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electricity_from_air

Electricity From Air - Wireless Electricity

by Nikola Tesla, radiant energy from cosmic rays. This circuit will absorb electricity from thin air, the electromagnetic field in free space. The ampere is very low, approximately 1 milliampere. You will generally not be able to power anything from this circuit.

http://www.google.com/patents/US685957

Germanium Diodes

Germanium diodes will conduct at a forward voltage of only about 0.15V, but a silicon diode will not start to conduct until a forward voltage (positive on the anode) of 0.6V is reached.

Table 3.1 Diodes

Parameter

Germanium

Silicon

Comments

Depletion layer p.d.

0.15V

0.6V

Germanium can be useful for low voltage applications.

Forward current

A few milli-Amperes

Tens of Amperes

Silicon much better for high current applications.

Reverse leakage current

A few micro-amperes

A few nano-amperes

Germanium 1000 times more leaky than silicon.

Max. reverse voltage

Volts

Hundreds of volts

Silicon the only real choice for high voltage applications.

Temperature stability

Poor

Good

Germanium more sensitive to temperature. Can be a problem or can be useful.

Junction capacitance

Very low (point contact)

Comparatively high

This is a useful feature for high frequency use. Note: low capacitance silicon diodes are also available but their capacitance is still higher than point contact type.

Ceramic Capacitors

Just like germanium diodes are more sensitive, capacitors also have varying performance depending on materials used and construction, therefore I will suggest that just as the values of the capacitors are most given, just as important is their specifications such as their permittivity. The performance of a capacitor has this formula.

If you get capacitors with high resistance the circuit will not function.

Also the preceding capacitor values will need to forward bias the germanium diodes and not act as a resistor and ceramic capacitors deal in very small farads and therefore are most suitable for low lost applications, such as timing applications, switching, wireless switching and static electricity. Therefore you will need to have germanium diodes forward bias at a much lower value before you can bring down the values of the ceramic capacitors.

Markings

Capacitor Markings PDF

VALUE
MARKING
VALUE
MARKING
VALUE
MARKING
1pf; 3pf; 5pf  1; 3; 5

2.7, 3 or 3.3 pF can be interchanged with each other.

4.7 or 5 pF can be interchanged with each other.

10 pf 10 or 100   0.001 uF 102    0.10 uF 104 
12 pf 12 or 120   0.0012uF (1200pf) 122    0.12 uF 124 
15 pf 15 or 150   0.0015uF 152    0.15 uf 154 
18 pf 18 or 180   0.0018 uF (1800pf) 182    0.18 uF 184 
22 pf 22 or 220   0.0022uF 222    0.22 uF 224 
27 pf 27 or 270   0.0027uF 272    0.27 uF 274 
33 pf 33 or 330   0.0033 uF 332    0.33 uF 334 
39 pf 39 or 390 0.0039uF 392  0.39 uF 394 
47 pf 47 or 470   0.0047uF 472    0.47 uF 474 
58 pf 58 or 580   0.0056uF 562    0.56 uF 564 
68 pf

68 or 680

  0.0068uF 682    0.68 uF 684 
82 pf 82 or 820 0.0082uF 822  0.82 uF 824 
100 pf 101    0.01 uF 103    1uF 105 or 1uf
120 pf 121    0.012 uF 123   
150 pf 151    0.015 uF 153       
180 pf 181    0.018 uF 183       
220 pf 221    0.022 uF 223       
270 pf 271    0.027 uF 273       
330 pf 331    0.033 uF 333       
390 pf 391    0.039 uF 393       
470 pf 471    0.047 uF 473       
560 pf 561    0.056 uF 563       
680 pf 681    0.068 uF 683       
820 pf 821  0.082 uF 823 

see also Nuclear / Atomic Pacemakers

electricity_from_air.txt · Last modified: 2019/03/29 16:22 (external edit)