electricity_from_air

by Nikola Tesla, radiant energy from cosmic rays. This circuit will absorb electricity from thin air, the electromagnetic field in free space. The ampere is very low, approximately 1 milliampere. You will generally not be able to power anything from this circuit.

Germanium diodes will conduct at a forward voltage of only about 0.15V, but a silicon diode will not start to conduct until a forward voltage (positive on the anode) of 0.6V is reached.

Table 3.1 Diodes

## Parameter |
## Germanium |
## Silicon |
## Comments |
---|---|---|---|

Depletion layer p.d. |
0.15V |
0.6V |
Germanium can be useful for low voltage applications. |

Forward current |
A few milli-Amperes |
Tens of Amperes |
Silicon much better for high current applications. |

Reverse leakage current |
A few micro-amperes |
A few nano-amperes |
Germanium 1000 times more leaky than silicon. |

Max. reverse voltage |
Volts |
Hundreds of volts |
Silicon the only real choice for high voltage applications. |

Temperature stability |
Poor |
Good |
Germanium more sensitive to temperature. Can be a problem or can be useful. |

Junction capacitance |
Very low (point contact) |
Comparatively high |
This is a useful feature for high frequency use. Note: low capacitance silicon diodes are also available but their capacitance is still higher than point contact type. |

Just like germanium diodes are more sensitive, capacitors also have varying performance depending on materials used and construction, therefore I will suggest that just as the values of the capacitors are most given, just as important is their specifications such as their permittivity. The performance of a capacitor has this formula.

If you get capacitors with high resistance the circuit will not function.

Also the preceding capacitor values will need to forward bias the germanium diodes and not act as a resistor and ceramic capacitors deal in very small farads and therefore are most suitable for low lost applications, such as timing applications, switching, wireless switching and static electricity. Therefore you will need to have germanium diodes forward bias at a much lower value before you can bring down the values of the ceramic capacitors.

VALUE |
MARKING |
VALUE |
MARKING |
VALUE |
MARKING |
||

1pf; 3pf; 5pf | 1; 3; 5 |
2.7, 3 or 3.3 pF can be interchanged with each other. 4.7 or 5 pF can be interchanged with each other. |
|||||

10 pf | 10 or 100 | 0.001 uF | 102 | 0.10 uF | 104 | ||

12 pf | 12 or 120 | 0.0012uF (1200pf) | 122 | 0.12 uF | 124 | ||

15 pf | 15 or 150 | 0.0015uF | 152 | 0.15 uf | 154 | ||

18 pf | 18 or 180 | 0.0018 uF (1800pf) | 182 | 0.18 uF | 184 | ||

22 pf | 22 or 220 | 0.0022uF | 222 | 0.22 uF | 224 | ||

27 pf | 27 or 270 | 0.0027uF | 272 | 0.27 uF | 274 | ||

33 pf | 33 or 330 | 0.0033 uF | 332 | 0.33 uF | 334 | ||

39 pf | 39 or 390 | 0.0039uF | 392 | 0.39 uF | 394 | ||

47 pf | 47 or 470 | 0.0047uF | 472 | 0.47 uF | 474 | ||

58 pf | 58 or 580 | 0.0056uF | 562 | 0.56 uF | 564 | ||

68 pf |
68 or 680 |
0.0068uF | 682 | 0.68 uF | 684 | ||

82 pf | 82 or 820 | 0.0082uF | 822 | 0.82 uF | 824 | ||

100 pf | 101 | 0.01 uF | 103 | 1uF | 105 or 1uf | ||

120 pf | 121 | 0.012 uF | 123 | ||||

150 pf | 151 | 0.015 uF | 153 | ||||

180 pf | 181 | 0.018 uF | 183 | ||||

220 pf | 221 | 0.022 uF | 223 | ||||

270 pf | 271 | 0.027 uF | 273 | ||||

330 pf | 331 | 0.033 uF | 333 | ||||

390 pf | 391 | 0.039 uF | 393 | ||||

470 pf | 471 | 0.047 uF | 473 | ||||

560 pf | 561 | 0.056 uF | 563 | ||||

680 pf | 681 | 0.068 uF | 683 | ||||

820 pf | 821 | 0.082 uF | 823 |

see also Nuclear / Atomic Pacemakers

electricity_from_air.txt · Last modified: 2019/03/29 16:22 (external edit)