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de_bello_gallico_8 [2018/04/21 03:31] (current)
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 +====== The Gallic Wars By Julius Caesar 8 ======
 +Translated by W. A. McDevitte and W. S. Bohn
 +{{ :​41556781.vatican02_filtered.jpg?​400|Julius Caesar Deity Of The Romans}}
 +<​html><​a href="/​music/​08 The Gallic Wars, VIII.mp3">​Book 8 In Audio (alt version not a transcription)</​a><​script type="​text/​javascript"​ src="​http://​​player.js"></​script></​html>​
 +===== Chapter 0 =====
 +Prevailed on by your continued solicitations,​ Balbus, I have engaged
 +in a most difficult task, as my daily refusals appear to plead not
 +my inability, but indolence, as an excuse. I have compiled a continuation
 +of the Commentaries of our Caesar'​s Wars in Gaul, not indeed to be
 +compared to his writings, which either precede or follow them; and
 +recently, I have completed what he left imperfect after the transactions
 +in Alexandria, to the end, not indeed of the civil broils, to which
 +we see no issue, but of Caesar'​s life. I wish that those who may read
 +them could know how unwillingly I undertook to write them, as then
 +I might the more readily escape the imputation of folly and arrogance,
 +in presuming to intrude among Caesar'​s writings. For it is agreed
 +on all hands, that no composition was ever executed with so great
 +care, that it is not exceeded in elegance by these Commentaries,​ which
 +were published for the use of historians, that they might not want
 +memoirs of such achievements;​ and they stand so high in the esteem
 +of all men, that historians seem rather deprived of, than furnished
 +with material. At which we have more reason to be surprised than other
 +men; for they can only appreciate the elegance and correctness with
 +which he finished them, while we know with what ease and expedition.
 +Caesar possessed not only an uncommon flow of language and elegance
 +of style, but also a thorough knowledge of the method of conveying
 +his ideas. But I had not even the good fortune to share in the Alexandrian
 +or African war; and though these were partly communicated to me by
 +Caesar himself, in conversation,​ yet we listen with a different degree
 +of attention to those things which strike us with admiration by their
 +novelty, and those which we design to attest to posterity. But, in
 +truth, while I urge every apology, that I may not be compared to Caesar,
 +I incur the charge of vanity, by thinking it possible that I can in
 +the judgment of any one be put in competition with him. Farewell.
 +===== Chapter 1 =====
 +Gaul being entirely reduced, when Caesar having waged war incessantly
 +during the former summer, wished to recruit his soldiers after so
 +much fatigue, by repose in winter quarters, news was brought him that
 +several states were simultaneously renewing their hostile intention,
 +and forming combinations. For which a probable reason was assigned;
 +namely, that the Gauls were convinced that they were not able to resist
 +the Romans, with any force they could collect in one place; and hoped
 +that if several states made war in different places at the same time,
 +the Roman army would neither have aid, nor time, nor forces, to prosecute
 +them all: nor ought any single state to decline any inconveniences
 +that might befall them, provided that by such delay, the rest should
 +be enabled to assert their liberty. ​
 +===== Chapter 2 =====
 +That this notion might not be confirmed among the Gauls, Caesar left
 +Marcus Antonius, his questor, in charge of his quarters, and set out
 +himself with a guard of horse, the day before the kalends of January,
 +from the town Bibracte, to the thirteenth legion, which he had stationed
 +in the country of the Bituriges, not far from the territories of the
 +Aedui, and joined to it the eleventh legion which was next it. Leaving
 +two cohorts to guard the baggage, he leads the rest of his army into
 +the most plentiful part of the country of the Bituriges; who, possessing
 +an extensive territory and several towns, were not to be deterred,
 +by a single legion quartered among them, from making warlike preparation,​
 +and forming combinations. ​
 +===== Chapter 3 =====
 +By Caesar'​s sudden arrival, it happened, as it necessarily must, to
 +an unprovided and dispersed people, that they were surprised by our
 +horse, while cultivating the fields without any apprehensions,​ before
 +they had time to fly to their towns. For the usual sign of an enemy'​s
 +invasion, which is generally intimated by the burning of their towns,
 +was forbidden by Caesar'​s orders; lest if he advanced far, forage
 +and corn should become scarce, or the enemy be warned by the fires
 +to make their escape. Many thousands being taken, as many of the Bituriges
 +as were able to escape the first coming of the Romans, fled to the
 +neighboring states, relying either on private friendship, or public
 +alliance. In vain; for Caesar, by hasty marches, anticipated them
 +in every place, nor did he allow any state leisure to consider the
 +safety of others, in preference to their own. By this activity, he
 +both retained his friends in their loyalty, and by fear, obliged the
 +wavering to accept offers of peace. Such offers being made to the
 +Bituriges, when they perceived that through Caesar'​s clemency, an
 +avenue was open to his friendship, and that the neighboring states
 +had given hostages, without incurring any punishment, and had been
 +received under his protection, they did the same. 
 +===== Chapter 4 =====
 +Caesar promises his soldiers, as a reward for their labor and patience,
 +in cheerfully submitting to hardships from the severity of the winter,
 +the difficulty of the roads, and the intolerable cold, two hundred
 +sestertii each, and to every centurian two thousand, to be given instead
 +of plunder: and sending his legions back to quarters, he himself returned
 +on the fortieth day to Bibracte. While he was dispensing justice there,
 +the Bituriges send embassadors to him, to entreat his aid against
 +the Carnutes, who they complained had made war against them. Upon
 +this intelligence,​ though he had not remained more than eighteen days
 +in winter quarters, he draws the fourteenth and sixth legion out of
 +quarters on the Saone, where he had posted them as mentioned in a
 +former Commentary, to procure supplies of corn. With these two legions
 +he marches in pursuit of the Carnutes. ​
 +===== Chapter 5 =====
 +When the news of the approach of our army reached the enemy, the Carnutes,
 +terrified by the suffering of other states, deserted their villages
 +and towns (which were small buildings, raised in a hurry, to meet
 +the immediate necessity, in which they lived to shelter themselves
 +against the winter, for, being lately conquered, they had lost several
 +towns), and dispersed and fled. Caesar, unwilling to expose his soldiers
 +to the violent storms that break out, especially at that season, took
 +up his quarters at Genabum, a town of the Carnutes; and lodged his
 +men in houses, partly belonging to the Gauls, and partly built to
 +shelter the tents, and hastily covered with thatch. But the horse
 +and auxiliaries he sends to all parts to which he was told the enemy
 +had marched; and not without effect, as our men generally returned
 +loaded with booty. The Carnutes, overpowered by the severity of the
 +winter, and the fear of danger, and not daring to continue long in
 +any place, as they were driven from their houses, and not finding
 +sufficient protection in the woods, from the violence of the storms,
 +after losing a considerable number of their men, disperse, and take
 +refuge among the neighboring states. ​
 +===== Chapter 6 =====
 +Caesar, being contented, at so severe a season, to disperse the gathering
 +foes, and prevent any new war from breaking out, and being convinced,
 +as far as reason could foresee, that no war of consequence could be
 +set on foot in the summer campaign, stationed Caius Trebonius, with
 +the two legions which he had with him, in quarters at Genabum: and
 +being informed by frequent embassies from the Remi, that the Bellovaci
 +(who exceed all the Gauls and Belgae in military prowess), and the
 +neighboring states, headed by Correus, one of the Bellovaci, and Comius,
 +the Atrebatian, were raising an army, and assembling at a general
 +rendezvous, designing with their united forces to invade the territories
 +of the Suessiones, who were put under the patronage of the Remi: and
 +moreover, considering that not only his honor, but his interest was
 +concerned, that such of his allies, as deserved well of the republic,
 +should suffer no calamity; he again draws the eleventh legion out
 +of quarters, and writes besides to Caius Fabius, to march with his
 +two legions to the country of the Suessiones; and he sends to Trebonius
 +for one of his two legions. Thus, as far as the convenience of the
 +quarters, and the management of the war admitted, he laid the burden
 +of the expedition on the legions by turns, without any intermission
 +to his own toils. ​
 +===== Chapter 7 =====
 +As soon as his troops were collected, he marched against the Bellovaci:
 +and pitching his camp in their territories,​ detached troops of horse
 +all round the country, to take prisoners, from whom he might learn
 +the enemy'​s plan. The horse, having executed his orders bring him
 +back word, that but few were found in the houses: and that even these
 +had not stayed at home to cultivate their lands (for the emigration
 +was general from all parts) but had been sent back to watch our motions.
 +Upon Caesar'​s inquiring from them, where the main body of the Bellovaci
 +were posted, and what was their design: they made answer, "that all
 +the Bellovaci, fit for carrying arms, had assembled in one place,
 +and along with them the Ambiani, Aulerci, Caletes, Velocasses, and
 +Atrebates, and that they had chosen for their camp, an elevated position,
 +surrounded by a dangerous morass: that they had conveyed all their
 +baggage into the most remote woods: that several noblemen were united
 +in the management of the war; but that the people were most inclined
 +to be governed by Correus, because they knew that he had the strongest
 +aversion to the name of the Roman people: that a few days before Comius
 +had left the camp to engage the Germans to their aid whose nation
 +bordered on theirs, and whose numbers were countless: that the Bellovaci
 +had come to a resolution, with the consent of all the generals and
 +the earnest desire of the people, if Caesar should come with only
 +three legions, as was reported, to give him battle, that they might
 +not be obliged to encounter his whole army on a future occasion, when
 +they should be in a more wretched and distressed condition; but if
 +he brought a stronger force, they intended to remain in the position
 +they had chosen, and by ambuscade to prevent the Romans from getting
 +forage (which at that season was both scarce and much scattered),
 +corn, and other necessaries. ​
 +===== Chapter 8 =====
 +When Caesar was convinced of the truth of this account from the concurring
 +testimony of several persons, and perceived that the plans which were
 +proposed were full of prudence, and very unlike the rash resolves
 +of a barbarous people, he considered it incumbent on him to use every
 +exertion, in order that the enemy might despise his small force and
 +come to an action. For he had three veteran legions of distinguished
 +valor, the seventh, eighth and ninth. The eleventh consisted of chosen
 +youth of great hopes, who had served eight campaigns, but who, compared
 +with the others, had not yet acquired any great reputation for experience
 +and valor. Calling therefore a council, and laying before it the intelligence
 +which he had received, he encouraged his soldiers. In order if possible
 +to entice the enemy to an engagement by the appearance of only three
 +legions, he ranged his army in the following manner, that the seventh,
 +eighth, and ninth legions should march before all the baggage; that
 +then the eleventh should bring up the rear of the whole train of baggage
 +(which however was but small, as is usual on such expeditions),​ so
 +that the enemy could not get a sight of a greater number than they
 +themselves were willing to encounter. By this disposition he formed
 +his army almost into a square, and brought them within sight of the
 +enemy sooner than was anticipated. ​
 +===== Chapter 9 =====
 +When the Gauls, whose bold resolutions had been reported to Caesar,
 +saw the legions advance with a regular motion, drawn up in battle
 +array; either from the danger of an engagement, or our sudden approach,
 +or with the design of watching our movements, they drew up their forces
 +before the camp, and did not quit the rising ground. Though Caesar
 +wished to bring them to battle, yet being surprised to see so vast
 +a host of the enemy, he encamped opposite to them, with a valley between
 +them, deep rather than extensive. He ordered his camp to be fortified
 +with a rampart twelve feet high, with breastworks built on it proportioned
 +to its height and two trenches, each fifteen feet broad, with perpendicular
 +sides to be sunk: likewise several turrets, three stories high, to
 +be raised, with a communication to each other by galleries laid across
 +and covered over; which should be guarded in front by small parapets
 +of osiers; that the enemy might be repulsed by two rows of soldiers.
 +The one of whom, being more secure from danger by their height might
 +throw their darts with more daring and to a greater distance; the
 +other which was nearer the enemy, being stationed on the rampart,
 +would be protected by their galleries from darts falling on their
 +heads. At the entrance he erected gates and turrets of a considerable
 +height. ​
 +===== Chapter 10 =====
 +Caesar had a double design in this fortification;​ for he both hoped
 +that the strength of his works, and his [apparent] fears would raise
 +confidence in the barbarians; and when there should be occasion to
 +make a distant excursion to get forage or corn, he saw that his camp
 +would be secured by the works with a very small force. In the mean
 +time there were frequent skirmishes across the marsh, a few on both
 +sides sallying out between the two camps. Sometimes, however, our
 +Gallic or German auxiliaries crossed the marsh, and furiously pursued
 +the enemy; or on the other hand the enemy passed it and beat back
 +our men. Moreover there happened in the course of our daily foraging,
 +what must of necessity happen, when corn is to be collected by a few
 +scattered men out of private houses, that our foragers dispersing
 +in an intricate country were surrounded by the enemy; by which, though
 +we suffered but an inconsiderable loss of cattle and servants, yet
 +it raised foolish hopes in the barbarians; but more especially, because
 +Comius, who I said had gone to get aid from the Germans, returned
 +with some cavalry, and though the Germans were only 500, yet the barbarians
 +were elated by their arrival. ​
 +===== Chapter 11 =====
 +Caesar, observing that the enemy kept for several days within their
 +camp, which was well secured by a morass and its natural situation,
 +and that it could not be assaulted without a dangerous engagement,
 +nor the place inclosed with lines without an addition to his army,
 +wrote to Trebonius to send with all dispatch for the thirteenth legion
 +which was in winter quarters among the Bituriges under Titus Sextius,
 +one of his lieutenants;​ and then to come to him by forced marches
 +with the three legions. He himself sent the cavalry of the Remi, and
 +Lingones, and other states, from whom he had required a vast number,
 +to guard his foraging parties, and to support them in case of any
 +sudden attack of the enemy. ​
 +===== Chapter 12 =====
 +As this continued for several days, and their vigilance was relaxed
 +by custom (an effect which is generally produced by time), the Bellovaci,
 +having made themselves acquainted with the daily stations of our horse,
 +lie in ambush with a select body of foot in a place covered with woods;
 +to it they sent their horse the next day, who were first to decoy
 +our men into the ambuscade, and then when they were surrounded, to
 +attack them. It was the lot of the Remi to fall into this snare, to
 +whom that day had been allotted to perform this duty; for, having
 +suddenly got sight of the enemy'​s cavalry, and despising their weakness,
 +in consequence of their superior numbers, they pursued them too eagerly,
 +and were surrounded on every side by the foot. Being, by this means
 +thrown into disorder they returned with more precipitation than is
 +usual in cavalry actions, with the loss of Vertiscus the governor
 +of their state, and the general of their horse, who, though scarcely
 +able to sit on horseback through years, neither, in accordance with
 +the custom of the Gauls, pleaded his age in excuse for not accepting
 +the command, nor would he suffer them to fight without him. The spirits
 +of the barbarians were puffed up, and inflated at the success of this
 +battle, in killing the prince, and general of the Remi; and our men
 +were taught by this loss, to examine the country, and post their guards
 +with more caution, and to be more moderate in pursuing a retreating
 +enemy. ​
 +===== Chapter 13 =====
 +In the mean time daily skirmishes take place continually in view of
 +both camps; these were fought at the ford and pass of the morass.
 +In one of these contests the Germans, whom Caesar had brought over
 +the Rhine, to fight, intermixed with the horse, having resolutely
 +crossed the marsh, and slain the few who made resistance, and boldly
 +pursued the rest, so terrified them, that not only those who were
 +attacked hand to hand, or wounded at a distance, but even those who
 +were stationed at a greater distance to support them, fled disgracefully;​
 +and being often beaten from the rising grounds, did not stop till
 +they had retired into their camp, or some, impelled by fear, had fled
 +further. Their danger threw their whole army into such confusion,
 +that it was difficult to judge whether they were more insolent after
 +a slight advantage or more dejected by a trifling calamity.
 +===== Chapter 14 =====
 +After spending several days in the same camp, the guards of the Bellovaci,
 +learning that Caius Trebonius was advancing nearer with his legions,
 +and fearing a siege like that of Alesia, send off by night all who
 +were disabled by age or infirmity, or unarmed, and along with them
 +their whole baggage. While they are preparing their disorderly and
 +confused troop for march (for the Gauls are always attended by a vast
 +multitude of wagons, even when they have very light baggage), being
 +overtaken by day-light, they drew their forces out before their camp,
 +to prevent the Romans attempting a pursuit before the line of their
 +baggage had advanced to a considerable distance. But Caesar did not
 +think it prudent to attack them when standing on their defense, with
 +such a steep hill in their favor, nor keep his legions at such a distance
 +that they could quit their post without danger: but, perceiving that
 +his camp was divided from the enemy'​s by a deep morass, so difficult
 +to cross that he could not pursue with expedition, and that the hill
 +beyond the morass, which extended almost to the enemy'​s camp, was
 +separated from it only by a small valley, he laid a bridge over the
 +morass and led his army across, and soon reached the plain on the
 +top of the hill, which was fortified on either side by a steep ascent.
 +Having there drawn up his army in order of battle, he marched to the
 +furthest hill, from which he could, with his engines, shower darts
 +upon the thickest of the enemy. ​
 +===== Chapter 15 =====
 +The Gauls, confiding in the natural strength of their position, though
 +they would not decline an engagement if the Romans attempted to ascend
 +the hill, yet dared not divide their forces into small parties, lest
 +they should be thrown into disorder by being dispersed, and therefore
 +remained in order of battle. Caesar, perceiving that they persisted
 +in their resolution, kept twenty cohorts in battle array, and, measuring
 +out ground there for a camp, ordered it to be fortified. Having completed
 +his works, he drew up his legions before the rampart and stationed
 +the cavalry in certain positions, with their horses bridled. When
 +the Bellovaci saw the Romans prepared to pursue them, and that they
 +could not wait the whole night, or continue longer in the same place
 +without provisions, they formed the following plan to secure a retreat.
 +They handed to one another the bundles of straw and sticks on which
 +they sat (for it is the custom of the Gauls to sit when drawn up in
 +order of battle, as has been asserted in former commentaries),​ of
 +which they had great plenty in their camp, and piled them in the front
 +of their line; and at the close of the day, on a certain signal, set
 +them all on fire at one and the same time. The continued blaze soon
 +screened all their forces from the sight of the Romans, which no sooner
 +happened than the barbarians fled with the greatest precipitation.
 +===== Chapter 16 =====
 +Though Caesar could not perceive the retreat of the enemy for the
 +intervention of the fire, yet, suspecting that they had adopted that
 +method to favor their escape, he made his legions advance, and sent
 +a party of horse to pursue them; but, apprehensive of an ambuscade,
 +and that the enemy might remain in the same place and endeavor to
 +draw our men into a disadvantageous situation, he advances himself
 +but slowly. The horse, being afraid to venture into the smoke and
 +dense line of flame, and those who were bold enough to attempt it
 +being scarcely able to see their horse'​s heads, gave the enemy free
 +liberty to retreat, through fear of an ambuscade. Thus by a flight,
 +full at once of cowardice and address, they advanced without any loss
 +about ten miles, and encamped in a very strong position. From which,
 +laying numerous ambuscades, both of horse and foot, they did considerable
 +damage to the Roman foragers. ​
 +===== Chapter 17 =====
 +After this had happened several times, Caesar discovered from a certain
 +prisoner, that Correus, the general of the Bellovaci, had selected
 +six thousand of his bravest foot and a thousand horse, with which
 +he designed to lie in ambush in a place to which he suspected the
 +Romans would send to look for forage, on account of the abundance
 +of corn and grass. Upon receiving information of their design Caesar
 +drew out more legions than he usually did, and sent forward his cavalry
 +as usual, to protect the foragers. With these he intermixed a guard
 +of light infantry, and himself advanced with the legions as fast as
 +he could. ​
 +===== Chapter 18 =====
 +The Gauls, placed in ambush, had chosen for the seat of action a level
 +piece of ground, not more than a mile in extent, inclosed on every
 +side by a thick wood or a very deep river, as by a toil, and this
 +they surrounded. Our men, apprised of the enemy'​s design, marched
 +in good order to the ground, ready both in heart and hand to give
 +battle, and willing to hazard any engagement when the legions were
 +at their back. On their approach, as Correus supposed that he had
 +got an opportunity of effecting his purpose, he at first shows himself
 +with a small party and attacks the foremost troops. Our men resolutely
 +stood the charge, and did not crowd together in one place, as commonly
 +happens from surprise in engagements between the horse, whose numbers
 +prove injurious to themselves. ​
 +===== Chapter 19 =====
 +When by the judicious arrangement of our forces only a few of our
 +men fought by turns, and did not suffer themselves to be surrounded,
 +the rest of the enemy broke out from the woods while Correus was engaged.
 +The battle was maintained in different parts with great vigor, and
 +continued for a long time undecided, till at length a body of foot
 +gradually advanced from the woods in order of battle and forced our
 +horse to give ground: the light infantry, which were sent before the
 +legions to the assistance of the cavalry, soon came up, and, mixing
 +with the horse, fought with great courage. The battle was for some
 +time doubtful, but, as usually happens, our men, who stood the enemy'​s
 +first charge, became superior from this very circumstance that, though
 +suddenly attacked from an ambuscade, they had sustained no loss. In
 +the mean time the legions were approaching,​ and several messengers
 +arrived with notice to our men and the enemy that the [Roman] general
 +was near at hand, with his forces in battle array. Upon this intelligence,​
 +our men, confiding in the support of the cohorts, fought most resolutely,
 +fearing, lest if they should be slow in their operations they should
 +let the legions participate in the glory of the conquest. The enemy
 +lose courage and attempt to escape by different ways. In vain; for
 +they were themselves entangled in that labyrinth in which they thought
 +to entrap the Romans. Being defeated and put to the rout, and having
 +lost the greater part of their men, they fled in consternation whithersoever
 +chance carried them; some sought the woods, others the river, but
 +were vigorously pursued by our men and put to the sword. Yet, in the
 +mean time, Correus, unconquered by calamity, could not be prevailed
 +on to quit the field and take refuge in the woods, or accept our offers
 +of quarter, but, fighting courageously and wounding several, provoked
 +our men, elated with victory, to discharge their weapons against him.
 +===== Chapter 20 =====
 +After this transaction,​ Caesar, having come up immediately after the
 +battle, and imagining that the enemy, upon receiving the news of so
 +great a defeat, would be so depressed that they would abandon their
 +camp, which was not above eight miles distant from the scene of action,
 +though he saw his passage obstructed by the river, yet he marched
 +his army over and advanced. But the Bellovaci and the other states,
 +being informed of the loss they had sustained by a few wounded men
 +who having escaped by the shelter of the woods, had returned to them
 +after the defeat, and learning that every thing had turned out unfavorable,​
 +that Correus was slain, and the horse and most valiant of their foot
 +cut off, imagined that the Romans were marching against them, and
 +calling a council in haste by sound of trumpet, unanimously cry out
 +to send embassadors and hostages to Caesar. ​
 +===== Chapter 21 =====
 +This proposal having met with general approbation,​ Comius the Atrebatian
 +fled to those Germans from whom he had borrowed auxiliaries for that
 +war. The rest instantly send embassadors to Caesar; and requested
 +that he would be contented with that punishment of his enemy, which
 +if he had possessed the power to inflict on them before the engagement,
 +when they were yet uninjured, they were persuaded from his usual clemency
 +and mercy, he never would have inflicted; that the power of the Bellovaci
 +was crushed by the cavalry action; that many thousand of their choicest
 +foot had fallen, that scarce a man had escaped to bring the fatal
 +news. That, however, the Bellovaci had derived from the battle one
 +advantage, of some importance, considering their loss; that Correus,
 +the author of the rebellion, and agitator of the people, was slain:
 +for that while he lived the senate had never equal influence in the
 +state with the giddy populace. ​
 +===== Chapter 22 =====
 +Caesar reminded the embassadors who made these supplications,​ that
 +the Bellovaci had at the same season the year before, in conjunction
 +with other states of Gaul, undertaken a war, and that they had persevered
 +the most obstinately of all in their purpose, and were not brought
 +to a proper way of thinking by the submission of the rest: that he
 +knew and was aware that the guilt of a crime was easily transferred
 +to the dead; but that no one person could have such influence, as
 +to be able by the feeble support of the multitude to raise a war and
 +carry it on without the consent of the nobles, in opposition to the
 +senate, and in despite of every virtuous man; however he was satisfied
 +with the punishment, which they had drawn upon themselves.
 +===== Chapter 23 =====
 +The night following the embassadors bring back his answer to their
 +countrymen and prepare the hostages. Embassadors flock in from the
 +other states, which were waiting for the issue of the [war with the]
 +Bellovaci: they give hostages, and receive his orders; all except
 +Comius, whose fears restrained him from intrusting his safety to any
 +person'​s honor. For the year before, while Caesar was holding the
 +assizes in Hither Gaul, Titus Labienus, having discovered that Comius
 +was tampering with the state, and raising a conspiracy against Caesar,
 +thought he might punish his infidelity without perfidy; but judging
 +that he would not come to his camp at his invitation, and unwilling
 +to put him on his guard by the attempt, he sent Caius Volusenus Quadratus,
 +with orders to have him put to death under pretense of conference.
 +To effect his purpose, he sent with him some chosen centurions. When
 +they came to the conference, and Volusenus, as had been agreed on,
 +had taken hold of Comius by the hand, and one of the centurions, as
 +if surprised at so uncommon an incident, attempted to kill him, he
 +was prevented by the friends of Comius, but wounded him severely in
 +the head by the first blow. Swords were drawn on both sides, not so
 +much with a design to fight as to effect an escape, our men believing
 +that Comius had received a mortal stroke; and the Gauls, from the
 +treachery which they had seen, dreading that a deeper design lay concealed.
 +Upon this transaction,​ it was said that Comius made a resolution never
 +to come within sight of any Roman. ​
 +===== Chapter 24 =====
 +When Caesar, having completely conquered the most warlike nations,
 +perceived that there was now no state which could make preparations
 +for war to oppose him, but that some were removing and fleeing from
 +their country to avoid present subjection, he resolved to detach his
 +army into different parts of the country. He kept with himself Marcus
 +Antonius the quaestor, with the eleventh legion; Caius Fabius was
 +detached with twenty-five cohorts into the remotest part of Gaul,
 +because it was rumored that some states had risen in arms, and he
 +did not think that Caius Caninius Rebilus, who had the charge of that
 +country, was strong enough to protect it with two legions. He ordered
 +Titus Labienus to attend himself, and sent the twelfth legion which
 +had been under him in winter quarters, to Hither Gaul, to protect
 +the Roman colonies, and prevent any loss by the inroads of barbarians
 +similar to that which had happened the year before to the Tergestines,​
 +who were cut off by a sudden depredation and attack. He himself marched
 +to depopulate the country of Ambiorix, whom he had terrified and forced
 +to fly, but despaired of being able to reduce under his power; but
 +he thought it most consistent with his honor to waste his country
 +both of inhabitants,​ cattle, and buildings, so that from the abhorrence
 +of his countrymen, if fortune suffered any to survive, he might be
 +excluded from a return to his state for the calamities which he had
 +brought on it. 
 +===== Chapter 25 =====
 +After he had sent either his legions or auxiliaries through every
 +part of Ambiorix'​s dominions, and wasted the whole country by sword,
 +fire, and rapine, and had killed or taken prodigious numbers, he sent
 +Labienus with two legions against the Treviri, whose state, from its
 +vicinity to Germany, being engaged in constant war, differed but little
 +from the Germans, in civilization and savage barbarity; and never
 +continued in its allegiance, except when awed by the presence of his
 +===== Chapter 26 =====
 +In the mean time Caius Caninius, a lieutenant, having received information
 +by letters and messages from Duracius, who had always continued in
 +friendship to the Roman people, though a part of his state had revolted,
 +that a great multitude of the enemy were in arms in the country of
 +the Pictones, marched to the town Limonum. When he was approaching
 +it, he was informed by some prisoners, that Duracius was shut up by
 +several thousand men, under the command of Dumnacus, general of the
 +Andes, and that Limonum was besieged, but not daring to face the enemy
 +with his weak legions, he encamped in a strong position: Dumnacus,
 +having notice of Caninius'​s approach, turned his whole force against
 +the legions, and prepared to assault the Roman camp. But after spending
 +several days in the attempt, and losing a considerable number of men,
 +without being able to make a breach in any part of the works, he returned
 +again to the siege of Limonum. ​
 +===== Chapter 27 =====
 +At the same time, Caius Fabius, a lieutenant, brings back many states
 +to their allegiance, and confirms their submission by taking hostages;
 +he was then informed by letters from Caninius, of the proceedings
 +among the Pictones. Upon which he set off to bring assistance to Duracius.
 +But Dumnacus, hearing of the approach of Fabius, and despairing of
 +safety, if at the same time he should be forced to withstand the Roman
 +army without, and observe, and be under apprehension from the town's
 +people, made a precipitate retreat from that place with all his forces.
 +Nor did he think that he should be sufficiently secure from danger,
 +unless he led his army across the Loire, which was too deep a river
 +to pass except by a bridge. Though Fabius had not yet come within
 +sight of the enemy, nor joined Caninius; yet being informed of the
 +nature of the country, by persons acquainted with it, he judged it
 +most likely that the enemy would take that way, which he found they
 +did take. He therefore marched to that bridge with his army, and ordered
 +his cavalry to advance no farther before the legions than that they
 +could return to the same camp at night, without fatiguing their horses.
 +Our horse pursued according to orders, and fell upon Dumnacus'​s rear
 +and attacking them on their march, while fleeing, dismayed, and laden
 +with baggage, they slew a great number, and took a rich booty. Having
 +executed the affair so successfully,​ they retired to the camp.
 +===== Chapter 28 =====
 +The night following, Fabius sent his horse before him, with orders
 +to engage the enemy, and delay their march till he himself should
 +come up. That his orders might be faithfully performed, Quintus Atius
 +Varus, general of the horse, a man of uncommon spirit and skill, encouraged
 +his men, and pursuing the enemy, disposed some of his troops in convenient
 +places, and with the rest gave battle to the enemy. The enemy'​s cavalry
 +made a bold stand, the foot relieving each other, and making a general
 +halt, to assist their horse against ours. The battle was warmly contested.
 +For our men, despising the enemy whom they had conquered the day before,
 +and knowing that the legions were following them, animated both by
 +the disgrace of retreating, and a desire of concluding the battle
 +expeditiously by their own courage, fought most valiantly against
 +the foot: and the enemy, imagining that no more forces would come
 +against them, as they had experienced the day before, thought they
 +had got a favorable opportunity of destroying our whole cavalry.
 +===== Chapter 29 =====
 +After the conflict had continued for some time with great violence,
 +Dumnacus drew out his army in such a manner, that the foot should
 +by turns assist the horse. Then the legions, marching in close order,
 +came suddenly in sight of the enemy. At this sight, the barbarian
 +horse were so astonished, and the foot so terrified, that breaking
 +through the line of baggage, they betook themselves to flight with
 +a loud shout, and in great disorder. But our horse, who a little before
 +had vigorously engaged them, while they made resistance, being elated
 +with joy at their victory, raising a shout on every side, poured round
 +them as they ran, and as long as their horses had strength to pursue,
 +or their arms to give a blow, so long did they continue the slaughter
 +of the enemy in that battle, and having killed above twelve thousand
 +men in arms, or such as threw away their arms through fear, they took
 +their whole train of baggage. ​
 +===== Chapter 30 =====
 +After this defeat, when it was ascertained that Drapes, a Senonian
 +(who in the beginning of the revolt of Gaul had collected from all
 +quarters men of desperate fortunes, invited the slaves to liberty,
 +called in the exiles of the whole kingdom, given an asylum to robbers,
 +and intercepted the Roman baggage and provisions),​ was marching to
 +the province with five thousand men, being all he could collect after
 +the defeat, and that Luterius a Cadurcian who, as it has been observed
 +in a former commentary, had designed to make an attack on the Province
 +in the first revolt of Gaul, had formed a junction with him, Caius
 +Caninius went in pursuit of them with two legions, lest great disgrace
 +might be incurred from the fears or injuries done to the Province
 +by the depredations of a band of desperate men. 
 +===== Chapter 31 =====
 +Caius Fabius set off with the rest of the army to the Carnutes and
 +those other states, whose force he was informed, had served as auxiliaries
 +in that battle, which he fought against Dumnacus. For he had no doubt
 +that they would be more submissive after their recent sufferings,
 +but if respite and time were given them, they might be easily excited
 +by the earnest solicitations of the same Dumnacus. On this occasion
 +Fabius was extremely fortunate and expeditious in recovering the states.
 +For the Carnutes, who, though often harassed had never mentioned peace,
 +submitted and gave hostages: and the other states, which lie in the
 +remotest parts of Gaul, adjoining the ocean, and which are called
 +Armoricae, influenced by the example of the Carnutes, as soon as Fabius
 +arrived with his legions, without delay comply with his command. Dumnacus,
 +expelled from his own territories,​ wandering and skulking about, was
 +forced to seek refuge by himself in the most remote parts of Gaul.
 +===== Chapter 32 =====
 +But Drapes in conjunction with Luterius, knowing that Caninius was
 +at hand with the legions, and that they themselves could not without
 +certain destruction enter the boundaries of the province, while an
 +army was in pursuit of them, and being no longer at liberty to roam
 +up and down and pillage, halt in the country of the Cadurci, as Luterius
 +had once in his prosperity possessed a powerful influence over the
 +inhabitants,​ who were his countrymen, and being always the author
 +of new projects, had considerable authority among the barbarians;
 +with his own and Drapes'​ troops he seized Uxellodunum,​ a town formerly
 +in vassalage to him, and strongly fortified by its natural situation;
 +and prevailed on the inhabitants to join him. 
 +===== Chapter 33 =====
 +After Caninius had rapidly marched to this place, and perceived that
 +all parts of the town were secured by very craggy rocks, which it
 +would be difficult for men in arms to climb even if they met with
 +no resistance; and moreover, observing that the town's people were
 +possessed of effects, to a considerable amount, and that if they attempted
 +to convey them away in a clandestine manner, they could not escape
 +our horse, or even our legions; he divided his forces into three parts,
 +and pitched three camps on very high ground, with the intention of
 +drawing lines round the town by degrees, as his forces could bear
 +the fatigue. ​
 +===== Chapter 34 =====
 +When the townsmen perceived his design, being terrified by the recollection
 +of the distress at Alesia, they began to dread similar consequences
 +from a siege; and above all Luterius, who had experienced that fatal
 +event, cautioned them to make provisions of corn; they therefore resolve
 +by general consent to leave part of their troops behind, and set out
 +with their light troops to bring in corn. The scheme having met with
 +approbation,​ the following night Drapes and Luterius leaving two thousand
 +men in the garrison, marched out of the town with the rest. After
 +a few days' stay in the country of the Cadurci (some of whom were
 +disposed to assist them with corn, and others were unable to prevent
 +their taking it) they collected a great store. Sometimes also attacks
 +were made on our little forts by sallies at night. For this reason
 +Caninius deferred drawing his works round the whole town, lest he
 +should be unable to protect them when completed, or by disposing his
 +garrisons in several places, should make them too weak. 
 +===== Chapter 35 =====
 +Drapes and Luterius, having laid in a large supply of corn, occupying
 +a position at about ten miles distance from the town, intending from
 +it to convey the corn into the town by degrees. They chose each his
 +respective department. Drapes stayed behind in the camp with part
 +of the army to protect it; Luterius conveys the train with provisions
 +into the town. Accordingly,​ having disposed guards here and there
 +along the road, about the tenth hour of the night, he set out by narrow
 +paths through the woods, to fetch the corn into the town. But their
 +noise being heard by the sentinels of our camp, and the scouts which
 +we had sent out, having brought an account of what was going on, Caninius
 +instantly with the ready-armed cohorts from the nearest turrets made
 +an attack on the convoy at the break of day. They, alarmed at so unexpected
 +an evil, fled by different ways to their guard: which as soon as our
 +men perceived, they fell with great fury on the escort, and did not
 +allow a single man to be taken alive. Luterius escaped thence with
 +a few followers, but did not return to the camp. 
 +===== Chapter 36 =====
 +After this success, Caninius learned from some prisoners, that a part
 +of the forces was encamped with Drapes, not more than ten miles off:
 +which being confirmed by several, supposing that after the defeat
 +of one general, the rest would be terrified, and might be easily conquered,
 +he thought it a most fortunate event that none of the enemy had fled
 +back from the slaughter to the camp, to give Drapes notice of the
 +calamity which had befallen him. And as he could see no danger in
 +making the attempt, he sent forward all his cavalry and the German
 +foot, men of great activity, to the enemy'​s camp. He divides one legion
 +among the three camps, and takes the other without baggage along with
 +him. When he had advanced near the enemy, he was informed by scouts,
 +which he had sent before him, that the enemy'​s camp, as is the custom
 +of barbarians, was pitched low, near the banks of a river, and that
 +the higher grounds were unoccupied: but that the German horse had
 +made a sudden attack on them, and had begun the battle. Upon this
 +intelligence,​ he marched up with his legion, armed and in order of
 +battle. Then, on a signal being suddenly given on every side, our
 +men took possession of the higher grounds. Upon this the German horse
 +observing the Roman colors, fought with great vigor. Immediately all
 +the cohorts attack them on every side; and having either killed or
 +made prisoners of them all, gained great booty. In that battle, Drapes
 +himself was taken prisoner. ​
 +===== Chapter 37 =====
 +Caninius, having accomplished the business so successfully,​ without
 +having scarcely a man wounded, returned to besiege the town; and,
 +having destroyed the enemy without, for fear of whom he had been prevented
 +from strengthening his redoubts, and surrounding the enemy with his
 +lines, he orders the work to be completed on every side. The next
 +day, Caius Fabius came to join him with his forces, and took upon
 +him the siege of one side. 
 +===== Chapter 38 =====
 +In the mean time, Caesar left Caius Antonius in the country of the
 +Bellovaci, with fifteen cohorts, that the Belgae might have no opportunity
 +of forming new plans in future. He himself visits the other states,
 +demands a great number of hostages, and by his encouraging language
 +allays the apprehensions of all. When he came to the Carnutes, in
 +whose state he has in a former commentary mentioned that the war first
 +broke out; observing, that from a consciousness of their guilt, they
 +seemed to be in the greatest terror: to relieve the state the sooner
 +from its fear, he demanded that Guturvatus, the promoter of that treason,
 +and the instigator of that rebellion, should be delivered up to punishment.
 +And though the latter did not dare to trust his life even to his own
 +countrymen, yet such diligent search was made by them all, that he
 +was soon brought to our camp. Caesar was forced to punish him, by
 +the clamors of the soldiers, contrary to his natural humanity, for
 +they alleged that all the dangers and losses incurred in that war,
 +ought to be imputed to Guturvatus. Accordingly,​ he was whipped to
 +death, and his head cut off. 
 +===== Chapter 39 =====
 +Here Caesar was informed by numerous letters from Caninius of what
 +had happened to Drapes and Luterius, and in what conduct the town's
 +people persisted: and though he despised the smallness of their numbers,
 +yet he thought their obstinacy deserving a severe punishment, lest
 +Gaul in general should adopt an idea that she did not want strength
 +but perseverance to oppose the Romans; and lest the other states,
 +relying on the advantage of situation, should follow their example
 +and assert their liberty; especially as he knew that all the Gauls
 +understood that his command was to continue but one summer longer,
 +and if they could hold out for that time, that they would have no
 +further danger to apprehend. He therefore left Quintus Calenus, one
 +of his lieutenants,​ behind him, with two legions, and instructions
 +to follow him by regular marches. He hastened as much as he could
 +with all the cavalry to Caninius. ​
 +===== Chapter 40 =====
 +Having arrived at Uxellodunum,​ contrary to the general expectation,​
 +and perceiving that the town was surrounded by the works, and that
 +the enemy had no possible means of retiring from the assault, and
 +being likewise informed by the deserters that the townsmen had abundance
 +of corn, he endeavoured to prevent their getting water. A river divided
 +the valley below, which almost surrounded the steep craggy mountain
 +on which Uxellodunum was built. The nature of the ground prevented
 +his turning the current: for it ran so low down at the foot of the
 +mountain, that no drains could be sunk deep enough to draw it off
 +in any direction. But the descent to it was so difficult, that if
 +we made opposition, the besieged could neither come to the river nor
 +retire up the precipice without hazard of their lives. Caesar perceiving
 +the difficulty, disposed archers and slingers, and in some places,
 +opposite to the easiest descents, placed engines, and attempted to
 +hinder the townsmen from getting water at the river, which obliged
 +them afterward to go all to one place to procure water. ​
 +===== Chapter 41 =====
 +Close under the walls of the town, a copious spring gushed out on
 +that part, which for the space of nearly three hundred feet, was not
 +surrounded by the river. While every other person wished that the
 +besieged could be debarred from this spring, Caesar alone saw that
 +it could be effected, though not without great danger. Opposite to
 +it he began to advance the vineae toward the mountain, and to throw
 +up a mound, with great labor and continual skirmishing. For the townsmen
 +ran down from the high ground, and fought without any risk, and wounded
 +several of our men, yet they obstinately pushed on and were not deterred
 +from moving forward the vineae, and from surmounting by their assiduity
 +the difficulties of situation. At the same time they work mines, and
 +move the crates and vineae to the source of the fountain. This was
 +the only work which they could do without danger or suspicion. A mound
 +sixty feet high was raised; on it was erected a turret of ten stories,
 +not with the intention that it should be on a level with the wall
 +(for that could not be effected by any works), but to rise above the
 +top of the spring. When our engines began to play from it upon the
 +paths that led to the fountain, and the townsmen could not go for
 +water without danger, not only the cattle designed for food and the
 +working cattle, but a great number of men also died of thirst.
 +===== Chapter 42 =====
 +Alarmed at this calamity, the townsmen fill barrels with tallow, pitch,
 +and dried wood: these they set on fire, and roll down on our works.
 +At the same time, they fight most furiously, to deter the Romans,
 +by the engagement and danger, from extinguishing the flames. Instantly
 +a great blaze arose in the works. For whatever they threw down the
 +precipice, striking against the vineae and agger, communicated the
 +fire to whatever was in the way. Our soldiers on the other hand, though
 +they were engaged in a perilous sort of encounter, and laboring under
 +the disadvantages of position, yet supported all with very great presence
 +of mind. For the action happened in an elevated situation, and in
 +sight of our army; and a great shout was raised on both sides; therefore
 +every man faced the weapons of the enemy and the flames in as conspicuous
 +a manner as he could, that his valor might be the better known and
 +attested. ​
 +===== Chapter 43 =====
 +Caesar, observing that several of his men were wounded, ordered the
 +cohorts to ascend the mountain on all sides, and, under pretense of
 +assailing the walls, to raise a shout: at which the besieged being
 +frightened, and not knowing what was going on in other places, call
 +off their armed troops from attacking our works, and dispose them
 +on the walls. Thus our men without hazarding a battle, gained time
 +partly to extinguish the works which had caught fire, and partly to
 +cut off the communication. As the townsmen still continued to make
 +an obstinate resistance, and even, after losing the greatest part
 +of their forces by drought, persevered in their resolution: at last
 +the veins of the spring were cut across by our mines, and turned from
 +their course. By this their constant spring was suddenly dried up,
 +which reduced them to such despair that they imagined that it was
 +not done by the art of man, but the will of the gods; forced, therefore,
 +by necessity, they at length submitted. ​
 +===== Chapter 44 =====
 +Caesar, being convinced that his lenity was known to all men, and
 +being under no fears of being thought to act severely from a natural
 +cruelty, and perceiving that there would be no end to his troubles
 +if several states should attempt to rebel in like manner and in different
 +places, resolved to deter others by inflicting an exemplary punishment
 +on these. Accordingly he cut off the hands of those who had borne
 +arms against him. Their lives he spared, that the punishment of their
 +rebellion might be the more conspicuous. Drapes, who I have said was
 +taken by Caninius, either through indignation and grief arising from
 +his captivity, or through fear of severer punishments,​ abstained from
 +food for several days, and thus perished. At the same time, Luterius,
 +who, I have related, had escaped from the battle, having fallen into
 +the hands of Epasnactus, an Arvernian (for he frequently changed his
 +quarters, and threw himself on the honor of several persons, as he
 +saw that he dare not remain long in one place, and was conscious how
 +great an enemy he deserved to have in Caesar), was by this Epasnactus,
 +the Arvernian, a sincere friend of the Roman people, delivered without
 +any hesitation, a prisoner to Caesar. ​
 +===== Chapter 45 =====
 +In the mean time, Labienus engages in a successful cavalry action
 +among the Treviri; and, having killed several of them and of the Germans,
 +who never refused their aid to any person against the Romans, he got
 +their chiefs alive into his power, and, among them, Surus, an Aeduan,
 +who was highly renowned both for his valor and birth, and was the
 +only Aeduan that had continued in arms till that time. Caesar, being
 +informed of this, and perceiving that he had met with good success
 +in all parts of Gaul, and reflecting that, in former campaigns [Celtic]
 +Gaul had been conquered and subdued; but that he had never gone in
 +person to Aquitania, but had made a conquest of it, in some degree,
 +by Marcus Crassus, set out for it with two legions, designing to spend
 +the latter part of the summer there. This affair he executed with
 +his usual dispatch and good fortune. For all the states of Aquitania
 +sent embassadors to him and delivered hostages. These affairs being
 +concluded, he marched with a guard of cavalry toward Narbo, and drew
 +off his army into winter quarters by his lieutenants. He posted four
 +legions in the country of the Belgae, under Marcus Antonius, Caius
 +Trebonius, Publius Vatinius, and Quintus Tullius, his lieutenants.
 +Two he detached to the Aedui, knowing them to have a very powerful
 +influence throughout all Gaul. Two he placed among the Turoni, near
 +the confines of the Carnutes, to keep in awe the entire tract of country
 +bordering on the ocean; the other two he placed in the territories
 +of the Lemovices, at a small distance from the Arverni, that no part
 +of Gaul might be without an army. Having spent a few days in the province,
 +he quickly ran through all the business of the assizes, settled all
 +public disputes, and distributed rewards to the most deserving; for
 +he had a good opportunity of learning how every person was disposed
 +toward the republic during the general revolt of Gaul, which he had
 +withstood by the fidelity and assistance of the Province.
 +===== Chapter 47 =====
 +Having finished these affairs, he returned to his legions among the
 +Belgae and wintered at Nemetocenna:​ there he got intelligence that
 +Comius, the Atrebatian had had an engagement with his cavalry. For
 +when Antonius had gone into winter quarters, and the state of the
 +Atrebates continued in their allegiance, Comius, who, after that wound
 +which I before mentioned, was always ready to join his countrymen
 +upon every commotion, that they might not want a person to advise
 +and head them in the management of the war, when his state submitted
 +to the Romans, supported himself and his adherents on plunder by means
 +of his cavalry, infested the roads, and intercepted several convoys
 +which were bringing provisions to the Roman quarters. ​
 +===== Chapter 48 =====
 +Caius Volusenus Quadratus was appointed commander of the horse under
 +Antonius, to winter with him: Antonius sent him in pursuit of the
 +enemy'​s cavalry; now Volusenus added to that valor which was pre-eminent
 +in him, a great aversion to Comius, on which account he executed the
 +more willingly the orders which he received. Having, therefore, laid
 +ambuscades, he had several encounters with his cavalry and came off
 +successful. At last, when a violent contest ensued, and Volusenus,
 +through eagerness to intercept Comius, had obstinately pursued him
 +with a small party; and Comius had, by the rapidity of his flight,
 +drawn Volusenus to a considerable distance from his troops, he, on
 +a sudden, appealed to the honor of all about him for assistance not
 +to suffer the wound, which he had perfidiously received, to go without
 +vengeance; and, wheeling his horse about, rode unguardedly before
 +the rest up to the commander. All his horse following his example,
 +made a few of our men turn their backs and pursued them. Comius, clapping
 +spurs to his horse, rode up to Volusenus, and, pointing his lance,
 +pierced him in the thigh with great force. When their commander was
 +wounded, our men no longer hesitated to make resistance, and, facing
 +about, beat back the enemy. When this occurred, several of the enemy,
 +repulsed by the great impetuosity of our men, were wounded, and some
 +were trampled to death in striving to escape, and some were made prisoners.
 +Their general escaped this misfortune by the swiftness of his horse.
 +Our commander, being severely wounded, so much so that he appeared
 +to run the risk of losing his life, was carried back to the camp.
 +But Comius, having either gratified his resentment, or, because he
 +had lost the greatest part of his followers, sent embassadors to Antonius,
 +and assured him that he would give hostages as a security that he
 +would go wherever Antonius should prescribe, and would comply with
 +his orders, and only entreated that this concession should be made
 +to his fears, that he should not be obliged to go into the presence
 +of any Roman. As Antonius judged that his request originated in a
 +just apprehension,​ he indulged him in it and accepted his hostages.Caesar,​
 +I know, has made a separate commentary of each year's transactions,​
 +which I have not thought it necessary for me to do, because the following
 +year, in which Lucius Paulus and Caius Marcellus were consuls, produced
 +no remarkable occurrences in Gaul. But that no person may be left
 +in ignorance of the place where Caesar and his army were at that time,
 +have thought proper to write a few words in addition to this commentary.
 +===== Chapter 49 =====
 +Caesar, while in winter quarters in the country of the Belgae, made
 +it his only business to keep the states in amity with him, and to
 +give none either hopes of, or pretext for a revolt. For nothing was
 +further from his wishes than to be under the necessity of engaging
 +in another war at his departure; lest, when he was drawing his army
 +out of the country, any war should be left unfinished, which the Gauls
 +would cheerfully undertake, when there was no immediate danger. Therefore,
 +by treating the states with respect, making rich presents to the leading
 +men, imposing no new burdens, and making the terms of their subjection
 +lighter, he easily kept Gaul (already exhausted by so many unsuccessful
 +battles) in obedience. ​
 +===== Chapter 50 =====
 +When the winter quarters were broken up he himself, contrary to his
 +usual practice, proceeded to Italy, by the longest possible stages,
 +in order to visit the free towns and colonies, that he might recommend
 +to them the petition of Marcus Antonius, his treasurer, for the priesthood.
 +For he exerted his interest both cheerfully in favor of a man strongly
 +attached to him, whom he had sent home before him to attend the election,
 +and zealously to oppose the faction and power of a few men, who, by
 +rejecting Marcus Antonius, wished to undermine Caesar'​s influence
 +when going out of office. Though Caesar heard on the road, before
 +he reached Italy that he was created augur, yet he thought himself
 +in honor bound to visit the free towns and colonies, to return them
 +thanks for rendering such service to Antonius by their presence in
 +such great numbers [at the election], and at the same time to recommend
 +to them himself, and his honor in his suit for the consulate the ensuing
 +year. For his adversaries arrogantly boasted that Lucius Lentulus
 +and Caius Marcellus had been appointed consuls, who would strip Caesar
 +of all honor and dignity: and that the consulate had been injuriously
 +taken from Sergius Galba, though he had been much superior in votes
 +and interest, because he was united to Caesar, both by friendship,
 +and by serving as lieutenant under him. 
 +===== Chapter 51 =====
 +Caesar, on his arrival, was received by the principal towns and colonies
 +with incredible respect and affection; for this was the first time
 +he came since the war against united Gaul. Nothing was omitted which
 +could be thought of for the ornament of the gates, roads, and every
 +place through which Caesar was to pass. All the people with their
 +children went out to meet him. Sacrifices were offered up in every
 +quarter. The market places and temples were laid out with entertainments,​
 +as if anticipating the joy of a most splendid triumph. So great was
 +the magnificence of the richer and zeal of the poorer ranks of the
 +people. ​
 +===== Chapter 52 =====
 +When Caesar had gone through all the states of Cisalpine Gaul, he
 +returned with the greatest haste to the army at Nemetocenna;​ and having
 +ordered all his legions to march from winter quarters to the territories
 +of the Treviri, he went thither and reviewed them. He made Titus Labienus
 +governor of Cisalpine Gaul, that he might be the more inclined to
 +support him in his suit for the consulate. He himself made such journeys
 +as he thought would conduce to the health of his men by change of
 +air; and though he was frequently told that Labienus was solicited
 +by his enemies, and was assured that a scheme was in agitation by
 +the contrivance of a few, that the senate should interpose their authority
 +to deprive him of a part of his army; yet he neither gave credit to
 +any story concerning Labienus, nor could be prevailed upon to do any
 +thing in opposition to the authority of the senate; for he thought
 +that his cause would be easily gained by the free voice of the senators.
 +For Caius Curio, one of the tribunes of the people, having undertaken
 +to defend Caesar'​s cause and dignity, had often proposed to the senate,
 +"that if the dread of Caesar'​s arms rendered any apprehensive,​ as
 +Pompey'​s authority and arms were no less formidable to the forum,
 +both should resign their command, and disband their armies. That then
 +the city would be free, and enjoy its due rights."​ And he not only
 +proposed this, but of himself called upon the senate to divide on
 +the question. But the consuls and Pompey'​s friends interposed to prevent
 +it; and regulating matters as they desired, they broke up the meeting.
 +===== Chapter 53 =====
 +This testimony of the unanimous voice of the senate was very great,
 +and consistent with their former conduct; for the preceding year,
 +when Marcellus attacked Caesar'​s dignity, he proposed to the senate,
 +contrary to the law of Pompey and Crassus, to dispose of Caesar'​s
 +province, before the expiration of his command, and when the votes
 +were called for, and Marcellus, who endeavored to advance his own
 +dignity, by raising envy against Caesar, wanted a division, the full
 +senate went over to the opposite side. The spirit of Caesar'​s foes
 +was not broken by this, but it taught them, that they ought to strengthen
 +their interest by enlarging their connections,​ so as to force the
 +senate to comply with whatever they had resolved on. 
 +===== Chapter 54 =====
 +After this a decree was passed by the senate, that one legion should
 +be sent by Pompey, and another by Caesar, to the Parthian war. But
 +these two legions were evidently drawn from Caesar alone. For the
 +first legion which Pompey sent to Caesar, he gave Caesar, as if it
 +belonged to himself, though it was levied in Caesar'​s province. Caesar,
 +however, though no one could doubt the design of his enemies, sent
 +the legion back to Cneius Pompey, and in compliance with the decree
 +of the senate, ordered the fifteenth, belonging to himself, and which
 +was quartered in Cisalpine Gaul, to be delivered up. In its room he
 +sent the thirteenth into Italy, to protect the garrisons from which
 +he had drafted the fifteenth. He disposed his army in winter quarters,
 +placed Caius Trebonius, with four legions among the Belgae, and detached
 +Caius Fabius, with four more, to the Aedui; for he thought that Gaul
 +would be most secure, if the Belgae, a people of the greatest valor,
 +and the Aedui, who possessed the most powerful influence, were kept
 +in awe by his armies. ​
 +===== Chapter 55 =====
 +He himself set out for Italy; where he was informed on his arrival,
 +that the two legions sent home by him, and which by the senate'​s decree,
 +should have been sent to the Parthian war, had been delivered over
 +to Pompey, by Caius Marcellus the consul, and were retained in Italy.
 +Although from this transaction it was evident to every one that war
 +was designed against Caesar, yet he resolved to submit to any thing,
 +as long as there were hopes left of deciding the dispute in an equitable
 +manner, rather than to have recourse to arms.
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