +===== Chapter 81 =====
 +The Gauls, after the interval of a day and after making, during that
 +time, an immense number of hurdles, scaling-ladders,​ and iron hooks,
 +silently went forth from the camp at midnight and approached the fortifications
 +in the plain. Raising a shout suddenly, that by this intimation those
 +who were beseiged in the town might learn their arrival, they began
 +to cast down hurdles and dislodge our men from the rampart by slings,
 +arrows, and stones, and executed the other movements which are requisite
 +in storming. At the same time, Vercingetorix,​ having heard the shout,
 +gives the signal to his troops by a trumpet, and leads them forth
 +from the town. Our troops, as each man's post had been assigned him
 +some days before, man the fortifications;​ they intimidate the Gauls
 +by slings, large stones, stakes which they had placed along the works,
 +and bullets. All view being prevented by the darkness, many wounds
 +are received on both sides; several missiles, are thrown from the
 +engines. But Marcus Antonius, and Caius Trebonius, the lieutenants,​
 +to whom the defense of these parts had been allotted, draughted troops
 +from the redoubts which were more remote, and sent them to aid our
 +troops, in whatever direction they understood that they were hard
 +pressed. ​
 +===== Chapter 82 =====
 +While the Gauls were at a distance from the fortification,​ they did
 +more execution, owing to the immense number of their weapons: after
 +they came nearer, they either unawares empaled themselves on the spurs,
 +or were pierced by the mural darts from the ramparts and towers, and
 +thus perished. After receiving many wounds on all sides, and having
 +forced no part of the works, when day drew nigh, fearing lest they
 +should be surrounded by a sally made from the higher camp on the exposed
 +flank, they retreated to their countrymen. But those within, while
 +they bring forward those things which had been prepared by Vercingetorix
 +for a sally, fill up the nearest trenches; having delayed a long time
 +in executing these movements, they learned the retreat of their countrymen
 +before they drew nigh to the fortifications. Thus they returned to
 +the town without accomplishing their object. ​
 +===== Chapter 83 =====
 +The Gauls, having been twice repulsed with great loss, consult what
 +they should do; they avail themselves of the information of those
 +who were well acquainted with the country; from them they ascertain
 +the position and fortification of the upper camp. There was, on the
 +north side, a hill, which our men could not include in their works,
 +on account of the extent of the circuit, and had necessarily made
 +their camp in ground almost disadvantageous,​ and pretty steep. Caius
 +Antistius Reginus, and Caius Caninius Rebilus, two of the lieutenants,​
 +with two legions, were in possession of this camp. The leaders of
 +the enemy, having reconnoitered the country by their scouts, select
 +from the entire army sixty thousand men, belonging to those states,
 +which bear the highest character for courage; they privately arrange
 +among themselves what they wished to be done, and in what manner;
 +they decide that the attack should take place when it should seem
 +to be noon. They appoint over their forces Vergasillaunus,​ the Arvernian,
 +one of the four generals, and a near relative of Vercingetorix. He,
 +having issued from the camp at the first watch, and having almost
 +completed his march a little before the dawn, hid himself behind the
 +mountain, and ordered his soldiers to refresh themselves after their
 +labor during the night. When noon now seemed to draw nigh, he marched
 +hastily against that camp which we have mentioned before; and, at
 +the same time, the cavalry began to approach the fortifications in
 +the plain, and the rest of the forces to make a demonstration in front
 +of the camp. 
 +===== Chapter 84 =====
 +Vercingetorix,​ having beheld his countrymen from the citadel of Alesia,
 +issues forth from the town; he brings forth from the camp long hooks,
 +movable pent-houses,​ mural hooks, and other things, which he had prepared
 +for the purpose of making a sally. They engage on all sides at once
 +and every expedient is adopted. They flocked to whatever part of the
 +works seemed weakest. The army of the Romans is distributed along
 +their extensive lines, and with difficulty meets the enemy in every
 +quarter. The shouts which were raised by the combatants in their rear,
 +had a great tendency to intimidate our men, because they perceived
 +that their danger rested on the valor of others: for generally all
 +evils which are distant most powerfully alarm men's minds.
 +===== Chapter 85 =====
 +Caesar, having selected a commanding situation, sees distinctly whatever
 +is going on in every quarter, and sends assistance to his troops when
 +hard pressed. The idea uppermost in the minds of both parties is,
 +that the present is the time in which they would have the fairest
 +opportunity of making a struggle; the Gauls despairing of all safety,
 +unless they should succeed in forcing the lines: the Romans expecting
 +an end to all their labors if they should gain the day. The principal
 +struggle is at the upper lines, to which as we have said Vergasillaunus
 +was sent. The least elevation of ground, added to a declivity, exercises
 +a momentous influence. Some are casting missiles, others, forming
 +a testudo, advance to the attack; fresh men by turns relieve the wearied.
 +The earth, heaped up by all against the fortifications,​ gives the
 +means of ascent to the Gauls, and covers those works which the Romans
 +had concealed in the ground. Our men have no longer arms or strength.
 +===== Chapter 86 =====
 +Caesar, on observing these movements, sends Labienus with six cohorts
 +to relieve his distressed soldiers: he orders him, if he should be
 +unable to withstand them, to draw off the cohorts and make a sally;
 +but not to do this except through necessity. He himself goes to the
 +rest, and exhorts them not to succumb to the toil; he shows them that
 +the fruits of all former engagements depend on that day and hour.
 +The Gauls within, despairing of forcing the fortifications in the
 +plains on account of the greatness of the works, attempt the places
 +precipitous in ascent: hither they bring the engines which they had
 +prepared; by the immense number of their missiles they dislodge the
 +defenders from the turrets: they fill the ditches with clay and hurdles,
 +then clear the way; they tear down the rampart and breast-work with
 +hooks. ​
 +===== Chapter 87 =====
 +Caesar sends at first young Brutus, with six cohorts, and afterward
 +Caius Fabius, his lieutenant, with seven others: finally, as they
 +fought more obstinately,​ he leads up fresh men to the assistance of
 +his soldiers. After renewing the action, and repulsing the enemy,
 +he marches in the direction in which he had sent Labienus, drafts
 +four cohorts from the nearest redoubt, and orders part of the cavalry
 +to follow him, and part to make the circuit of the external fortifications
 +and attack the enemy in the rear. Labienus, when neither the ramparts
 +or ditches could check the onset of the enemy, informs Caesar by messengers
 +of what he intended to do. Caesar hastens to share in the action.
 +===== Chapter 88 =====
 +His arrival being known from the color of his robe, and the troops
 +of cavalry, and the cohorts which he had ordered to follow him being
 +seen, as these low and sloping grounds were plainly visible from the
 +eminences, the enemy join battle. A shout being raised by both sides,
 +it was succeeded by a general shout along the ramparts and whole line
 +of fortifications. Our troops, laying aside their javelins, carry
 +on the engagement with their swords. The cavalry is suddenly seen
 +in the rear of the Gauls; the other cohorts advance rapidly; the enemy
 +turn their backs; the cavalry intercept them in their flight, and
 +a great slaughter ensues. Sedulius the general and chief of the Lemovices
 +is slain; Vergasillaunus the Arvernian, is taken alive in the flight,
 +seventy-four military standards are brought to Caesar, and few out
 +of so great a number return safe to their camp. The besieged, beholding
 +from the town the slaughter and flight of their countrymen, despairing
 +of safety, lead back their troops from the fortifications. A flight
 +of the Gauls from their camp immediately ensues on hearing of this
 +disaster, and had not the soldiers been wearied by sending frequent
 +reinforcements,​ and the labor of the entire day, all the enemy'​s forces
 +could have been destroyed. Immediately after midnight, the cavalry
 +are sent out and overtake the rear, a great number are taken or cut
 +to pieces, the rest by flight escape in different directions to their
 +respective states. Vercingetorix,​ having convened a council the following
 +day, declares, "That he had undertaken that war, not on account of
 +his own exigences, but on account of the general freedom; and since
 +he must yield to fortune, he offered himself to them for either purpose,
 +whether they should wish to atone to the Romans by his death, or surrender
 +him alive. Embassadors are sent to Caesar on this subject. He orders
 +their arms to be surrendered,​ and their chieftains delivered up. He
 +seated himself at the head of the lines in front of the camp, the
 +Gallic chieftains are brought before him. They surrender Vercingetorix,​
 +and lay down their arms. Reserving the Aedui and Arverni, [to try]
 +if he could gain over, through their influence, their respective states,
 +he distributes one of the remaining captives to each soldier, throughout
 +the entire army, as plunder. ​
 +===== Chapter 90 =====
 +After making these arrangements,​ he marches into the [country of the]
 +Aedui, and recovers that state. To this place embassadors are sent
 +by the Arveni, who promise that they will execute his commands. He
 +demands a great number of hostages. He sends the legions to winter-quarters;​
 +he restores about twenty thousand captives to the Aedui and Arverni;
 +he orders Titus Labienus to march into the [country of the] Sequani
 +with two legions and the cavalry, and to him he attaches Marcus Sempronius
 +Rutilus; he places Caius Fabius, and Lucius Minucius Basilus, with
 +two legions in the country of the Remi, lest they should sustain any
 +loss from the Bellovaci in their neighborhood. He sends Caius Antistius
 +Reginus into the [country of the] Ambivareti, Titus Sextius into the
 +territories of the Bituriges, and Caius Caninius Rebilus into those
 +of the Ruteni, with one legion each. He stations Quintus Tullius Cicero,
 +and Publius Sulpicius among the Aedui at Cabillo and Matisco on the
 +Saone, to procure supplies of corn. He himself determines to winter
 +at Bibracte. A supplication of twenty-days is decreed by the senate
 +at Rome, on learning these successes from Caesar'​s dispatches.
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de_bello_gallico_7.txt ยท Last modified: 2018/04/21 03:31 (external edit)