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The Anitta Text

Anitta Text

Anitta, son of Pithana, was a king of Kussara, a city that has yet to be identified. He is the earliest known ruler to compose a text in the Hittite language. His official was named Peruwa.

The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who established an empire at Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around the 18th century BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Asia Minor as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. After c. 1180 BC, the empire came to an end during the Bronze Age collapse, splintering into several independent “Neo-Hittite” city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC.

Neu, Erich, Der Anitta-Text, Studien zu den Bogazkoy-Texten 18 (1974)


(Thusly) Anitta, son of Pitḫana, King of Kuššara: Speak! He was dear to the Storm God from Heaven. When he was dear to the Storm God, the King of the city Neša [became captive(?)] to the King of the city Kuššara.


The King of Kuššara came down from the city in large numbers. He took Neša at night by storm. He seized the King of Neša, yet he did not take part in evil (against) any citizens of Neša. He made [them] mothers and fathers for himself.


After (the death of) Pitḫana, my father, in that same year I reversed the reversal. Whatever land arose from the sun (i.e. the east), I defeated them all.


13 [. . . . .] the city Ullama [. . . . .] 14 [. . . . .] the King of Ḫatti c[ame? . . .] back [. . . . .] 15 [. . . .] in the city Tešma? I defeated [. . . . .] 16 The city Neša, f[ire? . . . . .]


[I took] the city Ḫarkiuna in the time of warmth (i.e. daytime). I took the city Ullamma at night by storm. [I took] the city Tenenda in the time of warmth.


I sold (i.e. devoted) [them?] to the Storm God of Neša. We han[ded over?] the p[rice] to the Storm God. Whoever becomes king after me, whoever resettles the city [Ullamma, the city Tenend]a, and the city Ḫarkiuna - [the enemies] of Neša, may the Storm God of Neša be hostile to them! May he be [. . .] in all the lands! Like a lion [. . .] the lands.


27 [. . .] something, upon [. . .] 28 [. . . if] he settles. Him to the Storm God [. . .] 29 [. . . . .]


30 [In the . . . year?] after my father, [. . .] 31 [. . . I went?] to the Sea of Zalpuwa. 32 [. . .] The Sea [of Zalpuwa was my border?]


[I copied?] these words from the tablet in my gate. Hereafter for all time may no one nullify this tablet! Whoever nullifies it, may he be an enemy of Neša!


A second time Piyušti, the King of Ḫatti, came. At the city Šalampa [I defeated?] his auxiliary troops which he brought.


[I …-ed] all the lands from Zalpuwa by the Sea. Formerly Mr. Uḫna, King of Zalpuwa, carried off our god from Neša to Zalpuwa. Later I, Anitta, Great King, carried back our god from Zalpuwa to Neša. I brought Ḫuzziya, King of Zalpuwa, alive to Neša. [Because] Ḫattuša did [not] join [in evil against m]e, I left it alone. When it [. . .] later became famished?, Ḫalmašuitt, their god, gave it over. I took it at night by storm. In its place I sowed cress.


Whoever becomes king after me and resettles Ḫattuša, may the Storm God of Heaven strike him!


I turned my face towards the city Šalatiwara. Šalatiwara drew out [its] wooden tu-[. . . and] its troops against (me). [I] carried them off to Neša.


I built city quarters in Neša. Behind the city I built a house of the Storm God of Heaven and a house of [our] god.


I built a house of Ḫalmašuitt, a house of the Storm God, my lord, and a house of our god. The goods which I brought from the campaign, with these things I decorated [them].


I made a vow. [I went on] a hunt. On the same day I brought to Neša, my city, two lions, seventy boars, one (or: sixty) wild boar(s), one hundred twenty wild animals, whether leopards, lions, deer, ibexes, or [. . .]. I brought [this] to my city Neša.


In the (next) year I went to it, the city Šalatiwara, for battle. The Man of Šalatiwara, along with his sons, rose up. He came against [me]. He let his land and his city be, and he seized the River Ḫulanna (as his position).


[The army of] Neša went out behind [him] and set fire to his towns. Those he [gathered?] into the city: 1,400 troops. 40 teams of horses, [. . . .] he drew up and he set forth.


When I went on campaign [. . .]. The Man of Purušḫanda [brought] me as a ḫengur-gift one iron throne (and) one iron crook. When I [came] back to Neša, I brought the Man of Purušḫanda with me. When he goes to the inner chamber, he will sit before me on the right.

the_anitta_text.txt · Last modified: 2018/04/21 03:54 (external edit)